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PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE WAR OF 1812.

BY BENSON J. LOSSING

1869.

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CONTENTS.

Front Matter.

Preface.

CHAPTERS.

I. – EARLY DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC.

The Close of the Revolution; the States free, but not independent. – Why? Articles of Confederation. – the Public Debt. – Attitude of the States. – British Opinion concerning them. – Public Dangers. – Dissolution of the Republic threatened. – Washington’s Forebodings; his Proposition for a Convention to reorganize Government. – Meeting of the Convention. – Proceedings of the Convention to form a National Constitution. – Ratification of the Constitution; its Opponents. – the Establishment of a Nation.

II. – EVENTS IN THE NORTHWESTERN TERRITORY.

Foundations of Government in the Wilderness. – the Northwestern Territory, Settlements there. – the Indians and their British Allies. – Councils with the Indians. – British Intrigues and Indian Hostilities. – Expedition against the Indians in the Ohio Country. – Battle on the Maumee. – Visit to the Place of Conflict. – Expeditions of Scott and Wilkinson. – Forts built in the Wilderness. – St. Clair’s Expedition. – his Battle with the Indians and Defeat. – how Washington received the News of St. Clair’s Defeat. – his Justice and Generosity; Wayne’s Expedition down the Maumee. – Defeat of the Indians and treaty of Greenville.

III. – ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.

The national Policy and Power indicated. – Relations with France and England. – revolutionary Movements in France. – diplomatic Intercourse with Great Britain and Spain. – Discourtesy of the British Government; mistaken Views concerning the American Government. – Acts in relation to the Public Debt. – Hamilton’s financial Scheme; Currency. – Jefferson’s Disappointment and Suspicions. – Progress of the French Revolution. – the political and religious views of Jefferson and Adams. – Democracy in England. – Adams’s Scheme of Government.; Jefferson’s Disgust and ungenerous Suspicions. – Paine’s Rights of Man; a Newspaper War. – the Federal and Republican Parties formed. – Sympathy with the French Revolutionists. – Lafayette. – Monarchy in France overthrown. – the National Convention; Execution of the King. – Minister from the French Republic. – Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality.

IV. – FOREIGN RELATIONS AND DOMESTIC POLITICS.

"Citizen Genet" and his Reception by his political Admirers. – his first Interview with Washington; Enthusiasm of the Republicans. – the American and the French Revolution compared. – Genet defies the American Government. – he is recalled; his Successor. – British "Rules" and "Orders in Council;" Armed Neutrality. – British Impressment of American Seamen. – Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain. – Opposition to the Treaty. – the Whiskey Insurrection; Democratic Societies. – Difficulties with Algiers. – an American Navy recommended. – Construction of a Navy; Unfriendliness of the French Directory. – Struggle between the Republicans and Federalists for political Power; Adams elected President. – open Rupture between France and the United States threatened. – Madness of Partisans. – Aggressions of the French Directory. – Preparations for War with France; Action in New York. – History of the Songs "Hail, Columbia!" and "Adams and Liberty."

V. – WAR ON THE OCEAN. - POLITICAL STRUGGLES.

Washington appointed to the Command of the Army; Hamilton acting General-in-chief. – Envoys extraordinary sent to France. – Bonaparte in Power; American War-vessels afloat. – British Outrages; Obsequiousness of the American Government. – naval Engagements. – American Cruisers in the West Indies. – Truxtun’s Victory; Honors to the Victor. – Peace; Divisions in the Federal Party. – Intrigues against Adams; Alien and Sedition Laws; Nullification Doctrines put forth. – State Supremacy asserted; Jefferson elected President. – Mortification of the Federalists; Death of Washington. – a public Funeral. – Washington’s Person and Character.

VI. – DIFFICULTIES WITH THE BARBARY POWERS. - ENGLAND AND FRANCE AT WAR.

Bonaparte’s Career and Influence. – Obsequiousness of Englishmen. – Beginning of Jefferson’s Administration; the National Capital. – Jefferson’s Policy; political Proscription. – the Navy reduced. – Captain Bainbridge, the Dey of Algiers, and the Sultan. – Insolence and Exactions of the Barbary Rulers. – American Navy in the Mediterranean Sea and its Operations. – Bombardment of Tripoli. – Destruction of the Philadelphia. – Destruction of the Intrepid; Honors to Commodore Preble. – Commodore Barron’s Squadron in the Mediterranean. – Eaton’s Expedition in Northern Africa; Respect of the Barbary Powers for the American Flag. – Bonaparte and his Relations with England. – a French Invasion of England threatened. – a Struggle for political Supremacy; Bonaparte proclaimed Emperor. – Napoleon’s Berlin Decree.

VII. – EVENTS WEST OF THE ALLEGHANIES. - SEARCH AND IMPRESSMENT.

Organization of new States. – Americans disturbed by the Retrocession of Louisiana to France. – the secret Designs of the latter. – Jefferson’s Letter and Bonaparte’s Necessity; Purchase of Louisiana. – Events connected with the Purchase of Louisiana. – The Duel of Hamilton and Burr; the Acts of Burr’s political Associates. – his ambitious Schemes; Blennerhasset and Wilkinson. – Burr’s Operations, Trial for Treason, and Exile. – American commercial Thrift and British Jealousy. – British Perfidy defended by British Writers. – Unpleasant foreign Relations. – Memorial of Merchants concerning British Depredations. – Impressment of American seamen and Right of Search. – diplomatic Correspondence on the Subject. – cruel Treatment of American Seamen. – farther Diplomatic Action. – national Independence and Honor in Peril. – Minister extraordinary sent to England.

VIII. – SEARCH AND IMPRESSMENT. – EMBARGO. – PARTY SPIRIT.

Negotiations concerning the Impressment of American Seamen. – a Treaty agreed to, but not ratified; War on the Administration. – The Continental System of Napoleon. – Aggressions on American Commerce and Neutrality by France and England. – Napoleon’s Milan Decree and its Effects. – the Navy and the Gun-boat Policy. – British Cruisers in American Waters. – the Affair of the Chesapeake. – the Outrage resented. – Action of the American Government. – Action of the British Government. – fruitless Mission of a British Envoy. – political Complexion of the Tenth Congress; and Embargo established. – its Effects; Party Spirit violently aroused. – the Embargo vehemently denounced. – the British exact Tribute from neutral Nations. – Dangers of national Vanity.

IX. – WAR BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN THREATENED.

Provisions for strengthening the American Navy. – Gun-boats; Opposition to a Navy. – British opposition to the Orders in Council. – Napoleon’s Blow at American Commerce; Modification of the Orders in Council. – Actions concerning the Embargo. – Disunionists in New England. – Embargo or War the proclaimed Alternative. – Cotton supposed to be the King of Commerce. – Just Arrangements for settling the Difficulties with Great Britain. – the British Government repudiates the Acts of its Agent. – an offensive British Minister sent to America. – the French Decrees and British Orders in Council. – England and France refuse to be just. – Outrage by a British Cruiser. – Method of signaling. – Action between the President and Little Belt. – Testimony concerning the Affair. – Commodore Rodgers assailed and vindicated.

X. – HOSTILITIES OF THE INDIANS IN THE NORTHWEST.

The Indiana Territory and Governor Harrison. – British Emissaries among the Indians. – Tecumtha and his Brother the Prophet. – Indian Confederation proposed; Harrison denounces the Prophet. – the Mission of Joseph Barron. – Tecumtha before Harrison at Vincennes. – roving Plunderers; Tecumtha alarmed. – Preparations for fighting the Indians. – Harrison marches up the Wabash with Troops; Deputation of friendly Indians. – Visit of the Author to the Region of threatened Hostilities. – Harrison approaches the Prophet’s Town; the Indians alarmed. – Harrison’s Encampment near the Tippecanoe. – the Prophet’s Teaching. – Battle of Tippecanoe. – The Prophet disgraced. – Actors in the Battle of Tippecanoe. – Author’s Visit to the Battle-ground.

XI. – A WAR SPIRIT AROUSED. - DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN.

The Twelfth Congress and its Composition. – the President’s feeble War-trumpet. – Charges against Great Britain. – Action of the Committee on Foreign Relations. – Alarm on Account of the Slaves. – Randolph and Calhoun in Congress. – Policy of the Federalists. – Patriotism of some of their Leaders. – Debate concerning the Navy. – the President compelled to adopt War Measures. – a British Emissary in New England. – his Revelations and Rewards. – Action of the British Ministry on the Subject. – a new Embargo Act. – delusive Hopes of Justice. – a preliminary War Measure. – Report on the Causes and Reasons for War. – Action of Congress on the Subject. – Declaration of War. – Protest of the Minority in Congress against the Measure. – Organization of a Peace Party. – Measures for carrying on the War. – public Acts in opposition to the War.

XII. – BEGINNING OF THE WAR OF 1812.

The British Regency – Political Affairs in Europe. – the Troops and Fortifications on the Northern Frontier. – Sea-coast Defenses of the United States. – Fulton’s Torpedoes and their Uses. – Fulton’s Anticipations. – Effects of a Fear of Torpedoes. – the Action of State Governments concerning the War. – public Feeling in Canada. – Signs of Pacification. – conditional Revocation of the Orders in Council. – haughty Assumptions of the British Government on the Subject of Search and Imprisonment. – War inevitable and justifiable. – Choice of military Leaders.

XIII. – HULL’S CAMPAIGN AGAINST CANADA.

Canada to be invaded – Object of the Invasion. – Organization of the Army in Ohio – an active Frontiersman. – Author’s Journey through Ohio. – General Hull takes Command of Ohio Volunteers. – regular and volunteer Troops in the Wilderness. – Hull’s March to Detroit. – his Baggage and Papers captured. – how the British in Canada were informed of the Declaration of War. – Detroit in 1812. – Hull invades Canada. – Reconnoissance toward Malden. – first Battle of the War. – Distrust of General Hull. – first Blood shed in the War. – early Scenes at Mackinaw. – Events at Mackinaw in 1812. – Employment of the Indians by the British.

XIV. – CAMPAIGN ON THE DETROIT FRONTIER.

Alarming Facts and Rumors. – Preparations in Canada for resisting Invasion. – Alarm caused by the Invasion. – Symptoms of Disloyalty – General Brock’s Influence. – Defeat of Americans under Van Horne at Brownstown. – mutinous Spirit evinced in Hull’s Army. – Expedition to succor a Supply-train. – the March toward the River Raisin. – Battle of Maguaga. – Disappointment and Disaffection of the American Troops. – Brock goes to Malden with Troops. – Preparations for attacking Detroit. – Hull deceived – an Effort to reach a Supply-train. – Hull summoned to surrender, and refuses. – the British proceed to attack Detroit. – Scenes within the Fort. – Hull surrenders the Fort, Garrison, and Territory. – Feeling of the Troops – Result of the Surrender. – Incidents of the Surrender. – British Occupation of Detroit and Michigan. – Account of the Surrender, and public Indignation. – Hull tried by a Court-martial. – a Consideration of Hull’s public Character. – the Government more to blame than Hull.

XV. – MILITARY EVENTS IN THE THEN FAR NORTHWEST.

The Author’s Journey from Chicago to Detroit. – a Ride from Windsor to Amherstburg. – Historical Localities at Amherstburg or Malden. – Windsor and "Windsor Castle." – Pontiac’s Siege of Detroit. – Chicago, its Name, Settlement, and Position. – Trading-house and Fort at Chicago. – an Indian Raid. – Troubles at Chicago. – Treachery of the Indians – a Warning. – Munitions of War and Liquor destroyed. – Massacre at Chicago. – Incident of the Conflict with the Savages – Bravery of Women. – Cruelties of the Indians – their British Allies. – Survivors of the Massacre. – Mrs. Kenzie and the Growth of Chicago. – Designs against Fort Wayne. – Attack on Fort Wayne. – Ravages of the Indians – Little Turtle. – Treachery of Indians at Fort Wayne. – Fort Harrison besieged. – brave Deeds at Fort Harrison. – Attack on Fort Madison.

XVI. – WAR WITH THE BRITISH AND INDIANS IN THE NORTHWEST.

The Nation aroused. – Enthusiasm of the People. – Harrison and the Kentuckians. – Harrison at the Head of Kentucky Volunteers. – Departure for the Wilderness. – Volunteers flock to Harrison’s Standard. – Fort Wayne relieved – Destruction of Indian Villages. – Harrison’s Popularity – he commands the Northwestern Army. – Winchester met by British and Indians in the Wilderness. – Re-enforcements gathering. – Harrison’s proposed autumn Campaign. – reported Movement through the Wilderness. – Erection of Forts. – the Indians alarmed and humbled. – the Author’s Visit to the Theatre of War. – Preparations for further Warfare. – Expedition against the Indians in the Illinois Country. – Expedition to the Wabash Region. – Sufferings of the Kentucky Soldiers.

XVII. – WAR WITH THE BRITISH AND INDIANS IN THE NORTHWEST.

Harrison cheerfully meets Difficulties. – Difficulties of a winter Campaign. – Organization of the Army – the Western Reserve. – Preparations in Ohio against Invasion. – Energy and Patriotism of Colonel Wadsworth. – an Expedition to the Maumee. – stirring Events at the Maumee Rapids. – Services of friendly Indians. – Campbell’s Expedition into the Wabash Region. – a Battle near the Mississiniwa. – Sufferings and Difficulties of Harrison’s Army. – Advance toward the Maumee Rapids. – Frenchtown on the Raisin River threatened. – Battle at Frenchtown. – Winchester arrives with Re-enforcements. – he disregards Warnings of Danger. – Massacre at Frenchtown. – Winchester compelled to surrender his Army. – Perfidy, Cowardice, and Inhumanity of the British Commander. – Massacre and Scalping allowed by him. – Incidents of the Massacre. – Author’s Visit to Frenchtown. – historical Localities and Survivors of the War there. – Harrison unjustly censured. – his Army at the Maumee Rapids.

XVIII. – EVENTS ON THE NORTHERN AND NIAGARA FRONTIERS IN 1812.

First warlike Measures on the Northern Frontier. – the Militia of the State of New York. – Events on Lake Ontario and at Sackett’s Harbor. – a hostile British Squadron off Sackett’s Harbor. – a Skirmish and a Repulse of the British – Vessels of War on Lake Ontario. – Operations on the St. Lawrence Frontier. – hostile Squadrons on Lake Ontario. – Operations near Kingston – Commodore Chauncey. – General Brown sent to Ogdensburg. – the British attack Ogdensburg. – St. Regis, its capture by the Americans. – Honors to the Victors at Albany. – Eleazer Williams, or "The Lost Prince." – the Author’s Visit to St. Regis. – Buffalo in 1812. – the Niagara Frontier. – American Troops on the Niagara Frontier. – an Armistice and its Effects. – Preparations for an Invasion of Canada. – Expeditions for capturing British Vessels. – Capture of the Adams and Caledonia near Fort Erie. – Incidents of the Exploit. – Feelings of the Americans and British.

XIX. – EVENTS ON THE NIAGARA FRONTIER IN 1812.

Conduct of General Smyth. – Van Rensselaer prepares to attack Queenston. – British Force on the Niagara Frontier. – Expedition against Queenston delayed. – military Etiquette – Colonel Scott. – Passage of the Niagara River in the Dark. – Skirmish at Queenston Village. – Colonel Van Rensselaer wounded and Captain Wool in command. – the Americans scale Queenston Heights. – Battle on Queenston Heights and Death of General Brock. – Passage of the River by Re-enforcements. – Events on Queenston Heights. – another Battle – Wool wounded. – bad Conduct of the New York Militia, Colonel Scott in Command. – Heroes and Cowards made Prisoners of War. – Surrender of the American Army. – a triumphal and funeral Procession. – Honors to General Brock. – Colonel Solomon Van Rensselaer. – Events at the Mouth of the Niagara River. – Protection for American Prisoners of War. – General Smyth’s injurious Pride and Folly. – his silly Proclamations ridiculed.

XX. – EVENTS ON THE NIAGARA FRONTIER AND VICINITY IN 1812.

The Author’s Visit to the Niagara Frontier. – Lewiston, Queenston, and Queenston Heights. – Brock’s Monument. – an Evening on Queenston Heights. – Interview with the Chief of the Six Nations. – Journey from Queenston to Niagara. – Fort George and its Appurtenances. – Fort Mississaga – Return to Niagara Falls. – Journey from Niagara Falls to the Settlement of the Six Nations on the Grand River. – a Morning with the Chief of the Six Nations. – Indian Relics and Customs. – The Mohawk Church and Brant’s Tomb. – the Mohawk Institute – Communion-plate from Queen Anne. – British attack Black Rock. – Preparations for another Invasion of Canada. – the British forewarned – Passage of the Niagara River. – Incidents of the attempted Invasion. – Smyth’s Incompetence and Folly. – the Invasion of Canada abandoned. – a Duel, and what came of it – exit Smyth.

XXI. – NAVAL OPERATIONS IN 1812.

Acknowledged naval Superiority of Great Britain. – Character, Distribution, and Condition of the American War Marine. – commodore Rodgers’s Squadron – first Shot in the War. – Rodgers in European waters – British Squadron at Halifax. – Cruise of the Constitution. – how she eluded her Pursuers. – the Essex goes on a Cruise. – Cruise of the Essex. – how a Challenge was accepted by Commodore Porter. – the Constitution off the Eastern Coast. – battle between the Constitution and Guerriere. – Destruction of the Guerriere – Effects of the Victory. – Honors to Commodore Hull. – Effect of the Victory on the British Mind. – Hull’s Generosity. – Cruise of the Wasp. – Fight between the Wasp and the Frolic. – both Vessels captured by the Poictiers. – Honors to Captain Jones. – Lieutenant Biddle honored and rewarded.

XXII. – NAVAL OPERATIONS AND CIVIL AFFAIRS IN 1812.

Commodore Rodgers’s second Cruise. – Battle between the United States and Macedonian. – Capture of the Macedonian – Decatur takes her to New York. – Honors to Decatur. – Bainbridge in Command of a Squadron. – his Cruise on the Coast of Brazil. – Battle between the Constitution and Java. – Loss of the Java – Incidents of the Battle. – Honors to Bainbridge. – Effects of the naval Battles in Great Britain. – meeting of the Twelfth Congress. – Madison re-elected – his Administration sustained. – Quincy’s Denunciations and Clay’s Response. – Measures for strengthening the Army and Navy. – Retaliation – Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations. – Manifesto of the Prince Regent and its Charges. – Mediation of the Emperor of Russia proposed. – Rejoicings over Napoleon’s Misfortunes – Peace Commissioners. – Cabinet Changes.

XXIII. – EVENTS ON THE MAUMEE RIVER.

Contemplated Expedition against Malden. – American Camp at the Maumee Rapids. – Interference of the Secretary of War with General Harrison. – General Clay’s march to the Maumee. – Harrison assumes grave Responsibilities. – British and Indian Expedition against Fort Meigs. – the Mission of Captain Oliver. – Leslie Combs volunteers for perilous Duty. – Incidents of his Voyage down the Maumee. – Preparations for an Assault on Fort Meigs. – Attack on Fort Meigs. – critical Situation of the Fort and Garrison. – Harrison’s Plans against the Besiegers. – Dudley’s Defeat and sad Results. – Arrival of Re-enforcements for Fort Meigs. – Effect of a Sortie from Fort Meigs. – the Author’s Visit to the Maumee Valley.

XXIV. – THE WAR IN NORTHERN OHIO - CONSTRUCTION OF PERRY’S FLEET.

Harrison’s Provision for the Frontier Defenses. – Kentuckians under Colonel R. M. Johnson. – Tecumtha anxious for hostile Action. – Johnson’s Troops at Fort Stephenson. – unsuccessful Attempt to capture Fort Meigs. – Fort Stephenson menaced. – Croghan determines to hold it. – it is summoned to surrender. – a Siege. – Fort Stephenson stormed, and the Assailants repulsed. – Incidents of the Night succeeding the Struggle – Honors to Croghan. – the Author’s Visit to Sandusky. – also to Fremont and Site of Fort Stephenson. - Journey to Toledo – Harrison’s Character assailed and vindicated. – Captain Perry sent to Lake Erie. – Harbor of Erie or Presq’ Isle. – Construction of a Lake Fleet begun there. – Perry’s Services with Chauncey and in securing American Vessels. – Perry’s earnest Call for Men. – Erie menaced. – first Cruise of Perry’s Fleet. – Harrison visits Perry. – Perry’s second Cruise.

XXV. – THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE.

Perry prepares for Battle. – his final Instructions – British Squadron in sight. – Names and Character of the opposing Squadron. – Change in the Order of Battle. – relative Position of the Squadrons – Opening of the Battle. – first Position of the Vessels in the Fight. – the Battle – Scenes on board the Lawrence. – sad Condition of the Lawrence. – Perry goes from the Lawrence to the Niagara. – Perry breaks the British Line. – his Victory – British ships vainly attempt to Escape. – Perry’s famous Dispatch. – Surrender of the British Officers – Burial of the Dead. – sad Effects of the Battle. – Importance of Perry’s Victory. – public Celebrations by the exultant Americans. – Honors to Elliott and his Subordinates. – a Plea for a British-Indian Alliance – Prediction by Washington Irving. – Author’s Visit to Erie and Cleveland. – Preparations for unveiling a Statue of Perry at Cleveland. – surviving Soldiers of the War of 1812. – the Statue unveiled – a remarkable Dinner-party. – a sham naval Battle – early Residents of Cleveland. – Perry and his Captives. – Reception of Perry and Harrison at Erie.

XXVI. – HARRISON’S INVASION OF CANADA - HIS HOME.

Arrangements for invading Canada. – Army of the Northwest in Motion. – it crosses Lake Erie. – Proctor, frightened, flees from Malden. – Tecumtha’s scornful Rebuke. – vigorous Pursuit of the British. – the Armies in the River Thames. – Destruction of Property. – the British and Indians make a Stand for Battle. – the Armies in battle Array. – Battle of the Thames. – British defeated – Death of Tecumtha – who killed him. – Gallantry of Colonel Johnson. – Harrison and Proctor properly rewarded. – Returns to Detroit – Effect of the Victory. – the Author’s Visit to the Thames Battle-ground. – Harrison on the Northern Frontier. – Harrison leaves the Army – Author’s Journey in Ohio. – Antiquities at Newark. – Columbus and the Scioto Valley. – Chillicothe and its Vicinity. – Governor Worthington’s Residence. – Visit to Batavia and North Bend. – North Bend and its early Associations. – Courtship and Marriage of Captain Harrison and Anna Symmes. – Harrison’s Tomb and Dwelling.

XXVII. – EVENTS ON THE ST. LAWRENCE FRONTIER AND UPPER CANADA.

The Energies of Great Britain displayed. – Operations in the St. Lawrence Region. – Attack on Elizabethtown – Retaliation. – Attack on Ogdensburg. – Defense of the Town. – Ogdensburg captured. – the Village plundered and Citizens carried off. – Author’s Visit to Ogdensburg and Prescott. – the Canadian Rebellion. – another Invasion of Canada contemplated. – Preparations for it. – Expedition against Little York. – Americans land and drive the British to Little York. – Explosion of a Powder-magazine and Death of General Pike. – Capture of York and Escape of the British. – York abandoned – a Scalp as an Ornament. – the Author’s Visit to Toronto, formerly Little York. – an Adventure among the Fortifications. – notable Men and Places at Toronto. – Passage across Lake Ontario – Journey to Niagara Falls. – Expedition against Fort George – the respective Forces. – Cannonade between Forts George and Niagara. – the American Squadron and the landing of Troops. – a severe Battle – Capture of Fort George. – the British retreat to the Beaver Dams and Burlington Heights. – British Property on the Niagara Frontier destroyed by themselves – Expedition toward Burlington Heights. – the Americans at Stony Creek. – Battle at Stony Creek. – Capture of Generals Chandler and Winder. – the Americans flee and are pursued. – Destruction of Property at Sodus – British Fleet off Oswego.

XXVIII. – EVENTS AT SACKETT’S HARBOR AND ON THE NIAGARA FRONTIER IN 1813.

British Designs on Sackett’s Harbor – its Defenses. – General Brown in Command at Sackett’s Harbor. – Assembling of the Militia – Approach of the British. – Position of the Militia – a Panic and Flight. – a Conflict – Destruction of Public Stores. – the British retreat. – Sackett’s Harbor and its Defenses. – the Author’s Visit there – the Frigate New Orleans – a neglected Monument. – historical Localities around Sackett’s Harbor – a Visit to Watertown and Brownsville. – the Story of Whittlesey and his Wife. – Movements on the Niagara Frontier. – Expedition against the British at the Beaver Dams. – Services of a Patriotic Woman. – Defeat and Surrender of the Americans – Fort George invested. – the Author’s Visit to the Beaver Dams Region. – a veteran Canadian Soldier. – Visit to Stony Creek and Hamilton. – British and Indian Raids on the Niagara Frontier. – Battle at Black Rock. – Expedition to Burlington Heights and York. – Dearborn succeeded by Wilkinson. – Relations between Wilkinson, Armstrong, and Hampton. – Affairs on the Niagara Frontier. – Fort George menaced and Newark burnt. – just Indignation of the British – Retaliation proposed. – Fort Niagara captured – Desolation of that Frontier. – N. Y. Militia at Buffalo. – Battle near Black Rock and Destruction of Buffalo. – Horrors or retaliatory Warfare.

XXIX. – EVENTS ON THE NORTHERN FRONTIER IN 1813.

Wilkinson concentrates his Forces. – General Dearborn moves into Canada. – Repulse of the British at La Colle – Colonel Carr. – Preparations for War on Lake Champlain. – Movements of Hampton in Northern New York. – Chauncey tries to engage Sir James Yeo on Lake Ontario. – a Battle at last. – Chauncey again searching for his Foe. – an Expedition for the St. Lawrence against Montreal – Disasters. – Hampton’s Operations in the Chateaugay Region. – Wilkinson’s Expedition on the St. Lawrence. – Battle off French Creek – the Expedition moves down the St. Lawrence. – the Flotilla passes Prescott. – General Brown invades Canada – Wilkinson in Peril. – Preparations for a Battle – battle of Chrysler’s Field. – the Americans go down the St. Lawrence. – Character of some of the chief Leaders. – the Army in winter Quarters at French Mills. – its Sufferings there and Release. – Attempt to seduce American Soldiers from their Allegiance. – the Author’s Visit to the St. Lawrence Region – Carleton Island. – William Johnson of the Thousand Islands. – his Exploits, Arrest, and Imprisonment. – his Services in the War of 1812. – a Visit to French Mills and Vicinity. – Rouse’s Point – La Colle. – a Visit to Chrysler’s Farm, Prescott, and Ogdensburg.

XXX. – PREDATORY WARFARE OF THE BRITISH ON THE COAST.

Blockade of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays declared. – Operations of the Blockaders in Chesapeake Bay. – Attack on Lewiston – Cockburn, the Marauder. – Capture of Frenchtown. – Attack on Havre de Grace. – the Town plundered and fired. – the Author’s Visit to Havre de Grace – John O’Neill. – Cockburn plunders and destroys other Villages. – stirring Scenes in Hampton Roads. – a British Fleet enters the Roads. – Craney Island and its Defenders. – Preparations for Battle. – the British attack, are repulsed, and withdraw. – they turn upon Hampton. – they land and menace it. – a Struggle for the Possession of Hampton. – Americans driven out, and the Village given up to Rapine and Plunder. – the Author Visits Craney Island and Norfolk. – the Fortifications on Craney Island. – a Visit to Hampton. – a Daughter of Commodore Barron – a Veteran of 1812 – Hampton destroyed by Virginia Rebels. – Cockburn in the Potomac and on the Coasts of the Carolinas and Georgia. – Secret Organizations among the Slaves. – Decatur runs the Blockade at New York. – blockading Squadron off New London. – Alarm produced by Torpedo Vessels. – the Coast of Connecticut blockaded – the local Militia. – Decatur in the Thames. – the Author’s Visit to New London and its Vicinity.

XXXI. – WAR ON THE OCEAN IN 1813.

Battle between the Hornet and Peacock. – Victory of the Hornet – Prowess of the Americans respected. – Honors to Captain Lawrence and his Men. – Cruise of the Chesapeake – her Character. – Lawrence’s last official Letter. – Broke’s Challenge. – The Chesapeake and her Crew. – the Chesapeake goes out to fight. – Battle between the Chesapeake and Shannon – Death of Lawrence. – Treachery – Capture of the Chesapeake – she is taken to Halifax. – Exultation of the British. – Honors to Captain Broke. – Respect paid to the Remains of Lawrence and his Lieutenant, Ludlow. – funeral Ceremonies at Salem. – funeral Ceremonies at New York – Monuments. – stirring Scenes in Chesapeake Bay. – Cruise of the Argus in British Waters. – Battle between the Argus and Pelican. – Battle between the Enterprise and Boxer. – Funeral of the Commander of each at Portland. – Honors to Burrows and M‘Call. – last Cruise of the Enterprise.

XXXII. – CRUISE OF THE ESSEX.

Weakness of the American Navy. – the Essex starts on a long Cruise – a Search for Bainbridge. – she sails for the Pacific Ocean. – her Search for British whaling Vessels. – by capturing and arming British whaling Vessels, Porter creates a Squadron. – successful Cruise among the Gallapagos Islands. – Porter sails for the Marquesas Islands. – civil War in Nooaheevah. – Porter engages in the War. – the Women of Nooaheevah. – Incidents in the Harbor of Valparaiso. – Battle between the Essex and two British Ships. – the Essex captured – Porter returns Home. – Honors to Commodore Porter – his subsequent Career. – Rodgers’s long Cruise in 1813 – his Services to his Country. – he makes another Cruise in the President – Honors to Rodgers.

XXXIII. – WAR AGAINST THE CREEK INDIANS.

Insurrectionary Movements in Louisiana. – military Movements in West Florida. – Louisiana made a State – Insurrection in East Florida. – Action of United States Officials there – Expedition. – Surrender of Mobile to the Americans. – Tennessee Volunteers on the Mississippi. – they return to Nashville. – Tecumtha in the Creek Country – he exhorts the Creeks to make War on the White People. – the Creek Nation and their Position. – Civil War among the Creeks – White People in Peril. – the Militia in the Field – Battle of Burnt Corn Creek. – Preparations for Defense in Lower Alabama. – Fort Mims and its Occupants. – Rumors of impending Hostilities. – Fort Mims crowded with Refugees. – gathering of hostile Savages near. – furious Assault on Fort Mims. – Massacre at Fort Mims. – Horrors of the Massacre. – Response of the Tennesseeans to a Cry for Help. – General Andrew Jackson in the Field – Mobile threatened, but saved.

XXXIV. – WAR AGAINST THE CREEK INDIANS.

Jackson heeds a Cry for Help from the Coosa. – the Army threatened with Famine – Affairs in the lower Creek Country. – Choctaw Allies – Expedition against Tallasehatche. – Battle of Tallasehatche. – Jackson hastens to the Relief of threatened Posts. – Battle at Talladega. – the dispirited Indians sue for Peace. – Destruction of the Hillabee Towns. – the Creek Country invaded from Georgia – Battle of Auttose. – Expedition under Captain Dale. – Dale’s terrible Canoe Fight. – Fort Claiborne at Randon’s Landing. – Battle of Econochaco. – Dissolution of the Armies in the Creek Country – new Volunteers. – Battle of Emucfau. – Battle on Enotochopco Creek. – Battle on the Calebee River. – East Tennesseeans and Choctaw Allies on the Way to the Creek Country. – Battle of the Horseshoe. – the Power of the Creek Nation broken there. – the subdued Indians sue for Peace – Weathersford in Jackson’s Tent. – the Creek Nation ruined.

XXXV. – CIVIL AFFAIRS IN 1813 - EVENTS ON THE NORTHERN FRONTIER IN 1814.

Political Composition of Congress – Peace Commissioners. – illicit Traffic – Change in public Sentiment – Peace Party. – revolutionary Proposition – new Embargo Act. – Rumors of Peace – Embargo Act repealed. – Provisions for the increase of the Army. – Prisoners of War – retaliatory Measures proposed. – Campaign on the Northern Frontier and Lake Champlain. – Wilkinson marches on La Colle Mill, in Canada. – Battle of La Colle Mill. – end of Wilkinson’s military Career. – Brown, moving toward the Niagara Frontier, perplexed by Orders from the War Department. – Naval Forces on Lake Ontario. – the British attack Oswego. – they capture Oswego. – Survivors of the War in Oswego. – Sackett’s Harbor blockaded. – Woolsey at Big Sandy Creek with Stores for Sackett’s Harbor. – Battle at Big Sandy Creek. – a great Cable carried to Sackett’s Harbor – Author’s Visit to Big Sandy Creek. – the Army on the Niagara Frontier – Red Jacket. – Fort Erie and the Invasion of Canada. – an Invasion of Canada from Black Rock. – Capture of Fort Erie. – Scott prepares for battle at Street’s Creek. – preliminary Fighting. – Scott advances – the British Force. – the Battle of Chippewa. – the British driven from Chippewa – Indians disheartened. – the Armies inspirited by the Victory. – Preparations to cross the Chippewa Creek. – the British retreat – Brown marches for Fort George. – he falls back to Chippewa.

XXXVI. – WAR ON THE NIAGARA FRONTIER IN 1814.

The British, re-enforced, advance toward Chippewa. – Scott discovers them near Niagara Falls. – the British attack Scott. – Brown advances from Chippewa. – Colonel Miller captures a British battery. – Appreciation of his Exploit. – desperate Struggle in the darkness – Victory for the Americans. – close of the Battle of Niagara Falls. – the Battle and the Victory considered. – Scott, wounded, proceeds to Washington. – Honors awarded him. – the Author’s Visit to the Battle-grounds of Chippewa and Niagara Falls. – the Army falls back and is ordered to Fort Erie. – the British again attack Black Rock. – Brown wounded – Gaines takes Command of the Army. – the American Troops at Fort Erie. – the British assail the Fort. – battle of Fort Erie. – Brown resumes Command. – a Sortie. – brilliant Success of General Porter. – Triumph of Miller and Upham. – the British abandon the Siege. – Honors awarded to General Brown. – Honors to Generals Porter and Ripley. – two remarkable Survivors of the Battle of Fort Erie. – General Izard sends Troops to the Niagara Frontier. – he takes Command there. – the American Troops withdraw from Canada. – the Author Visits Fort Erie and its Vicinity. – Holmes’s Expedition into Canada – Battle of the Long Woods. – Expedition to the upper Lakes. – Operations in that Region. – M‘Arthur’s Raid in Canada. – his Bravery and Generosity.

XXXVII. – EVENTS ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN IN 1814.

The Downfall of Napoleon. – English Troops released for Service in America. – Struggle for the Control of Lake Champlain. – Operations on the Canada Border. – alarming Order from the War Department. – Concentration of Troops at Plattsburg. – Position of American Works there. – the British advance on Plattsburg. – a Skirmish at Beekmantown. – another near Plattsburg. – the British checked at the Saranac Bridge. – British land – our naval Forces in motion. – Opening of naval Battle off Plattsburg. – Battle of Lake Champlain. – Victory for the Americans complete. – Casualties. – Movements of the land Troops – Battle of Plattsburg. – the British alarmed. – their hasty Flight into Canada. – Rejoicings because of Victory. – Honors to General Macomb. – Honors to Commodore Macdonough. – Effect of the Victory at Plattsburg. – the Author’s Visit to the Scene of War on and near Lake Champlain. – Operations on Lake Ontario. – a heavy British Ship on the Lake. – close of Hostilities on the Northern Frontier.

XXXVIII. – THE WAR ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST IN 1814.

The Blockade of New London. – amphibious Warfare on the New England Coast. – New England sea-port Towns blockaded. – Portsmouth and Boston menaced. – Preparations for the Defense of Boston. – the British Squadron attacks Stonington. – Captain Holmes and his Gun. – a Deputation sent to the British Commander. – the British repulsed – impotency of the Attack – a British Force on the Coast of Maine. – Operations in Penobscot Bay and River. – Preparations at Hampden to oppose the British Invasion. – Panic and Flight of the militia. – the British at Bangor. – Treatment of General Blake. – the British at Castine. – the Author’s Visit to Places on the New England Coast – Observations at Boston. – at Salem and Marblehead. – Journey to the Penobscot. – Observations at Castine. – Voyage up the Penobscot. – Hampden. – Observations at Bangor. – Visit to New Bedford and Providence. – Stonington and Mystic. – Story of a faithful Daughter.

XXXIX. – THE CAPTURE OF WASHINGTON CITY.

Apathy of the Government while the Capital was in peril. – feeble Preparations for its Defense. – General Winder in Command – a Call for Troops. – Tardiness of the Secretary of War – Apathy of the People. – Appearance of the British in Chesapeake Bay. – gathering of Troops – Destruction of Barney’s Flotilla. – the Forces gathered for the Defense of Washington and Baltimore. – the British move on Washington from the Patuxent. – Battle Lines formed near Bladensburg. – Excitement in the national Capital. – the British advance on Bladensburg. – Arrangements to receive them. – Dueling-ground near Bladensburg. – Battle of Bladensburg. – Barney wounded and made Prisoner. – the victorious British march on Washington City. – Destruction of the public Buildings. – Destruction of the Navy Yard. – Flight of the President and his Cabinet – Patriotism of Mrs. Madison. – Object of the Invasion. – the British retreat from Washington. – Slavery the cause of the Disaster at Bladensburg. – a British Fleet passes up the Potomac. – Alexandria plundered – Torpedoes. – the British Squadron returns to Chesapeake Bay – Visit to the Battle-ground at Bladensburg. – Kalorama and Oak Hill Cemetery. – Congressional Burial-ground – Fort Washington.

XL. – EVENTS AT BALTIMORE, PHILADELPHIA, AND NEW YORK IN 1814.

The British in Chesapeake bay. – Exploits of Parker and Cockburn. – Operations of the British Fleet in Chesapeake Bay. – Baltimore threatened. – Preparations for the Defense of Baltimore. – Fortifications and Troops for its Defense. – the British land and advance on Baltimore. – Position of the contending Armies. – Battle of North Point – Death of the British Commander. – the British Fleet moves up to attack Fort M‘Henry. – Bombardment of the Fort. – the British Invaders driven off. – "The Star-spangled Banner." – the British land Troops march on Baltimore. – they retire to their Ships – the British Programme. – Honors to Colonel Armistead. – the Author’s Visit to Baltimore and the historical Localities around it. – New York and Philadelphia relieved. – the Volunteer Companies of Philadelphia. – Organization of Troops and Establishment of Camps. – Patriotism of the Citizens of Philadelphia. – New York aroused – Committee of Defense. – the Citizens assist in casting up Fortifications – "The Patriotic Diggers." – the Fortifications around New York. – a floating Battery authorized by Congress. – the Steam-ship Fulton the First.

XLI. – NAVAL WARFARE ON THE OCEAN IN 1814 - AMERICAN PRIVATEERS.

New Vessels for the Navy – the John Adams. – Cruise of the Wasp – Capture of the Reindeer. – the Wasp and Avon – Loss of the Wasp. – Fight between the Peacock and Epervier. – Barney’s Flotilla in Chesapeake Bay. – the Constitution. – Battle between the Constitution, Cyane, and Levant. – the Constitution and her Prizes – Honors to Commodore Stewart. – Stewart’s Home in New Jersey. – Decatur’s Squadron – he puts to Sea in the President. – Battle between the President and Endymion. – the rest of Decatur’s Squadron puts to Sea. – Battle between the Hornet and Penguin. – Honors to Captain Biddle. – Cruise of the Hornet and Peacock – the Navy at the end of the War. – the first Privateers. – Cruise of the Rossie. – first Prize taken to Baltimore – the Globe. – Cruise of the Highflyer, Yankee, and Shadow. – Salem and Baltimore Privateers. – Privateering at the close of 1812. – remarkable Cruise of the Comet. – Cruise of the Chasseur, Saratoga, Dolphin, Lottery, and Yankee. – Cruise of the General Armstrong, Ned, and Scourge. – the Teaser – Capture of the Eagle – Cruise of the Decatur. – Cruise of the David Porter, Globe, and Harpy. – the Career of the General Armstrong. – Honors to Captain Reid – Cruise of the Prince de Neufchâtel. – Cruise of the Saucy Jack and Kemp. – Cruise of the Macdonough and Amelia – the American Privateers and their Doings.

XLII. – CIVIL AFFAIRS IN 1814 - OPERATIONS IN THE GULF REGION.

Boston the Centre of illicit Trade. – the Peace Faction assails the Government and the Public Credit. – Effects of the Conspiracy against the Public Credit. – new financial Measures – Revival of the Public Credit. – Measures for increasing the Army – Discontents in New England – the Hartford Convention. – the Members of the Hartford Convention. – Jackson recalled to active Service in the Gulf Region. – the Baratarians and their Leader. – Jackson perceives Mischief at Pensacola. – Fort Bowyer threatened by a British Squadron. – the Fort attacked and the Assailants repulsed. – the British at Pensacola – Jackson marches on that Post. – Flight of the British and Indians. – Jackson in New Orleans – Appearance of the British. – Preparations to receive the Invaders. – Capture of the American Flotilla on Lake Borgne. – Jackson’s Review of Troops in New Orleans and their Disposition. – the British approach the Mississippi. – they march on New Orleans – Response to Jackson’s Call for Troops. – Events below New Orleans. – a night Battle. – the British fall back. – the Americans withdraw.

XLIII. – DEFENSE OF NEW ORLEANS - PEACE.

Jackson’s Line of Defense. – a gloomy Day for the Invaders – Arrival of General Pakenham. – Seat of War in Louisiana and Florida. – severe Battle on the 28th of December. – the British vanquished – the American Lines of Defense. – the British cast up Redoubts near the American Line. – a heavy Battle. – the British repulsed and then re-enforced. – Jackson prepares to receive the increased British Forces. – Character and Disposition of his own Forces – Position of his Army on the 7th of January. – a British Detachment crosses the Mississippi. – Battle of New Orleans. – Disposal of the Dead. – Attack on Forts St. Philip and Bowyer – Jackson’s Army in New Orleans. – Honors accorded to Jackson and his Troops. – Rumors of Peace and continuance of Martial Law. – Incidents of Jackson’s Trial for Contempt of Court. – the Author’s Journey to New Orleans – Lexington and "Ashland." – Frankfort and its Cemetery. – a Visit to Nashville and the "Hermitage." – New Orleans and its historic Men and Places. – Attack on Fort Sumter – Uprising of the People – Negotiations for Peace and the Commissioners. – Ghent and the Sympathy of its Inhabitants with the Americans. – the Treaty of Peace. – Rejoicings of the American People. – Commemorative Medals – its Ratification. – Position of the Republic at the close of the War. – Readjustment of National Affairs – Dartmoor Prisoners. – Prosperity of the Republic and its Relations to other Nations. – Text of the Treaty of Peace.

APPENDIX. - TREATY OF PEACE AND AMITY BETWEEN HIS BRITANNIC MAJESTY AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

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html prepared by Bill Carr, last updated 07/06/2003.

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