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PICTORIAL FIELD BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION.

VOLUME II.

BY BENSON J. LOSSING

1850.

VOLUME I.

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CONTENTS.

Front Matter.

CHAPTERS.

I.

Perth Amboy. – Its original Settlement and Prospects. – Governor William Franklin. – Dunlap’s Recollection of military Affairs at Perth Amboy. – Journey to Crosswicks. – Missionary Operations there. – Skirmish at Crosswicks. – The Friends’ Meeting-house. – Mrs. Idell. – Bordentown. – Revolutionary Events at Bordentown. – Joseph Bonaparte. – General Dickinson. – Trenton. – M‘Conkey’s Ferry, where Washington crossed the Delaware. – Long Bridge. – Capture of Forts Washington and Lee. – Retreat of the Americans across New Jersey. – Decrease of the Army. – Tardy Movements of General Lee. – Capture of General Lee. – Longevity of the Captor’s Horse. – Biography of Lee. – His Division commanded by Sullivan. – The Delaware between Washington and Cornwallis. – Weakness of the American Army. – Gloomy Aspect of Affairs. – Putnam in Command at Philadelphia. – Reorganization of the Army. – Adjournment of Congress to Baltimore. – The Quakers. – Howe’s Plans. – Injudicious Disposition of the British Troops. – Augmentation of Washington’s Forces. – Successful Diversion, by Putnam, in favor of Washington. – The American Army cross the Delaware on Christmas Night. – The Battle in Trenton. – Colonel Rall mortally Wounded. – Capture of the Hessians. – Complete Victory of the Americans. – Washington’s Visit to the dying Rall. – Parole of Honor signed by the Hessian Officers. – Colonel Rall’s fatal Carousal. – Names and Signatures of the Hessian Officers attached to the Parole. – Retreat of the Enemy from Bordentown. – Their Line of Posts broken up. – Good Effect of the Victory at Trenton. – Washington made a military Dictator. – He Re-crosses the Delaware to Occupy Trenton. – Efficient Aid by Robert Morris. – Approach of Cornwallis toward Trenton. – Battles at Trenton Bridge and the Ford. – The Americans in Peril. – Cornwallis Out-generaled. – March of the Americans toward Princeton. – Their Approach discovered by the Enemy. – First Skirmish near Princeton. – Effect of British Bayonets. – Dispersion of the Americans. – Washington on the Field. – General Mercer mortally Wounded by Bayonets. – His Bravery till the Last. – Place of his Death. – View of the Battle-ground. – Loss of the Americans. – Death of General Mercer. – His Monument. – Skirmish near Nassau Hall in Princeton. – Destruction of the King’s Portrait in Nassau Hall. – Prisoners taken. – Skirmish at Worth’s Mills. – Cornwallis at Princeton. – Disappointment of the Enemy. – The Loss sustained. – Washington’s Pursuit. – Fatigue of the Americans. – Capture of British Baggage-wagons. – Evacuation of New Jersey by the British. – Estimate of Washington’s Character in Europe. – Appointment of general Officers for the Continental Army. – Its Reorganization. – Visit to the Princeton Battle-ground. – Morven, Stockton’s Estate. – Desolated by the British. – Sufferings and Death of the Owner. – Annis Stockton. – Nassau Hall. – Governor Belcher’s Donation. – Rittenhouse’s Planetarium. – Life of its Inventor. – Portraits of Washington and Mercer by Peale. – Character of the College of New Jersey. – White Hall. – The Floral Arch in Honor of Washington. – His triumphal Journey. – Washington’s Reception by the Ladies of Trenton. – Inscription on Armstrong’s Monument. – Letter of a Hessian Prince.

II.

Departure from Trenton. – Buck’s County. – St. Tammany. – Old Villages. – Frankford. – Revolutionary Events at Frankford. – Kensington. – Arrival in Philadelphia. – Christ Church and its Sounding-board. – The Grave of Dr. Franklin, and others. – His early-written Epitaph. – Description of Christ Church. – The Natives on the Delaware and Schuylkill. – The Delawares. – Their Character portrayed by William Penn. – First Settlements on the Delaware by the Dutch and Swedes. – Troubles with the Indians. – Gustavus Adolphus. – Extension of Swedish Settlements. – Opposition of the Dutch. – Stuyvesant’s Conquests. – Charter granted to William Penn. – Emigrations. – Arrival of Penn. – His Biography. – Annexation of Delaware. – Penn’s just Dealings with the Natives. – Effect of his Justice. – Treaty Monument. – Character and Influence of the Quakers. – Founding of the Pennsylvania Commonwealth, and of the City of Philadelphia. – Secession of Delaware. – Penn’s Difficulties. – His liberal Concessions. – Pennsylvania Charter. – Penn’s Heirs. – Penn’s Successors hostile to the Indians. – Popular Feeling against the Proprietaries. – Dr. Franklin. – The Stamp Act. – Spirit of the People. – Party Rancor. – Franklin Lampooned. – William Bradford. – The Pennsylvania Journal. – Repeal of the Stamp Act. – Rejoicings. – Dickenson’s Letters. – Firmness of Pennsylvania. – Tea Ships. – Destruction of Tea at Greenwich. – Revolutionary Movements. – Members of Assembly instructed. – Quakers Opposed to the Revolution. – "Testimony" of their Yearly Meeting in 1775. – James Pemberton and others sent to Virginia. – Arrest and Removal of Governor Penn and Chief-justice Chew. – Execution of Roberts and Carlisle. – Justice of their Punishment. – Carpenter’s Hall. – Desecration of Carpenter’s Hall. – Congress Hall. – Prevalence of a Desire for Union. – First Movements toward a General Congress. – Election of Delegates. – Names of the Representatives of each Colony. – Character of the first Continental Congress. – Its Organization. – Peyton Randolph. – Charles Thomson. – Opening of the first Continental Congress. – Patrick Henry. – The first Prayer in Congress. – Sessions with closed Doors. – Sympathy with Massachusetts. – Declaration of Rights. – "American Association." – Mr. Duché. – State Papers issued by Congress. – Debates. – Diversity of Opinion. – Dartmouth’s Circular. – Joseph Galloway. – Opinions concerning the Adamses. – Sketch of Galloway’s public Life. – Disposition of his Estate.

III.

The State House. – Independence Hall. – Hancock’s Chair. – Portraits of Penn and La Fayette. – Picture of the Treaty Tree. – Statue of Washington. – Liberty Bell. – Its History. – Independence not Early nor generally Desired, except by a Few. – Patrick Henry’s Prediction. – Testimony of Washington and others concerning the Loyalty of the Colonies. – Paine’s Common Sense. – First public Movements favorable to Independence. – Paine’s Crisis. – The Ministry order it to be Burned. – The Result. – Timidity in the State Legislatures. – State Governments Recommended. – Lee’s Resolution for Independence. – Absence of R. H. Lee. – Jefferson’s Draft of the Declaration. – Reasons why he was Chosen to Write it. – Original Draft of the Declaration of Independence, and Amendments. – The Debaters. – Action of the several Colonies on the Subject of Independence. – Adoption of the Declaration. – The Declaration of Independence as Adopted. – Ringing of the Liberty Bell. – Signers of the Declaration. – Its Reception in New York and elsewhere. – The Principles of the Declaration, and their Effects. – Opinions of Raynal, Mirabeau, and Napoleon. – Organization of State Governments. – Adjournment of Congress to Baltimore. – Trip to Red Bank. – Fort Mercer. – Donop’s Grave. – Whitall’s House. – De Chastellux’s Visit there. – Anecdote of Mrs. Whitall. – Old Cannon. – Distant View of Fort Mifflin. – Military Works on the Delaware. – Obstructions in the River. – Their Removal by the British. – Capture of Billingsport. – The American Fleet in the Delaware. – Hessian Expedition against Fort Mercer. – Storming of the Fort. – Repulse of the Hessians at Red Bank. – Count Donop. – Lieutenant-colonel Greene. – Monument at Red Bank. – Attack on Fort Mifflin. – American Flotilla. – Lieutenant-colonel Smith. – Successful Defense of Fort Mifflin. – Preparations for another Attack. – Plan of the Fort. – Washington’s Efforts to Re-enforce his Army. – Conduct of Gates and Putnam. – Second Attack on Fort Mifflin. – Gallant Defense of Fort Mifflin. – Destructive Effects of Cannons and Bombs. – Plan of Operations on the Delaware. – Retreat of the Garrison. – Destruction of the Fort. – Movements in New Jersey. – Fort Mercer Abandoned.

IV.

Ancient Philadelphia. – The "Slate-roof House" and its Associations. – Loxley’s House. – Mrs. Darrah and the British Adjutant General. – Information sent to Washington’s Camp by Mrs. Darrah. – Disappointment of the British. – Swede’s Church. – Wharton’s Mansion-house. – The Mischianza. – Immorality of the Army. – Major Andre’s Description of the Mischianza. – Philadelphia Provost Prison. – Cunningham. – Washington Square. – Office of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. – The Secretary’s Aids. – British Fortifications in Philadelphia. – The British Encampment. – Personal Appearance of the British Officers. – Loss of the Delaware Frigate. – Torpedoes sent down the River from Bordentown. – "Battle of the Kegs." – Alarm during the Mischianza Fete. – Boldness of Americans. – Interesting Places near Philadelphia. – Patriotism of the Philadelphia Women. – Mrs. Reed and Mrs. Bache. – De Chastellux’s Visit to Mrs. Bache. – Contributions of Clothing for the Soldiers. – Germantown. – James Logan. – Speech of Logan, the Indian Chief. – Officers of Government at Germantown. – Chew’s House. – Destructive Effects of War. – Benjamin Chew. – Maneuvers of the two Armies on the Schuylkill. – The British Army at Germantown. – Preparations to Attack it. – Approach of the Americans to Germantown. – Attack on the British Pickets. – Chew’s House a Defense. – Scenes at Chew’s House. – Remissness of the Militia. – Victory lost to the Americans. – Battle of Germantown. – The Americans, deceived, abandon the Field. – Washington’s Chagrin. – The Loss. – Letter of General Agnew’s Servant to the Lady of that Officer concerning his Death. – American Officers Killed. – Washington and his Officers Honored. – General Stephen. – Whitemarsh. – Washington’s Head-quarters at Whitemarsh. – American Encampment. – Skirmish at Whitemarsh. – Retreat of the British to Philadelphia. – Departure of the Americans from Whitemarsh. – Barren Hill. – La Fayette. – His first Impulses favorable to the Americans. – His Liberality. – Visit to England. – La Fayette’s Attempts to leave France. – Sketch of his Career. – Sword presented to him by Congress. – Memoir of La Fayette. – Pictorial Devices on his Sword. – Arrival of La Fayette in America. – His Biography continued. – His Appointment. – Interview with Washington. – Attached to the Army. – La Fayette on Barren Hill. – Maneuvers of the two Armies. – The British deceived. – Retreat of La Fayette across the Schuylkill to Valley Forge. – Generals Poor and Woedtke. – Iron Ore near the Schuylkill. – Conshohocken and its Industry. – Norristown. – Swedes’ Ford.

V.

Approach to Valley Forge. – "King of Prussia Tavern." – Village of Valley Forge. – Washington’s Head-quarters. – The old Flour-mill and its Associations. – Hamilton and Lee. – View from Rogers’s Observatory. – Camp at Valley Forge. – Religious Services. – Preparation of Huts. – Disposition of the American Army at Valley Forge. – The Huts and their Occupants. – Condition of the Army. – Great Sufferings. – Number of Soldiers in Camp. – Toryism displayed. – Hopefulness of Washington. – Conspiracy to deprive him of the chief Command. – Persons named as Malcontents. – Forged Letters. – Thomas Conway. – Character of the Congress of 1778. – Pretensions of Gates and Lee. – Anonymous Letters. – Conway’s Letter to Gates. – Quarrel between Gates and Wilkinson. – Board of War. – Expedition against Canada proposed. – Lafayette appointed to the Command. – Grossly Deceived. – Disclaimers of Gates and Mifflin. – Opinion of Dr. Gordon. – Conway’s Resignation. – Duel, and Repentant Letter to Washington. – Baron De Steuben. – His Arrival in America, and Appointment as Inspector General. – Biographical Sketch of Steuben. – His Aids and his Monuments. – Washington’s Efforts in behalf of his Soldiers. – Hostile Parties sent out from Philadelphia. – The Queen’s Rangers. – Advertisement for Recruits. – Expedition against Militia Posts in New Jersey. – Skirmish at Quintan’s Bridge, on Alloway’s Creek. – Expedition to Hancock’s Bridge. – Perils of the March. – Massacre at Hancock’s House. – Death of the Owner. – Return of the Marauders to Philadelphia. – Light from Europe. – Alliance with France. – Rejoicings at Valley Forge. – Lord North’s Conciliatory Bills. – Appointment of Commissioners. – Chatham’s Opposition to American Independence. – Conclusion of Pitt’s Speech. – His sudden Illness and Death. – Copley’s Picture of the Scene. – Pitt’s Funeral and Monument. – North’s conciliatory Propositions rejected. – Arrival of Commissioners. – Governor Tryon. – Letter of Commissioners to Congress. – Action of Congress concerning them, and their Mission. – Mrs. Græme. – Attempt to Bribe General Reed. – Mrs. Græme’s part in the Affair. – Memoir of General Reed. – Sir Henry Clinton Commander-in-Chief. – Condition of the American Army. – Exchange of General Lee. – Oaths of Allegiance. – Evacuation of Philadelphia by the British. – Pursuit by the Americans. – The British harassed in New Jersey. – Extent of the British Line. – Washington’s Determination to Fight. – Preparations of both Armies for Battle. – British Camp near Monmouth Court-house. – Their Movement toward Sandy Hook. – Lee ordered to attack the British. – Approach of the American advanced Corps. – Conflicting Intelligence. – Preparations for Battle. – Plan of the Action. – The British attacked by Wayne. – Oswald’s Artillery. – Wayne checked by Lee. – Strange Conduct of Lee. – Lee’s Orders misunderstood. – Retreat of two Brigades. – A general Retreat ordered by Lee. – General Maxwell. – Forward Movement of the Division under Washington. – Meeting of Washington and Lee. – Harsh Words between them. – The pursuing Britons checked. – Courage and Skill of Washington. – Lee’s Conduct, Trial, and Sentence. – The fiercest of the Battle. – Picture by Mr. Custis. – Captain Molly. – Gallant Conduct of Lee. – Forming of the second Line. – View of the Battle-ground. – Advance of Grenadiers under Monckton. – Death of Monckton. – Close of the Day and the Battle. – Retreat of Sir Henry Clinton. – Character of the Monmouth Battle. – Clinton’s Official Dispatch criticised. – The Loss. – Sufferings of the Soldiers. – Visit to the Battle-ground. – Woodhull’s Monument. – William and Gilbert Tennent. – Inscription upon Woodhull’s Monument. – Capture and Execution of Captain Huddy. – Case of Captain Asgill. – Remarkable Case of William Tennent. – His own Description of his Feelings. – Loss of his Papers. – The Pine Robbers.

VI.

Departure from Valley Forge. – The Paoli Tavern. – Place where Americans were Massacred. – Wayne’s Encampment near the Paoli. – British Attack upon his Detachment. – The Massacre. – Chaplain David Jones. – His Address to the Troops at Ticonderoga. – The Paoli Monument. – The Inscriptions upon it. – The Dead of Paoli. – Journey to West Chester. – Departure for the Brandywine Battle-ground. – Jefferis’s Ford. – Sconnel Town, Osborne’s Hill, and Birmingham Meeting-house. – Landing of the British at the Head of Elk. – Washington’s Preparations to meet them. – March of Americans from Philadelphia. – Encampment on Red Clay Neck. – Howe’s Proclamation. – Retreat of the Americans across the Brandywine. – Approach of the British to Brandywine. – The Fords of that Stream. – Plan of the Battle. – Position of the American Army on the Brandywine. – Movement of the British. – Localities of the Battle-ground. – Skirmishing on the March toward the Brandywine. – Engagement near Chad’s Ford. – Skirmishing on the Brandywine. – Sullivan deceived by conflicting Intelligence. – Washington’s Suspense. – Passage of the Brandywine by the British Army. – Forming of the Lines for Battle. – Conduct of Deborre. – Commencement of the Battle. – Skill and Courage of the Belligerents. – Effects of the British Artillery. – Retreat of the Americans. – March of Greene to their Support. – La Fayette wounded. – The British checked by Greene. – Knyphausen preparing to cross the Brandywine. – General Muhlenberg. – Passage of the Brandywine by Knyphausen. – Bravery of Wayne. – General Retreat of the Americans. – Result of the Battle. – Washington again made Dictator. – Attempt to attack the British Army. – Du Coudray. – Patriotism of the Israels. – Battle prevented. – March of the Americans toward Germantown. – Localities near the Brandywine. – The Quarters of Washington and Howe. – Kennet Square. – A Storm. – New London and Elkton. – Scene of Military Operations in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. – An Evening on the Chesapeake. – Baltimore. – Battle Monument at Baltimore.

VII.

Baltimore and its Associations. – Washington’s Monument. – Maryland Historical Society. – Pulaski’s Banner. – Moravian Nuns at Bethlehem. – "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." – Patriotism in Baltimore. – Committees of Correspondence and Observation. – Treatment of Loyalists. – Meeting of Congress in Baltimore. – La Fayette in Baltimore. – Journey to Annapolis. – Departure from the Right Road. – Hospitality. – City of Annapolis. – Founding of Annapolis. – First Lord Baltimore. – Exploration of the Chesapeake. – Maryland Charter. – Character of the first Maryland Charter. – Toleration its chief Glory. – Baltimore’s Policy. – Baltimore’s Toleration. – First Settlers. – Leonard Calvert. – Settlement at St. Mary’s. – First Legislative Assembly. – Religious Animosity. – Toleration of the Roman Catholics. – Civil Commotions. – Baltimore a Courtier. – Civil War. – Maryland a Royal Province. – Republican Constitution. – Annapolis. – Stamp-master’s Effigy hanged and burned. – The Sons of Liberty. – Statue of the King and Portrait of Camden. – Governor Eden. – Arrival of a Tea Ship. – Burning of the Vessel and Cargo. – Treatment of John Parks. – Maryland and Independence. – The State House and its Associations. – The Senate Chamber where Washington resigned his Commission. – Portraits. – Departure of Rochambeau.

VIII.

Journey from Annapolis to Washington. – Profusion of Gates. – Queen Anne and its Decline. – First View of the Capitol. – Rainbow at Noon. – The Federal City, Capitol, and Congress Library. – The National Institute. – The Widow of General Alexander Hamilton. – Washington’s Camp Chest. – Washington’s Letter to Dr. Cochran. – Pomp of Ancient Generals. – "The Sword and the Staff." – Revolutionary Relics. – Franklin’s Press. – History of its Importation to America. – Character of the Press. – Franklin’s Remarks in 1768. – Peale’s Picture of Washington. – Its History. – The Senate and House of Representatives. – Greenough’s Statue of Washington. – The Rotunda and its Contents. – Description of Greenough’s Statue. – Tuckerman’s Poem. – A Chippewa’s Speech. – Persico’s Group. – Tripoli Monument. – President Polk. – Arlington House. – Mr. Custis and the "Washington Treasures." – Alexandria. – Its Museum. – The Hessian Flag captured at Trenton. – Anecdote of Washington. – Washington’s Bier, and other Relics. – Departure for Mount Vernon. – The Mansion. – Approach to Mount Vernon. – The Library and its Associations. – Key of the Bastile. – Destruction of that Prison. – Pictures at Mount Vernon. – Chimney-piece. – Monumental Eulogy. – The Old Vault of the Washington Family. – Attempt to steal the Remains of Washington. – The New Tomb. – Sarcophagi of Washington and his Lady. – Tomb of Lady Washington. – Narrative of the Re-entombing of Washington’s Remains. – Their Appearance. – Departure from Mount Vernon. – Pohick Church. – Occoquan and its Reminiscences. – Dunmore’s Repulse at Occoquan. – Visit to Pohick Church. – Its dilapidated Condition. – Worship there. – Rev. Mason L. Weems. – Washington’s Pew. – A Swallow’s Nest. – Location of the Church. – Vestrymen. – A curious Document. – Last of Braddock’s Men. – Return to Washington. – Thunder-shower in December. – Aquia Creek. – Almost a Serious Accident. – Potomac Church. – The Rappahannock. – Fredericksburg. – Washington’s Birth-place. – First Monumental Stone. – Notables of Westmoreland. – Washington’s Birth-place. – His Ancestors. – Arms and Monuments. – First Monumental Stone to the Memory of Washington. – Virginia Residence of the Washington Family. – Early Life of General Washington. – Death of his Brother Laurence. – The Washington Farm. – Residence of the Mother of Washington. – His early Military Career. – Washington’s last Interview with his Mother. – Her Death, and unfinished Monument. – Corner-stone laid by President Jackson. – The unfinished Obelisk for the Tomb of Washington’s Mother. – Departure from Fredericksburg. – General Mercer’s Son. – The Wrong Road. – Pamunkey River. – Hanover Court House. – The old Tavern. – Anecdote. – Early Years of Patrick Henry. – The "Parson’s Cause." – His Début as an Orator, described by Wirt. – New Castle. – Road from Hanover to Richmond. – Birth-place of Henry Clay. – Virginia Market-wagons.

IX.

Early Settlement at Rockett’s and Powhatan. – Captain Smith. – Abandonment of "Nonesuch." – Fort Charles. – Founding of Richmond. – Scenery on the James River at Richmond. – Expedition of Arnold to Virginia. – Arnold, with his Fleet, in the James River. – Approach to Richmond. – Activity of Jefferson. – The Militia. – The British at Richmond. – Old City Tavern. – Baron Steuben. – Depredations by British Frigates. – Departure of Arnold from Richmond. – French Fleet in Hampton Roads. – Houdon’s Statue of Washington. – Monumental Church. – Destruction of the Richmond Theater. – St. John’s Church. – Virginia Washington Monument. – The Constitutional Convention. – Its Members and their Vote. – Mayo’s Bridge. – The "Old Stone House." – Reminiscences of the "Old Stone House." – Anecdote of Monroe. – Patrick Henry. – Departure from Richmond. – Aspect of the Scene. – Effect of Patrick Henry’s Eloquence. – His Residence. – Appearance of the Country below Richmond. – Westover. – Colonel Byrd. – Birth-place of President Harrison. – Anecdote of Harrison’s Father. – Charles City Court House. – Birth-place of President Tyler. – Jefferson’s Marriage. – Jefferson’s Marriage License-bond. – Historical Associations of Charles City Court House. – Attack upon the American Militia. – Carelessness of Dudley. – "Sherwood Forest." – Ex-president Tyler. – The Slashes of the Chickahominy. – Difficulties at the Ferry. – The Chickahominy and its Associations. – Green Spring and its Associations. – Distant View of Jamestown Island. – Changes in the River Banks. – Tradition. – Mr. Coke’s Plantation. – The Council Tree. – Remains of Old Jamestown Church and Grave-yard. – Wirt’s Meeting at the Church at Jamestown. – The Ancient Monuments. – Paulding’s Ode. – Efforts at Early Settlement. – Loss of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. – Raleigh’s Perseverance. – Amidas and Barlow. – Native Hospitality abused. – Grenville and Lane. – Hostilities with the Indians. – Colonists Return to England. – Another Expedition. – "City of Raleigh." – Virginia Dare. – Loss of a Colony. – Other Expeditions. – London and Plymouth Companies. – Death of Raleigh. – Newport. – Captain John Smith. – Founding of Jamestown. – Visit to Powhatan. – Energy of Smith. – Bartholomew Gosnold. – Progress of Jamestown Colony. – Smith’s Voyage up the Chickahominy. – His Capture. – His Adventures in Europe. – The Indians outwitted by Smith. – His Trial and Sentence. – Pocahontas-her Marriage, Death, and Descendants. – Smith’s Life saved by Pocahontas. – Condition of Jamestown. – Newport’s Folly. – Smith’s Exploring Expedition. – Lord De la Ware. – Commissioners. – Anarchy at Jamestown. – Famine. – Timely Relief. – Arrival of new Emigrants and Supplies. – Prosperity of the Colony. – Implantation of Republicanism. – New Constitution. – Massacre by the Indians. – Retaliation. – The Patents cancelled. – Policy of Charles I. – Governor Harvey. – Wyatt and Berkeley. – The Commonwealth. – Intolerance in Virginia. – Indian Wars. – Berkely and Loyalty. – Opposition to parliamentary Commissions. – Concession to the Colonists. – Commercial Restrictions. – King of Virginia. – Indian Hostilities. – "Bacon’s Rebellion." – Republican Triumphs. – English Troops. – Burning of Jamestown. – Death of Bacon. – Vengeance of Berkeley. – His Recall and Death. – Jamestown and its Associations.

X.

Departure from Jamestown. – Remains of Fortifications. – "Spencer’s Ordinary." – Retreat of Cornwallis. – Simcoe’s Expedition. – Engagement between the advanced Guards of the Belligerents. – Battle at Spencer’s Ordinary. – Simcoe’s Stratagem. – A drawn Battle. – The Loss. – Burial with the Honors of War. – March of Cornwallis from Williamsburg. – Movements of La Fayette. – Cornwallis’s Stratagem. – March from Green Spring. – Colonel Armand. – The Battle Order. – Attack upon the Outpost. – The Enemy in full Force. – Retreat of the Americans. – Wayne’s Charge upon the British Line. – Retreat of Cornwallis to Portsmouth. – Tarleton’s Expedition. – Williamsburg. – Remains of Dunmore’s Palace. – Brenton Church. – Lord Botetourt. – His Reception in Virginia. – Ode. – Ancient Powder Magazine. – The Old Capitol. – Resumption of the Historical Narrative. – Plan of Williamsburg. – Culpepper. – Lord Howard and Nicholson. – Federal Union proposed. – Orkney and his Deputies. – Spottswood. – Character of Spottswood. – Conflicting Claims of the French and English. – Injustice toward the Indians. – The Ohio Company. – Jealousy of the French. – Erection of Forts. – Dinwiddie’s Measures. – George Washington sent to the French Commandant. – Friendly Offices of the Indians. – St. Pierre. – His Letter to Dinwiddie. – Washington’s Journey. – Preparations for War. – Expedition against the French. – Attack upon the Virginians. – Fort Duquesne. – Fort Necessity. – Surprise of Jumonville. – Death of Colonel Fry. – Washington in Command. – Fort Necessity. – Washington’s Return home. – The Great Meadows. – Loss at Fort Necessity. – French Duplicity. – General Braddock. – Provincial Governors. – March toward Fort Duquesne. – Alarm of the French. – Passage of the Monongahela. – The Battle. – Washington’s Advance. – Death of Braddock. – Washington’s Skill. – Providential Care acknowledged. – Lord Loudon. – New Expedition. – General Forbes. – Movements of Forbes. – Defeat of Grant. – Attack on Bouquet. – Abandonment of Fort Duquesne. – Washington’s Resignation. – Development of Washington’s Military Character. – Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson.

XI.

Effect of the Stamp Act in Virginia. – Boldness of Patrick Henry. – His Resolution in Opposition to the Act. – Effect of Henry’s Resolutions. – Eloquence and Skill of the Orator. – Dissolution of the Assembly. – General Congress proposed. – Repeal of the Stamp Act. – Lord Botetourt. – Thomas Jefferson. – Dissolution of the Assembly. – The Apollo Room. – Death of Botetourt. – Lord Dunmore. – His Character. – Committees of Vigilance and Correspondence. – Fast day in Virginia. – Assembly Dissolved by Dunmore. – Meeting at the Raleigh. – The Proceedings. – Delegates to the Continental Congress. – Expedition against the Indians. – Dunmore’s Schemes. – Camp at the Great Kanawha. – Battle at Mount Pleasant. – March to the Shawnee Tavern. – Old Chillicothe. – Fort Gower. – Junction of the Armies of Dunmore and Lewis. – Camp Charlotte. – Logan and Cresap. – John Gibson. – Logan’s Speech. – His Death. – Sketch of Colonel Cresap. – Treaty with the Indians. – Sentiments of Dunmore’s Officers. – Indian Wars in the West. – Daniel Boone. – Boone’s Family on the Kain-tuck-ee. – Boone’s Fort assailed by Indians. – Capture of Boone’s Daughter and Companions. – Construction of other Forts. – Indian Assaults. – Expedition against the Kentucky Settlements. – George Rogers Clarke. – Clarke’s Expedition in the Wilderness. – Expeditions against British Forts. – Simon Kenton. – Kenton’s Life and Sufferings. – Surprise of Kaskaskia. – Capture of the Garrison. – Location of Kaskaskia. – Surprise of Cahokia. – Capture of Vincennes. – Its Loss and Recapture. – Terrible March over the "Drowned Lands." – Colonel Hamilton made Prisoner. – Detroit. – Tory Emissaries. – Dr. Connolly. – Official Tampering with the Indians. – Girty before Fort Henry. – Massacre of a Reconnoitering Party. – Attack upon the Fort. – Elizabeth Zane and Mrs. Merrill. – Effect of a Log Field-piece. – Arrival of Succor. – Abandonment of the Siege. – Escape of M‘Culloch. – Fort M‘Intosh. – Expedition against Sandusky Towns. – Successful Expedition from Detroit against Kentucky Forts. – Colonel Clarke in Virginia. – Made a Brigadier. – Battle at the Blue Licks. – The Indians subdued. – Affairs at Williamsburg. – Patrick Henry’s bold Resolutions in favor of Military Preparations. – His eloquent Defense of them. – Effect of Henry’s Speech. – Seizure of Powder by Dunmore. – Patrick Henry with a Military Force. – A Compromise. – Dunmore’s Oath. – General Excitement. – Proceedings of the Assembly. – Attempt to Destroy the Magazine. – Dunmore’s Flight. – Military Preparations. – Dunmore at Norfolk. – New Government planned. – Militia Organized. – Great Seal. – Declaration of Independence proclaimed at Williamsburg. – Officers under the new Government. – Freneau’s Prophecy.

XII.

Ride to Yorktown. – William Nelson, Esq. – Location and Appearance of Yorktown. – Its early Settlement. – Old Church at Yorktown. – The Nelson Tombs. – Cornwallis’s Cave. – An Imposition. – Present Appearance of the British Works. – American and French Armies. – Morris and Peters. – Change in Plan of Operations. – Cornwallis ordered to the Chesapeake. – Takes Post at Yorktown and Gloucester, and Fortifies them. – Sketch of Cornwallis. – Southern Campaign. – De Grasse in the Chesapeake. – Sketch of De Grasse. – Cornwallis’s Attempt to Escape into Carolina. – Admirals Hood and Graves proceed against the French Fleet. – Naval Battle off the Virginia Capes. – French Squadron. – Loss in the Naval Action. – March of the Allied Armies. – Arrival of Washington and French Officers at Williamsburg. – Arrival of Troops at Williamsburg. – Washington’s first Interview with De Grasse. – Approach of the Allied Armies. – Death of Colonel Scammell. – Yorktown and Gloucester invested. – General Arrangements of the Land and Naval Forces. – French Officers. – Biographical Sketch of Lieutenant-colonel Stevens. – Position of the American Corps. – Approach by Parallels. – Cannonade and Bombardment. – Burning of British Ships. – Continued Approaches toward the British Works. – Preparations to Storm Redoubts. – Plan of the Siege of Yorktown. – Successful Assault upon two Redoubts. – Loss sustained by the Combatants. – Bravery and Loss of the French Grenadiers. – Desperate Situation of Cornwallis. – Sortie. – Attempt of Cornwallis to Escape. – Providential Interposition. – Count Dumas. – Patriotism of Gov. Nelson. – Bombardment of his Mansion. – Cornwallis’s Proposition to Surrender. – Destruction in Yorktown. – Ceremonies at the Surrender of the British Army. – Delivery of the Colors. – Conduct of Cornwallis in the Carolinas. – Laying down of Arms. – Loss of both Armies. – Washington’s expressed Approbation of Officers. – Disposition of Prisoners. – A Jubilee for Prisoners. – Intelligence of the Surrender at Philadelphia. – Proceedings of Congress. – Rochambeau. – Awards of Congress to Officers. – General Rejoicings. – Proceedings in Parliament. – Lord North’s Agitation. – Designs upon Southern British Ports. – St. Clair’s Success. – Washington’s Journey to Philadelphia. – Localities at Yorktown. – Moore’s House and its Associations. – Place of Surrender. – Governor Nelson’s House. – Departure for Hampton. – Arrival at Hampton. – Old Point Comfort. – Early History. – Hampton Roads. – Dunmore’s Attack. – Repulse of Dunmore. – St. John’s Church. – Attack on Hampton in 1813. – Voyage to Norfolk. – St. Paul’s Church and its Associations. – Ride to the Great Bridge. – Description of the Locality. – Dunmore at Norfolk. – Seizure of Holt’s Printing-office. – Holt’s Career. – Preparations for Battle. – Fortifications at the Great Bridge. – Attack on the American Redoubt. – Death of Capt. Fordyce. – Stratagem of Maj. Marshall. – Close of the Battle. – Terror of the Captives. – Norfolk entered by the Americans. – Dunmore’s Threat. – Destruction of Norfolk. – Distress. – Disposition of the American Troops. – Dunmore at Gwyn’s Island. – General Lewis. – Attack upon Dunmore. – His Flight. – Distress upon Gwyn’s Island. – Destruction of Property by Collier and Matthews. – Leslie’s Expedition. – Deep Creek and Dismal Swamp. – Drummond’s Lake. – Moore’s Farm. – Return to Norfolk. – Portsmouth and Gosport. – French and English Fleets. – Attempt to capture Arnold.

XIII.

Departure from Norfolk. – Misfortunes of an Hostler. – Forts Nelson and Norfolk. – Craney Island. – Voyage up the James River. – City Point. – Petersburg. – Blandford Church. – Founding of Petersburg. – Sudden Storm. – Services of Steuben. – Military Operations between City Point and Williamsburg. – Skirmish near Petersburg. – Retreat of the Americans. – British Occupation of the Town. – Mrs. Bolling. – British Occupation of Bollingbrook. – Skirmish at Osborne’s. – Destruction of the American Flotilla. – Troops of Arnold and Phillips. – Depredations at Manchester and Warwick. – La Fayette at Petersburg. – Death of Phillips. – Entrance of Cornwallis into Virginia. – The State in Danger. – Retirement of Governor Jefferson. – Monticello. – Cornwallis’s unsuccessful Pursuit of La Fayette. – Expeditions Westward. – Jefferson’s Seal and Monument, and Inscription. – Expedition of Simcoe against Steuben. – Attempt to Capture Jefferson and the Legislators. – Destruction of Property. – Cornwallis baffled by La Fayette. – His Retreat toward the Coast. – Detention of the Convention Troops. – Their Parole. – March of the Convention Troops to Virginia. – Their Route to Charlottesville. – Sufferings. – Riedesel and his Family. – Jefferson’s Hospitality. – Erection of Barracks. – Extensive Gardening. – General Condition of the Troops. – Removal of Troops from Charlottesville. – Their Final Dispersion. – The Germans. – Departure from Petersburg. – Capital Punishment. – Husbandry in Lower Virginia. – Fruits of the Social System. – Gee’s Bridge. – Capture of Colonel Gee. – A Yankee Observer. – Passage of the Roanoke into Carolina. – Cotton Fields. – Route of Greene’s Retreat. – Journey toward Hillsborough. – Tobacco Culture. – Williamsburg and Oxford. – Tar River. – Fording Streams. – The Princely Domain of Mr. Cameron. – Night at a Yankee’s Farm-house. – Arrival at Hillsborough. – Early Settlements in North Carolina. – First Charter of North Carolina. – Early Settlements on the Chowan and Cape Fear. – Planters from Barbadoes. – The absurd "Fundamental Constitutions" of Shaftesbury and Locke. – Sketch of the Authors. – Extent of the Province. – Abrogation of the Constitutions. – Government Officers imprisoned. – Governor Sother banished. – John Archdale. – Settlements in the Interior. – Indian Hostilities. – Flight of the Tuscaroras. – Pirates. – First Royal Governor. – First Legislative Assembly. – The Governor and People at Variance. – Removal of the Seat of Government to Wilmington. – Immigration of Scotch Highlanders. – The Rebellion of ’45. – Peril and Flight of The Pretender. – Extinction of his Family.

XIV.

The Scotch-Irish and their Principles. – Their Emigration to Carolina. – Moravian Settlements. – The Religious Element in our Government. – Origin of the Scotch-Irish. – First Printing-presses in North Carolina. – Carolina Troops in Virginia. – Governors Dobbs and Tryon. – Opposition to the Stamp Act. – The Enfield Riot. – Revolutionary Proceedings at Wilmington. – Ruins of St. Philip’s Church at Brunswick. – Resignation of the Wilmington Stamp Master. – Unpopularity of Tryon. – Discontents in the Interior. – "Regulators." – Tryon’s Request for a Palace. – Maneuvers of his Family. – Heavy Appropriation. – View and Description of the Palace. – Excessive Taxation. – Tryon’s Proclamation against the Regulators. – His bad Faith. – Extortions of Officers. – Arrest of Regulators. – Hillsborough menaced. – Forbearance of the People. – Legal Trials. – Tryon’s Return to Newbern. – Prevalence of Quiet. – New Outbreaks. – Riots at Hillsborough. – Outrages upon Fanning. – Sketch of his Public Life. – Mock Court and Trials. – Yorke. – Military Expedition against the Regulators. – Bad Treatment of Husband. – Tryon’s March to Hillsborough. – His Officers. – Dispersion of Waddel’s Troops. – Tryon’s March toward the Allamance. – Dr. Caldwell’s Meditation. – Battle. – Flight of Husband. – Defeat of the Regulators. – The Battle-ground. – Cruelty of Tryon. – Tryon’s Prisoners exhibited in Chains. – Execution of Six of them. – Effect of the Regulator Movement. – Career of Husband. – Committees of Correspondence. – Difficulties between the Governor and People. – Conventions of the Patriots. – Approval of a General Congress, and Appointment of Deputies. – Provincial Congress. – Maneuvers of Governor Martin. – Symptoms of a Servile Insurrection. – Destruction of Fort Johnson. – Provincial Congress at Hillsborough. – Action of the Congress. – Military Organization. – Minute-men. – Sketch of Cornelius Harnett. – Friendship of the Highlanders courted. – Called to take up Arms by Donald M‘Donald. – Flora M‘Donald. – Influence of Flora M‘Donald. – The Pretender saved by her. – Patriot Expedition against the Highlanders. – The Highlanders pursued by Colonel Moore. – Colonels Caswell and Lillington. – Biographical Sketch of Caswell. – Biographical Sketch of Lillington. – Caswell’s Letter to his Son. – Peril of the Highlanders. – Preparations for Battle. – Lillington Hall. – Colonel John Lillington. – Battle at Moore’s Creek. – Feat of Mrs. Slocum. – Effect of the Battle. – Humanity of the Whigs. – Governor Martin. – Organization of Civil Government. – Proclamations of Sir Henry Clinton. – Desolation of Howe’s Plantation. – Localities at Hillsborough. – Departure for Allamance. – Place of Pyle’s Defeat. – Cornwallis at Hillsborough. – Greene’s Plans. – Expedition under Lieutenant Colonel Lee. – His Public Life. – Pursuit of Tarleton. – Approach of Tories under Colonel Pyle. – Conception of a Plan to Ensnare them. – Destruction of the Loyalists. – Escape of Colonel Pyle. – The Battle-ground. – Escape of Tarleton.

XV.

The Allamance. – Factory Labor. – Regulator Battle-ground. – Greensborough. – Fire in Greensborough. – The Guilford Battle-ground. – Gates superseded by Greene. – Greene’s Arrival in Carolina. – Courtesy of Gates. – Disposition of the belligerent Armies. – Greene in Co-operation with Morgan. – Conference of the Commanders. – Battle at Ramsour’s Mills. – General Rutherford. – Morgan pursued by Cornwallis. – Narrow Escape of the former. – Passage of the Catawba by Cornwallis’s Army. – Success of the British. – Death of General Davidson. – British Account of the Conflict. – Queen’s Museum. – Dispersion of the Militia. – Commencement of Greene’s Retreat. – His Passage of the Yadkin. – Cornwallis again foiled. – The Trading Ford. – Numbers of the two Armies. – Passage of the Yadkin by Cornwallis. – His March resumed. – Greene’s Resolution to continue his Retreat. – Light Army organized. – Colonel Williams. – Line of March. – Death of Lee’s Bugler. – A Skirmish and Race. – Efforts of both Parties to reach the Dan. – Greene’s Passage across the Dan. – Passage of the whole Army. – Disappointment of Cornwallis. – Preparations to Recross the Dan. – March of the Army toward Guilford. – Maneuvers of the Belligerents. – Skirmish on Reedy Fork. – Augmentation of the American Army. – Disposition of the two Armies. – Skirmish at New Garden Meeting-house. – Defeat of Tarleton. – Lee driven back by the main British Army. – Disposition of the American Army at Guilford. – Plan of the Battle. – Approach of the British. – Commencement of the Battle. – Flight of the Carolinians. – Bravery of the Virginians and Marylanders. – General Stevens. – Retreat of Marylanders. – Washington’s Charge. – Junction of British Regiments. – Cornwallis’s victorious Blow. – End of the Battle. – Retreat of the Americans. – View of the Battle-ground. – Loss of the Combatants. – Effect of the Battle. – Withdrawal of Cornwallis. – Pursued by Greene. – American Women at Prayer. – Cornwallis’s March to Wilmington. – Pursued by Green. – Greene’s Approach to Camden. – New Garden Meeting-house. – Quaker Marriage. – A Centenarian Preacher. – His Blessing. – Jamestown. – Ridge Roads. – Journey to the Yadkin. – Salisbury. – A Night with a Cotton-planter near Concord. – A Patriot’s Grave at the Red Hills. – Picturesque Scenery. – Arrival at Charlotte. – Ancient Church and Congregation. – Colonel Polk’s Mill. – The People of Mecklenburg. – Scheme for a Republican Assembly. – A Convention called. – Officers of the Convention. – Speakers on the Occasion. – Preamble and Resolutions. – Autographs of the Mecklenburg Committee. – Resolutions adopted by the Mecklenburg Convention. – Mecklenburg Resolutions dispatched to Philadelphia and Hillsborough. – Action concerning them. – History of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. – Movements of Cornwallis and his Subordinates. – Colonel Polk suspected. – General William R. Davis. – Cornwallis’s March toward Charlotte. – Operations of the Americans against him. – Skirmish at Charlotte. – Retreat of the Americans from Charlotte. – March of Cornwallis Southward. – Young Ladies of Mecklenburg and Rowan.

XVI.

Departure from Charlotte. – Gold Region of North Carolina. – Tuckesege Ford. – Passage of the South Fork of the Catawba. – Loss of Way in a Forest. – Road to King’s Mountain. – Visit to the King’s Mountain Battle-ground. – Character of the Locality. – View of the Battle-ground. – Past and Present. – Major Ferguson detached to the Upper Country. – Gathering of Tories. – Surprise at Greene’s Spring. – Leaders of the Mountain Men. – Ferguson West of the Broad River. – Expedition against him. - Concentration of Troops. – Selection of a Commander-in-chief. – March to the Cowpens. – Colonels Shelby, Campbell, and Williams. – Pursuit of Ferguson. – The Battle. – Colonel Sevier. – Frankland. – Surrender of the British and Tories. – Loss in the Battle. – Effect of the Battle. – Death of Ferguson. – Execution of Tories. – Character of the Battle-ground. – One of Sumter’s Men. – Route to the Cowpens. – Ventilation of Southern Houses. – Thicketty Mountain. – Loss of Way. – Visit to the Cowpens Battle-ground. – Material of the Army under Morgan. – Biography of Morgan. – Defeat of Tories by Washington. – Pursuit of Morgan by Tarleton. – Gold Medal awarded to Morgan. – Disposition of the American Army. – John Eager Howard. – Silver Medal awarded to Howard. – Morgan prepared to Fight. – His Address to his Troops. – The Attack. – Tarleton’s Charge. – Charge of Tarleton. – Bold Maneuver of Howard. – Americans Victorious. – Colonel Washington. – Retreat of the British. – Encounter between Washington and Tarleton. – Result of the Battle. – The Heroes of the Cowpens. – Departure from that Place. – Cherokee Ford. – Indians in the Carolinas. – War with the Indians. – Peril of the White People. – Defeat and Conquest of the Indians. – Seminoles. – Embassy to the Indians. – Erection of Forts. – War with the Cherokees. – Small-pox at Charleston. – Montgomery’s Expedition against the Indians. – Peace. – Renewal of War. – Grant and Middleton’s Expedition. – Treaty of Peace and Friendship. – Indian Hostilities renewed. – John Stuart. – Desolation of the Cherokee Country. – Expeditions under Rutherford and Pickens. – Present Condition of the Cherokees. – The Western Settlers. – Growth of Party Spirit. – The Cunninghams. – Seizure of Powder. – Tory Faithlessness. – Expedition against them. – Battle at Musgrove’s Mill. – Gathering of Troops by Sumter. – His partisan Compatriots. – Attack upon Wemyss at Fish Dam Ford. – Defeat of Wemyss. – Sumter pursued by Tarleton. – Halt and Battle at Blackstocks’s. – Flight of Tarleton. – Sumter Wounded. – His Retreat. – Thanks of Congress. – Patriotic Women.

XVII.

Cherokee Ford. – Romantic Mountain Gorge. – Passage of King’s Creek. – A Night on the Mountains. – Contentment. – Mule Driving. – Yorkville. – Catawba Indians. – Fishing Creek and its Associations. – Generous Hospitality. – Petition of a Catawba Indian. – Great Falls of the Catawba. – Mount Dearborn. – Cotton Factory. – Rocky Mount and its Associations. – A Night at Rocky Mount. – The Battle-ground. – Sumter again in Arms. – His Compatriots. – Skirmish at Mobley’s Meeting-house. – Expeditions of Huck and Cunningham. – Their Defeat. – Sumter’s unsuccessful Battle at Rocky Mount. – His Success at Wateree Ford. – His Defeat at Fishing Creek. – Passage of the Catawba. – Appearance of the Road. – Anvil Rock. – Old Slave at Hanging Rock. – The Hanging Rock. – Disposition of Troops there. – Preliminary Skirmish. – Sumter’s Attack. – Sumter’s final Blow. – Victory lost by Intemperance. – Sumter’s Retreat. – The Loss. – Captain M‘Clure. – The British in South Carolina. – Retreat of the Americans. – Massacre of Buford’s Regiment near the Waxhaw. – Family of President Jackson. – Journey toward Camden. – Flat Rock. – Rugeley’s Mill. – Tories at Rugeley’s. – Stratagem of Colonel Washington in capturing the Tories. – Gum Swamp. – Sander’s Creek. – Lincoln Calumniated. – De Kalb sent to the South. – His March. – Sketch of his Public Life. – Gates in chief Command. – De Kalb’s Monument and Inscription. – Tardiness of Justice. – Situation of Gates’s Army. – Plan of Operations. – Sketch of Gates’s Public Life. – Sufferings of the Army. – Alarm of the British. – Cornwallis at Camden. – Approach of Gates. – Gates’s Night-march toward Camden. – Cornwallis’s March to meet Gates. – General Gist. – Meeting of the Armies. – Skirmish. – Council of War. – Preparations for Battle. – The Attack. – Battle at Sander’s Creek. – General William Smallwood. – Death of the Baron de Kalb. – Flight of the Americans. – British Victorious. – The Armed Neutrality. – Confidence of the British. – Rendezvous at Hillsborough. – Governor Nash. – Colonel Buncombe. – Partial Organization of an Army. – Hobkirk’s Hill. – View at the Spring. – Gates’s Order. – Parole. – Greene’s Movements toward South Carolina. – His Encampment near Camden. – Lee’s Legion and Wolves. – Lord Rawdon at Camden. – Greene’s Camp on Hobkirk’s Hill. – Rawdon’s Preparations to Attack Greene. – Disposition of the Two Armies. – Battle on Hobkirk’s Hill. – Yielding of Maryland Troops. – Greene’s Retreat. – Washington’s Charge upon the Pursuers. – Marion and Lee against Watson. – British Evacuation of Camden. – Destruction of Property. – Fall of British Posts. – Sale of Traveling Establishment.

XVIII.

Departure from Camden. – The High Hills of Santee. – Passage of the Wateree Swamp. – Fort Motte. – Remains of the Revolution. – Position of the Americans there. – General Marion. – The Song of Marion’s Men. – Marion in Gates’s Camp. – Description of his Regiment. – Rebecca Motte. – Her House fortified and garrisoned. – American Battery. – Siege of Fort Motte. – Lee’s Expedient. – Patriotism of Mrs. Motte. – Rawdon’s Retreat. – Belleville. – A Slave "Pass." – Trial of a Slave. – Columbia. – Fort Granby and its Garrison. – Mr. Friday and Colonel Maxwell. – Capture of Fort Granby. – Terms of Surrender. – Greene’s Army at Fort Granby. – The Locality. – Ninety-Six. – Ninety-Six Fortified. – Its Garrison and Works. – Capture of Fort Galphin. – The "Galphin Claim." – Greene before Ninety-Six. – Siege commenced by Kosciuszko. – A Sally. – Plan of the Siege. – Rawdon informed of the Siege. – His march toward Ninety-Six. – Attempt to destroy the Stockade. – Beale and Cunningham. – Cruger advised of Rawdon’s approach. – Assault on the Star Redoubt. – Capture of the Stockade. – A bold Prisoner. – Raising the Siege of Ninety-Six. – Arrival of Rawdon. – His pursuit of Greene. – Movements of the two Armies. – Courage and Arrest of Emily Geiger. – Rawdon foiled. – Camp at Orangeburg. – Greene on the Santee Hills. – Orangeburg. – Old Court-house. – Orangeburg taken by Sumter. – Sumter and Lee. – Rawdon’s Departure. – Movements of the two Armies toward Eutaw. – Journey thither. – Four-hole Swamp. – General Sumner. – A Yankee Schoolmaster. – Road to Eutaw. – Locality and Appearance of the Springs. – Remains of the "Citadel" at Eutaw. – Greene joined by Marion. – American Encampment before the Battle. – Captain Coffin. – Deserters. – Stuart’s fancied Security. – Arrangement of the Americans for Battle. – Colonel William Polk. – Arrangement of the British Forces. – The Citadel. – Skirmishes. – Commencement of the Battle at Eutaw. – Williams’s Bayonet Charge. – Death of Campbell and Duval. – Defeat and Capture of Washington. – Retreat of the British. – Folly of the Americans. – Bravery of Lee’s Legion. – Contest at the "Citadel." – Retreat of Greene. – Honors awarded to Greene and his Officers. – The Loss. – Retreat of Stuart. – Attacked by Marion and Lee. – Retirement of the Americans to the Santee Hills. – Mutiny. – Relic from the Battle-field. – Nelson’s Ferry. – Success of Marion at Nelson’s Ferry. – Site of Fort Watson. – Movements of Colonel Watson. – Fort Watson attacked by Marion and Lee. – Mayham Tower. – Sketch of Colonel Mayham. – Marion’s Residence. – The Wife of Marion. – Return to Orangeburg. – Sketch of Marion’s House.

XIX.

From Orangeburg to Augusta. – A Turkish Traveler. – Augusta. – Hamburg. – Liberty Hill. – Local History of Augusta. – Growth of Democratic Principles. – Republican Legislature and Governor. – Tories under Colonel Boyd. – Augusta in possession of the British. – Partisan Skirmishes. – General Elbert. – Dispersion of Boyd’s Tories. – Alarm of Campbell. – Ashe ordered to Brier Creek. – General Williamson. – The Americans at Brier Creek. – Preparations for Battle. – The Attack. – Retreat of the Carolinians. – Defeat of the Americans. – The Loss. – Ashe Censured. – Acquitted by Court-martial. – His Public Life. – Cruelty of Brown. – Forts Cornwallis and Grierson. – March toward Augusta, of Clark and M‘Call. – Skirmish at the White House. – Brown wounded. – Defeat of the Americans. – Fate of Prisoners. – Siege of Augusta. – Colonel Pickens. – Junction of American Troops before Augusta. – Plan of Attack. – Mayham Tower. – The Garrison subdued. – Surrender of the Forts at Augusta. – Liberty Hill. – Departure for Savannah. – A Night Journey. – Detention in a Swamp. – Picturesque Scenery. – Savannah. – Greene and Pulaski Monument. – Oglethorpe’s Colonial Plan. – Charter for Georgia. – First Emigrants. – Interview with the Indian King. – Founding of Savannah. – Progress of the Colony. – Methodists. – Defenses against the Spaniards. – Expedition against St. Augustine. – Return of Oglethorpe to England. – Georgia a Royal province. – Political Agitation. – Committee of Correspondence. – Movements of the Sons of Liberty. – Their names. – Contributions for Boston. – Tory Influence. – Whig Boldness. – Spiking of Cannon. – Tar and Feathers. – Intercepted Letter. – Seizure of Powder. – Imprisonment of the Governor. – His Escape. – A Traitor. – Congressional Delegates. – Savannah Menaced. – British Repulsed. – Party Lines. – Lee’s Expedition. – Boldness of the Tories. – Organization of Civil Government. – M‘Intosh and Gwinnett. – A Duel. – Expedition to Florida. – Troops under General Howe. – His public Life. – Duel with Gadsden. – March toward Florida. – Divided Commands. – Failure of the Expedition. – Minor Expeditions. – British Expedition against Savannah. – Preparations to receive them. – Landing of the British. – Battle. – Defeat of the Americans. – Disastrous Retreat. – The Loss. – Sunbury taken by the British. – Sketch of the Public Life of General Lincoln. – Royal Government re-established. – Appearance of the French Fleet. – Alarm of the British. – Savannah strengthened. – American Army at Savannah. – Pulaski. – D’Estaing’s summons to Surrender refused. – His Error. – Arrival of Maitland. – Victory lost by Delay. – Plan of the Siege of Savannah. – Operations of the Siege. – D’Estaing’s Proposition to Storm the Works. – Remains of the French Lines. – Storming of the Spring Hill redoubt. – D’Estaing Wounded. – Death of Pulaski and Jasper. – The Siege raised. – Withdrawal of the combined Armies. – Effect of the Movement. – Colonel Jackson. – Operations of Captain Howell. – Chastisement of the Indians. – Arrival of Wayne. – Skirmish near Savannah. – Treaty with the Indians. – Cessation of Hostilities. – Evacuation of Savannah. – Peace.

XX.

Revolutionary Remains. – Visit to Jasper’s Spring. – Its historical Associations. – Departure from Savannah. – Night Voyage. – Arrival at Charleston. – Early Settlement. – Founding of Charleston. – Increase of Settlers. – Their Character. – Difficulties with the Indians. – An Insurrection. – Legislative Assembly. – French and English. – Church Liturgy adopted. – A Revolution. – Royal Government established. – Separation of the Colonies. – Extension of Settlements. – Discontents. – Disputes with the Governor. – Effects of the Stamp Act. – Boldness of the People. – Liberty Tree. – Charleston Sons of Liberty. – Pitt’s Statue. – Christopher Gadsden. – Tea repudiated. – Sympathy for Bostonians. – Provincial Convention and Congress. – Seizure of Dispatches. – Institutions of the Ministry. – Condition of the People. – Seizure of Arms and Powder. – Civil Government organized. – Seizure of Powder at St. Augustine. – Expulsion of Lord Campbell and the Garrison. – City Defenses. – Fortifications around Charleston. – Fort Moultrie. – Organization of Civil Government. – John Rutledge. – Defenses of Charleston Harbor. – Arrival of Generals Armstrong and Lee. – Arrival of the British. – Rutledge’s rigorous Measures. – Clinton’s Preparations for Attack. – Commencement of the Action. – Clinton Repulsed. – Cannonade of Fort Sullivan. – Fate of the British Fleet. – Burning of the Actæon. – Effect of the Battle. – The Loss. – Bravery of Sergeant Jasper. – Presentation of Standards. – Patriotism not sectional. – Declaration of Independence. – Fort Sullivan. – The British Lazaretto. – Formation of an Army under Lincoln. – Major Thomas Pinckney. – Battle on Port Royal Island. – Prevost’s March toward Charleston. – Preparations to receive him. – Prevost before Charleston. – Pulaski’s Attack and Defeat. – Proposition for Surrender refused. – Expected Attack. – Death of Huger. – Withdrawal of the British Army. – Battle at Stono Ferry. – Retreat of the British.

XXI.

Charleston after the Invasion. – Condition of South Carolina. – Arrival of a British Armament. – Tardiness of the Militia. – Clinton’s Mistake. – Charleston Strengthened. – Spaniards in Florida. – Whipple’s Flotilla. – Passage of the Ashley by the British. – British Fleet in the Harbor. – Advance of Clinton. – Attack upon Charleston. – Surprise of Huger. – Arrival of Cornwallis. – Proposed Surrender rejected. – Continuance of the Siege. – Perils in the City. – Cessation of Hostilities. – Capitulation and Surrender. – Cruel Proclamation. – The French Fleet. – Effect of Clinton’s Proclamation. – Patriots sent to St. Augustine. – Sufferings at Haddrell’s Point. – Approach of Gates. – Marion at Charleston. – Formation of his Brigade. – His first Expeditions. – Marion and Wemyss. – Retreat of the latter. – Defeat of Colonel Tyne. – Skirmish near Georgetown. – Marion and Lee’s Expedition against Georgetown. – Its Failure. – Snow’s Island. – Harden’s Exploits. – The Postelles. – Marion’s Cavalry. – Conflicts with Watson. – Destruction of Marion’s Camp. – Capture of Georgetown. – Attack on British Posts near Charleston. – Battle at Quimby’s Creek Bridge. – Severe Battle above Quimby’s Creek Bridge. – Public Services and Execution of Colonel Hayne. – Skirmish at Parker’s Ferry. – Retreat of the British from Eutaw. – Attack on British Posts near Charleston. – Re-establishment of Civil Government. – Change in public Sentiment. – Waning of British power. – Mutiny. – Operations of a Spy. – War declared ended by Parliament. – Abduction of Governor Burke. – British attempts to collect Provisions. – Vigilance of Greene. – Skirmishes on the Combahee. – Death of Laurens. – Last Blood shed in the Revolution. – Evacuation of Charleston. – Revolutionary Localities near. – Destruction of the "Council Tree." – Departure from Charleston. – Wilmington. – British Occupation there. – Craig at Wilmington. – His Flight. – Journey Homeward. – Arrival in New York.

XXII.

New York and its Associations. – First Settlement on Manhattan Island. – Dutch West India Company. – The Patroon System. – Government Established. – Trade of the People. – Governor Stuyvesant. – New Netherlands seized by the English. – Disappointment of the People. – Governor Stuyvesant. – New Jersey. – Leisler Chief Magistrate. – His Persecution and Death. – Suppression of Piracy. – Captain Kidd. – Attempt to Muzzle the Press. – Triumph of Democracy. – The Negro Plot. – Death of Sir Danvers Osborn. – Cadwallader Colden. – Sons of Liberty. – Place of Meeting. – Newspapers in the City. – Arrival of Stamps. – The People demand them. – Colden burned in Effigy. – Destruction of James’s Property. – Stamps delivered to the Mayor. – Quiet. – Repeal of the Act. – Rejoicings. – Pitt’s Statue. – Murmuring against the Mutiny Act. – Liberty Pole several times cut down. – Excitement. – Pitt Caricatured. – Soldiers Disarmed. – Fifth Liberty Pole. – Political Coalition. – Public Sentiment. – John Lamb. – M‘Dougal Imprisoned. – Partial Triumph of Toryism. – Arrival of a Tea-ship. – Destruction of Tea. – New Parties. – Meeting of Provincial Congress. – Arrest of Captain Sears. – Seizure of Arms. – Post-office. – Arming of the People. – Closing of the Custom-house. – Arms seized by the Sons of Liberty. – Fortifications Ordered. – Wooster and his Troops at Harlem. – Capture of British Stores. – Turtle Bay. – Committee of One Hundred. – Removal of Cannons from the Battery. – Cannonade from the Asia. – Newspapers in the City. – Destruction of Rivington’s Printing Materials. – Capture of Seabury. – Rivington and Sears. – Disaffection. – Disarming of the Tories. – Troops under Lee in New York. – His Head-quarters. – Sir Henry Clinton. – Fortifications upon York or Manhattan Island. – Washington’s Conference with Congress. – Preparation for the Defense of New York. – Landing of British Troops. – Plot to destroy Washington. – Declaration of Independence read to the Army. – Destruction of the King’s Statue. – Effect of the Declaration. – Howe’s Letter to Washington. – Commission of the Brothers. – Preparations for Battle. – Disposition of American Detachments. – Kip’s Bay. – The Kip Family.

XXIII.

Landing of the British. – General De Heister. – Alarm in New York. – General Putnam. – General John Morin Scott. – The "Passes." – Miles and Woodhull. – Fortifications near Brooklyn. – March of the British. – Advantage gained. – Advance of Grant toward Gowanus. – Sketch of Lord Stirling. – The construction of Beacons. – Skirmish between Grant and Stirling. – Storming of the Flatbush Redoubt. – Descent of Clinton. – Surrender of the Americans. – Battle between Stirling and Cornwallis. – Retreat across the Gowanus. – Defeat and Capture of Stirling. – Capture, Treatment, and Death of General Woodhull. – Preparations to Besiege the Works at Brooklyn. – Situation of the Two Armies. – Council of War. – Retreat of the Americans to New York. – British first aware of the Retreat. – Condition of the Army. – Disposition of the British Army. – Howe’s proposition for a Conference. – Meeting with a Committee of Congress. – Bushnell’s "Marine Turtle" or Torpedo. – Evacuation of the City by the Americans. – Washington’s Quarters. – Captain Hale. – Beekman’s Green-house. – Preparation to invade New York. – Revolutionary Fortifications on the north part of the Island. – Flight of the Americans on the Landing of the British. – Washington’s Mortification. – Evacuation of the City. – Americans on Harlem Heights. – Battle on Harlem Plains. – Death of Knowlton and Lietch. – Great Fire in New York. – Departure of the British Army for West Chester. – Landing upon Throck’s Neck. – Landing-place of the Hessians. – Howe confronted. – Skirmish near New Rochelle. – General Heath. – American Army in West Chester. – Skirmishes. – Fort Lee. – Condition of the Army. – The two Armies at White Plains. – The Battle there. – The Intrenchments. – Retreat of the Americans. – The Loss. – Withdrawal to North Castle. – Conflagration. – Retreat to New Jersey. – Fort Washington menaced. – A Surrender refused. – Re-enforced. – Disposition of the Garrison. – Plan of Attack. – Knyphausen’s Assault. – Attack of Stirling and Percy. – Surrender of the Fort. – The Loss. – Mr. Battin. – Washington’s Disappointment. – Wayne’s Expedition near Bull’s Ferry. – Lee’s Attack on Paulus’s Hook. – Medal awarded to Lee. – American and British near King’s Bridge. – Events near Tippett’s Creek. – Loyalist Patrols. – The Delanceys and their Movements. – Operations near King’s Bridge. – Valentine’s Hill and its Associations. – Attempted Invasion of New York. – Vigilance of the British. – Yonkers and its Associations. – Operations upon Lloyd’s Neck. – Simcoe’s Fortified Camp at Oyster Bay. – Capture of Fort George. – Destruction of Stores at Corum. – Capture of Fort Slongo. – Badge of Military Merit. – British occupation of New York City. – Residences of several of the Officers. – Prisons and Hospitals. – Counterfeit Continental Bills. – Expedition to Staten Island. – Second great Fire in New York. – Treaties for Peace. – The Continental Army. – Congress at Princeton. – Mutiny. – Washington’s Circular Letter. – British prepare to Evacuate New York. – Washington’s Farewell Address to the Army. – The Evacuation. – Clinton and Knox. – Entrance of the Americans. – Parting of Washington with his Officers. – Rejoicings in New York. – Washington’s Departure for, and Journey to Annapolis. – His account current of Expenses. – Lady Washington. – Addresses to Washington. – Resignation of his Commission. – Thomas Mifflin. – Addresses of Washington and Mifflin. – Conclusion.

 

SUPPLEMENT.

I.

NAVAL OPERATIONS.

II.

DIPLOMACY.

III.

THE CONFEDERATION, AND THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION.

IV.

BRITISH PRISONS AND PRISON SHIPS.

V.

BOARD OF WAR AND ORDNANCE.

VI.

SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

VII.

THE LOYALISTS.

VIII.

THE FOSTER-CHILD OF THE REPUBLIC.

IX.

AUTOGRAPHS OF WASHINGTON’S LIFE GUARD.

X.

CONTINENTAL LOTTERY.

XI.

ENGLISH STAMPS.

XII.

THE STAMP ACT.

XIII.

STATE PAPERS PUT FORTH BY THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, IN 1774.

XIV.

YANKEE DOODLE.

XV.

BURGOYNE’S CAPTIVE OFFICERS.

XVI.

Poem written by Major Andrè after the attack of Wayne upon a block-house, near Bull’s Ferry, in 1780.

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