Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

PICTORIAL FIELD BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION.

VOLUME I.

BY BENSON J. LOSSING

1850.

VOLUME II.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONTENTS.

Front Matter.

Preface.

Introduction.

CHAPTERS.

I.

Classic Localities. – Departure for Saratoga. – Voyage up the Hudson. – Returning Volunteers. – Albany. – Troy. – Fulton’s Steam-boat. – Crossing the Hudson. – Cohoes’ Falls. – Van Schaick’s Island. – State of Affairs in 1777. – English Preparations for the Campaign of 1777. – Instructions of Lord George Germain. – Biographical Sketch of Burgoyne. – Burgoyne’s Arrival in Canada. – His Preparations for the Campaign. – Appointment of General Schuyler to the Command. – Schuyler and Gates. – Advance of Burgoyne. – Condition of the Continental Army. – Retreat of Schuyler to the Mohawk. – St. Leger in the Mohawk Valley. – Relief of the Valley proposed by Schuyler. – Volunteers for the Relief of Fort Schuyler. – Position of the Americans at Cohoes. – Active Preparations to oppose Burgoyne. – Schuyler superseded by Gates. – Factions in Congress. – Noble Conduct of Schuyler.

II.

Canal Voyage from Waterford to Bemis’s Heights. – Appearance of the Country. – Young Tourists from Saratoga Springs. – Gates and Burgoyne. – An Evening Visit to Bemis’s Heights. – View from Bemis’s Heights. – Topography. – Origin of the Name. – Headquarters of Revolutionary Officers. – Localities about Bemis’s Heights. – Gates’s Quarters. – Willard’s Mountain. – Condition of the Northern Army. – British Reverses in the Mohawk Valley. – Perplexity of Burgoyne. – Advance of Gates to Stillwater. – Kosciusko. – Fortifications at Bemis’s Heights. – Their present Appearance. – Preparations for Battle. – Approach of the two Armies. – Engagement between the Advance Corps. – Maneuvers of Arnold and Fraser. – Approach of a British Re-enforcement under Phillips. – View of the Battle-ground. – A Lull in the Battle. – Renewal of the Battle. – Loss sustained by both Armies. – The number and the particular Troops engaged. – Baroness Reidesel’s Notice of the Battle. – Major Hull. – Narrow Escape of Burgoyne. – Arnold, and the Testimony of History. – Colonel Varick’s Letter respecting Arnold. – General Gates’s Treatment of Arnold. – Rupture between them. – Condition of the Armies after the Battle. – Burgoyne’s Encampment. – Poverty of the American Commissariat. – Fortifications of both Camps. – Junction of Lincoln with the Army at Bemis’s. – Relative Position of the Armies. – Effect of the Battle on the People. – Diminution of Burgoyne’s Army, and increase of Gates’s. – Condition of the Enemy. – Hostile Movements of the British. – Preparations of the Americans for Battle. – Second Battle of Stillwater. – Bravery of both Armies. – Quick and bold Movements of Morgan. – Impetuosity and Bravery of Arnold. – General Fraser. – Death of General Fraser. – Censure of Morgan. – Panic in the British Line. – Timothy Murphy. – Bravery of General Arnold. – Assault on the German Works. – Arnold Wounded. – Gates and Sir Francis Clarke. – Retreat of the Germans, and Close of the Battle. – Preparations of Burgoyne to Retreat. – The Killed and Wounded. – Place of General Fraser’s Death. – Account of his Death by the Baroness Reidesel. – Fraser’s last Request granted. – Burial of Fraser. – Humanity of the Americans. – Lady Harriet Ackland. – Courage and Fortitude of Lady Harriet Ackland. – Burgoyne’s Request and Gates’s Generosity.

III.

Present Peacefulness at Saratoga. – Curious Meteorological Phenomena. – Departure for Schuylerville. – Approach of a Tempest. – A violent Gale. – Misfortunes of an Irish Way-passenger. – Fraser’s Grove. – Do-ve-gat or Coveville. – Colonel Van Vechten. – Origin of "Whig" and "Tory." – Arrival at Schuylerville. – Beautiful Evening Scene. – Commencement of Burgoyne’s Retreat toward Saratoga. – His Retreat anticipated by Gates. – Melancholy Condition of the British Army. – Gates’s Kindness to the Invalids. – Destruction of Schuyler’s Mills and Mansion. – Situation of Fellows’s Detachment. – Conduct of the American Militia. – Burgoyne’s Attempt to Retreat. – Unsuccessful Stratagem of Burgoyne. – Perilous Situation of two American Brigades. – Deserters from the British Army. – Retreat of the Americans to their Camp. – Perplexity of Burgoyne. – A scattered Retreat proposed. – Relative Position of the two Camps. – Exposed Condition of the British Camp. – Burgoyne determines to Surrender. – Proposition of Burgoyne to surrender his Troops. – Terms proposed by Gates. – Terms finally agreed upon. – Message to Burgoyne from General Clinton. – Disposition of Burgoyne to withhold his Signature. – Laying down of Arms. –Courtesy of General Gates. – The Place of Surrender. – First personal Meeting of Gates and Burgoyne. - Humiliating Review of the British Prisoners. – Burgoyne’s Surrender of his Sword. – The Spoils of Victory. – Yankee Doodle. – The Germans and Hessians. – Their Arrival at Cambridge and wretched Appearance. – Kindness of the People. – Relative Condition and Prospect of the Americans before the Capture of Burgoyne. – Effect of that Event. – Wilkinson before Congress. – Gold Medal awarded to Gates. – Proceedings of the British Parliament. – Speech of Chatham. – The Opposition in the House of Commons. – Policy of Lord North. – Exalted Position of the American Commissioners at Paris. – Our relative Position to the Governments of Europe. – Policy of Vergennes. – Beaumarchais's Commercial Operations. – Unmasking of the French King. – Independence of the United States acknowledged by France. – Letter of Louis XVI.

IV.

A Lady of the Revolution. – Sufferings of herself and Family. – Her Husband’s Pension allowed her. – Remains of the Fortifications of Burgoyne’s Camp. – The Reidesel House. – Narrative of the Baroness Reidesel. – Companions in Misery of the Baroness Reidesel. – Wounded Soldiers. – Kindness of General Schuyler. – Arrival of the British Officers and Women at Albany. – Courtesy of General Schuyler and Family. – British Officers at Schuyler’s House. – Execution-place of Lovelace. – Active and Passive Tories. – Rendezvous of Lovelace. – Capture and Death of Lovelace. – Daring Adventure of an American Soldier. – Departure from Schuylerville. – Visit to the Site of old Fort Edward. – Tragedy of "Bloody Run." – Daring Feat by Putnam. – Fort Miller Fording-place. – Canal Voyage to Fort Edward. – Scene on Board. – Fort Edward. – National Debt of England. –Daring Feat of Putnam at Fort Edward. – Jane M‘Crea Tree. – Sir William Johnson and his Title. – Fortifications. – The Fort Edward Romance. – Mrs. M‘Neil and her Grand-daughter. – Narrative of the latter. – Residence of Jane M‘Crea at Fort Edward. – Her Betrothal. – Abduction of Mrs. M‘Neil and Jane. – Flight of the Indians toward Sandy Hill. – Treatment of Mrs. M‘Neil. – Indian Account of the Death of Jane. – The Spring. – Massacre of the Allen Family. – Gates’s Letter – Inquiry respecting the Death of Miss M‘Crea. – Desertion of Lieutenant Jones. – Effect of Miss M‘Crea’s Death on Lieutenant Jones. – Attack of Indians upon American Troops. – Reinterment of Miss M‘Crea. – Young Girl struck by Lightning. – Village Burial-ground. – Colonel Cochran and his Adventures. – Rogers’s Island. – Relics found on Rogers’s Island. – A remarkable Skull. – Silver Coin found at Fort Edward.

V.

Ride from Fort Edward to Glenn’s Falls. – Appearance of the Country. – Interesting Character of the Region. – Scenery about the Falls. – "Indian Cave" and "Big Snake." – Departure for Lake George. – Williams’s Rock. – Approach of Dieskau. – Hendrick, the Mohawk Sachem. – Speech of Hendrick. – Fight with the French, and Death of Colonel Williams and Hendrick. – Bloody Pond. – Arrival at Caldwell. – Indian and French Names of Lake George. – Fort William Henry. – Attack upon Johnson’s Camp, 1755. – Battle of Lake George, and Death of Dieskau. – Weakness of British Commanders. – The Six Nations. – Hendrick’s Rebuke. – Lord Louden. – Montcalm’s first Attack on Fort William Henry. – Perfidy and Cowardice of Webb. – Vigilance of Stark. – Montcalm’s second Attack on Fort William Henry. – Surrender of the Garrison. – Perfidy of the French and Indians. – Destruction of Fort William Henry. – Brilliant Expedition under Abercrombie. – Visit to the Ruins of Fort George. – Storm upon Lake George. – Arrivals from Ticonderoga. – Departure from Caldwell. – Diamond Island. – Successful Expedition under Colonel Brown. – Long Point, Dome Island, and the Narrows. – Sabbath Day Point. – Skirmish in 1756. – Halt of Abercrombie’s Army. – Splendid Appearance of the Armament. – Skirmish at Sabbath Day Point, 1756. – Rogers’s Slide. – Narrow Escape of Major Rogers. – Prisoners’ Island. – Debarkation of British Troops. – A pleasant travelling Companion. – Trip from Lake George to Ticonderoga. – Topography of Ticonderoga. – The Fortress. – Its Investment by Abercrombie. – Bravery of Lord Howe. – Fight with the French, and Death of Howe. – Attack on Ticonderoga, and Defeat of the English. – Other Expeditions. – Siege and Capture of Louisburg. – Preparations for the Conquest of Canada. – Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.

VI.

Ticonderoga and its Associations. – Visit to the Ruins of the Fort. – A living Soldier of the Revolution. – Isaac Rice. – Position of Affairs in the Colonies at the beginning of 1775. – Secret Agent sent to Canada. – Report of the Secret Agent. – Plan formed in Connecticut to Capture Ticonderoga. – Expedition under Ethan Allen. – Expedition against Ticonderoga. – Arnold joins Allen at Castleton. – Dispute about Rank. – Surprise of the Garrison. – Interview between Allen and Delaplace. – Allen’s Order to surrender obeyed. – Trouble with Arnold about command. – Forbearance of the Colonists. – Consistent Course of their Delegates in Congress. – Various Addresses of the second Congress. – Military Preparations made by Congress. – The Continental Army. – Spirit of the People. – Ticonderoga. – Present Appearance of Fort Ticonderoga and Vicinity. – The Bakery. – Grenadiers’ Battery. – The floating Bridge. – View of the Ruins by Moonlight. – The old Patriot, his Memories and Hopes. – Trip to Mount Defiance. – Ascent of the Mountain. – An English Major and Provincial Subaltern. – View from the Top of Mount Defiance. – Mount Independence, Ticonderoga, the Lake, and the Green Mountains. – Crown Point and Ticonderoga invested by Burgoyne. – Material of his Army. – Weakness of the Garrison at Ticonderoga. – Outposts undefended. – Fort on Mount Independence. – Tardiness of Congress in supplying Men and Munitions. – Ticonderoga invested by the British. – Council of War in the American Camp. – The British on Mount Defiance. – Retreat of the Americans from Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. – Imprudence of Fermoy. – Pursuit by the Enemy. – Washington’s Recommendation of Arnold. – Acquittal of Schuyler and St. Clair of Blame. – Return to Ticonderoga. – Arrival at Whitehall or old Skenesborough. – Historical Notice of the Place. – Capture of Major Skene and his People. – Destruction of American Vessels at Skenesborough. – Flight of the Americans toward Fort Anne. – Major Skene. – Whitehall in 1814. – Ride to Fort Anne Village. – Site of the Fort. – Present Appearance of the Locality. – Putnam and Rogers near Fort Anne. – Ambush of French and Indians. – Desperate Battle. – Perilous Situation of Putnam. – Humanity of Putnam’s Captor. – Preparation for Torture. – Interposition of Molang. – Battle-ground near Fort Anne. – Battle near Fort Anne. – Return to Whitehall. – Visit to "Putnam’s Rock." – View of the Scene. – Putnam and Rogers on Lake Champlain. – Attack of the former on the French and Indians. – The Saratoga and Confiance. – Departure from Whitehall. – Sholes’s Landing. – Ride to the Battle-ground of Hubbardton. – Picturesque Scenery. – View of the Battle-ground. – The Battle. – Retreat and Surrender of Colonel Hale. – His reasonable Excuse. – Battle of Hubbardton. – Defeat of the Americans. – Death of Colonel Francis. – General Schuyler’s Forces at Fort Edward. – Return to Lake Champlain. – An old Soldier. – Mount Independence. – Present Appearance of Mount Independence. – Graves of Soldiers. – Vandalism. – Money-digging. – Return to Sholes’s. – Darkness on the Lake. – View from Sholes’s Landing.

VII.

Chimney Point. – First Settlement by the French. – Fort St. Frederic. – Distant View of Crown Point. – Visit to Crown Point. – Description of the Fortress. – Its present Appearance. – Proposed Attack on the French at Isle Aux Noix. – Approach of Winter. – Appearance of Crown Point. – Inscriptions. – Search for Treasure in the Well. – A venerable Money-digger. – Capture of Crown Point by the Patriots. – Seth Warner. – Expeditions of Allen and Arnold against St. John’s. – Preparations to oppose General Carleton on the Lake. – Commission from Massachusetts. – Re-enforcements for the Lake Forts. – Regiment of Green Mountain Boys. – General View of Affairs. – The "Canada Bill." – Opposition to it in Parliament. – Denunciations of Barré. – Passage of the "Canada Bill." – Effect of the Measure in the Colonies. – Boldness of Orators and the Press. – The British Government caricatured. – Carleton’s attempt to seduce the Bishop of Quebec. – Consistency of the Prelate. – Royal Highland Regiment, how raised. – Our Departure from Crown Point. – Split Rock. – War-feast on the Bouquet River. – Burgoyne’s Interview with the Indians. – Speech of an Iroquois. – Approach to Burlington. – Sabbath Morning in Burlington. – Visit to the Grave of Ethan Allen. – Ira Allen. – Burlington and Vicinity. – Adjacent Lake Scenery. – Place of Arnold’s first Naval Battle. – Military Operations on the Lake. – Formation of a little Fleet. – Excursion down the Lake. – Appearance of the British Fleet. – Plan of the Battle. – Severe Battle on the Lake. – Escape of the Americans through the British Line. – Chase by the Enemy. – Another Battle. – Bravery of Arnold on the Congress Galley. – Desperate Resistance. – Retreat to Crown Point. – Effect of the Battle. – Battle of Plattsburgh. – Military Remains. – Incidents of the Naval Battle. – Relic of Washington. – Rouse’s Point and Military Works. – The Territorial Line. – Isle Aux Noix. – Historical Associations. – St. John’s. – Custom-house Officer. – Suspicious of an Israelite. – Apparently treasonable Acts of leading Vermonters. – Military Remains at St. John’s. – Present Works. – Athenaise. – Approach of the Americans in 1775. – Advance of Montgomery against St. John’s. – Mutiny in the American Camp. – Operations at St. John’s. – Attack upon and Surrender of Fort Chambly. – Repulse of Carleton at Longueuil. – Surrender of St. John’s. – The Spoils. – Surrender of St. John’s. – Insubordination. – Retreat of the Americans out of Canada. – Rendezvous of Burgoyne’s Army at St. John’s. – Departure for Chambly. – French Canadian Houses, Farms, and People. – The Richelieu and its Rapids. – Chambly. – The Fort. – Beloeil Mountain. – Large Cross. – Francois Yest. – His Age and Reminiscences. – Temperance Pledge. – Ride to Longueuil. – A Caleche. – Ride in a Caleche. – Safe Arrival of my Companion. – An Evening Stroll. – Aurora Borealis.

VIII.

Montreal. – A Ride to the Mountain. – Interesting View. – Visit to the City Churches. – Parliament House. – Grey Nunnery. – The Grey Nuns at Prayer. – First Settlements at Montreal. – Cartier. – Jealousy of the Indians. – Montreal in 1760. – Captured by the English. – Ethan Allen in Canada. – Proposed Attack on Montreal. – Battle near Montreal. – Capture of Allen. – Brutality of Prescott. – Harsh Treatment of the Prisoners. – Biography of Allen. – Montgomery’s March upon Montreal. – Flight and Capture of Prescott. – Escape of Carleton. – Mutiny in Montgomery’s Camp. – Return Home of the Disaffected. – Visit to Longueuil. – The Village Oracle. – Fruitless Historical Research. – Arrival at Sorel. – Voyage down the St. Lawrence. – Morning View of Quebec. – The Walls of Quebec. – Situation of Quebec. – Early Settlements and Growth. – French Operations in America. – Approach of Wolfe to Quebec. – Position of Montcalm’s Army. – British Possession of Orleans and Point Levi. – Land near Montmorenci. – Junction of the English Division. – Severe Battle. – Wolfe disheartened. – Camp broken up. – Wolfe’s Cove. – Ascent of the English to the Plains of Abraham. – The Battle-ground. – Preparations for Battle. – Wolfe’s Ravine. – Battle on the Plains of Abraham. – Bravery and Death of Wolfe. – Death of Montcalm. – Burial-place of Montcalm. – Monument where Wolfe fell. – Capitulation of Quebec. – Levi’s Attempt to recapture it. – His Repulsion. – Capture of Montreal. – Collection of an Army near Boston. – Washington’s Appointment. – His Generals. – Expedition under Arnold planned. – Arrival at Fort Western. – Norridgewock Falls. – The Ancient Indians. – Father Ralle. – Fatiguing Portage. – Voyage up the Kennebec. – The Dead River. – Elevated Country. – A Freshet. – Return of Enos. – His Trial and Acquittal. – Lake Megantic and the Chaudière. – Perilous Voyage. – Narrow Escape. – Sertigan. – Timely Relief for the Troops. – Valley of the Chaudière. – Washington’s Manifesto. – Joined by Indians. – Arrival at Point Levi. – Incidents of the March.

IX.

American Army at Point Levi. – Alarm of the Canadians. – Storm on the St. Lawrence. – Passage of the Army. – Arnold’s Troops on the Plains of Abraham. – Expected Aid from within. – Arnold’s formal Summons to surrender. – Junction of Montgomery and Arnold. – Ineffectual Efforts against the Town. – Mutiny in the Camp. – Plan of Assault. – Montgomery’s Approach to Cape Diamond. – Opposing Battery. – His Charge upon the Battery. – His Death. – Arnold’s Operations. – Wounded. – Assailants led by Morgan. – Severe Fight. – Capture of Dearborn. – Loss of the Americans at Quebec. – Recovery and Burial of Montgomery’s Body. – His Life and Services. – Courtesy of Carleton. – Eminent Officers at Quebec. – Promotion of Arnold. – Blockade of Quebec. – Honor to the Memory of Montgomery. – Small-pox in the Army. – Preparations to storm Quebec. – Arrival and Death of General Thomas. – Temperance Cross. – French Canadian Children. – Falls of Montmorenci. – Island of Orleans. – Point Levi. – Quebec in the Distance. – Religious Edifices in Quebec. – The Citadel and the Walls. – View from Dalhousie Bastion. – Plains of Abraham. – Historical Localities at Quebec. – An alarmed Englishman. – Wolfe and Montcalm’s Monument. – Departure for Montreal. – A Fop’s Lesson. – Arrival at La Chine. – The Cascades. – Dangerous Voyage. – Moore’s Boat Song. – Junction of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence. – Cedars Rapids. – Garrison there in 1776. – Conduct of Bedell and Butterfield. – Massacre of Sherburne’s Corps. – Attempt of Arnold to release the Prisoners. – Menaces of the Indians. – Letter from Sherburne. – Dishonorable Conduct of a British Commander. – Washington’s Opinion. – Final Adjustment. – Cairn on the St. Lawrence. – St. Regis and its ancient Church. – Passage of Rapids. – Wind-mill Point and Ogdensburgh. – Loyalty of a British Veteran. – The "Patriots" of 1837. – Preparations for a Battle. – Fort Wellington. – Battle at Wind-mill Point. – Defeat of the "Patriots." – The Oswegatchie. – Old French Fort at Ogdensburgh. – Putnam’s Feats. – Testimony of History. – Capture of Fort Oswegatchie by the English. – Attacks upon Ogdensburgh by the British in 1812-13.

X.

Departure from Ogdensburgh. – The St. Lawrence and the Thousand Islands. – Kingston. – Fort Frontenac. – Its Capture by Colonel Bradstreet. – His Life. – Bradstreet’s Officers. – Lake Ontario. – Oswego. – Expedition of Frontenac. – Fort built by Governor Burnet. – Fort Niagara. – Description of Burnet’s Fort. – Erection of other Fortifications. – Fort Ontario. – Shirley’s Expedition against Niagara. – Remains of the "New Fort." – Shirley’s Preparations at Albany. – Montcalm’s Approach to Oswego. – Attack on the Works. – Surrender of the Forts and Garrison to Montcalm. – His Courtesy. – Destruction of the Forts. – St. Leger. – Mrs. Grant. – Willett’s Attempt to Capture Fort Oswego. – Oswego in 1798. – Attack upon Oswego in 1814. – Fort Oswego. – Result of the Battle in 1814. – Oswego at Present. – Major Cochran. – Dr. John Cochran. – Attempted Abduction of General Schuyler by Waltermeyer. – Alarm of the Family. – Narrow Escape of an Infant. – Robbery of General Schuyler’s House. – Retreat of the Marauders. – Abduction of other Patriots. – Mrs. Cochran. – Departure from Oswego. – The Genesee River. – Storm on the Lake. – Sea-sickness. – Fort Niagara. – Attack on Fort Niagara. – Stratagem of the French. – Traditions respecting the Fort. – A Refuge for Tories and Indians. –The Niagara River. – Events there of the War of 1812. – American Militia. – Brock’s Death. – His Monument. – Arrival at Niagara. – Falls Village. – View from Goat Island. – Biddle’s Tower. – Sublime Voyage in the "Maid of the Mist." – Buckingham’s Lines. – Voyage of the Maid of the Mist. – Romantic Marriage. – The Suspension Bridge. – Departure from the Falls. – A Day upon the Rail-Road. – Syracuse. – Early History of that Region. – The French. – Stratagem of a young Frenchman. – Escape of the French. – Early Explorations. – Monumental Stone. – Silver-bottomed Lake. – Rome. – Site of Fort Stanwix. – Forts Newport and Ball. – The Portage and Canal. – The Mohawk Valley. – Sir William Johnson and his Associates. – Effect of Political Movements upon the People. – Formation of Parties. – Violence of Loyalists. – Assault upon Jacob Sammons. – Caughnawaga Church. – Meeting at Cherry Valley. – John Johnson. – Attempted Removal of Mr. Kirkland. – Hostile Movements of the Johnsons. – Indian Councils. – Rev. Samuel Kirkland. – Alarm of the People of the Mohawk Valley. – Sir John Johnson and Highlanders. – Orders to General Schuyler. – Disarming of the Tories at Johnson Hall. – Perfidy of Sir John Johnson. – His Flight. – Royal Greens. – Repairs of Fort Stanwix. – Brant at Oghkwaga. – His hostile Movements. – Expeditions of Herkimer and of Colonel Harper. – Conference with Brant. – His Frankness. – Herkimer’s precautionary Measures. – Haughty Bearing of Brant. – Breaking up of the Council. – Grand Council at Oswego. – Seduction of the Indians. – Their Coalescence with the Whites.

XI.

Indian Battle-ground. – Fort Schuyler. – Colonel Peter Gansevoort. – A Spy’s Intelligence. – Rumored Preparations for an Invasion. – Effect on the Whigs. – Approach of St. Leger. – Investiture of Fort Schuyler. – A curious Flag. – Arrival of St. Leger. – His pompous Manifesto. – Siege of Fort Schuyler. – Operations of the Indians. – Visit to the Oriskany Battle-ground. – General Herkimer and the Militia. – Herkimer’s Advance to Oriskany. – Sortie from Fort Schuyler, under Colonel Willett. – Biographical Sketch of Willett. – Dispersion of Johnson’s Camp. – Capture of Stores and other Valuables. – View and Description of the Oriskany Battle-ground. – Indian Ambush. – Surprise of Herkimer and his Troops. – The General wounded. – His Coolness. – Desperate Battle. – Intermission in the Battle. – Its Resumption. – Unsuccessful Stratagem of Colonel Butler. – The Enemy routed. – Mutual Losses. – True Aim of History. – Capture of Billenger and Frey. – St. Leger’s Messengers. – Their Threats, Persuasions, and Falsehoods. – Reply of Colonel Willett to St. Leger’s Messengers. – St. Leger’s written Demand of Surrender. – Gansevoort’s Reply. – A Tory Address. – Continuation of the Siege. – Adventure of Willett and Stockwell. – Gansevoort’s Resolution. – Hon-Yost Schuyler. – His successful Mission to St. Leger’s Camp. – Arnold’s Proclamation. – Alarm of the Indians. – Flight of St. Leger’s Forces to Oswego. – The Spoils. – Amusement of the Indians. – End of the Siege. – Captain Gregg. – Return to Oriskany. – Whitesborough. – Utica. – Little Falls. – Visit to the German Flats. – Origin of the Name. – Stone Church, German Flats. – Its Pulpit. – The two Pastors. – Fort Herkimer, or Dayton. – Plan of Fort Herkimer. – Destruction of Andrustown. – Expedition against the German Flats. – Destruction of the Settlement. – Incursion of the Oneidas into the Unadilla Settlement. – Damage to the Tories. – Brant, or Thayendanegea. – Return to Little Falls. – Cole’s Pictures. – Scenery at Little Falls. – Evidences of a great Cataract. – Remarkable Cavity. – Gulf below Little Falls. – The Erie Canal. – Greatness of the Work. – An Indian Legend. – View of Little Falls. – First Settlement. – Night Attack upon the Settlement. – Escape of Cox and Skinner. – Ride to Danube. – Herkimer’s Residence. – His Family Burial-ground. – Public Neglect of the Grave. – Its Location. – Incidents of Herkimer’s Death. – Castle Church. – Residence and Farm of Brant. – Fort Plain. – Plan of the Fortification. – Fort Plain Block-house. – Trial of its Strength. – Invasion of the Settlement. – True Location of Fort Plain. – A Female’s Presence of Mind. – Burning of the Church. – Indians deceived. – Tardiness of Colonel Wemple.

XII.

Aspect of Affairs in Tryon County. – The Western Indians. – Girty and his Associates. – Fidelity of White Eyes. – Council at Johnstown. – Disposition of the Different Nations. – Colonel Campbell and La Fayette. – Forts strengthened. – Settlers of Tryon County. – Destruction of Springfield. – M‘Kean and Brant. – Battle in the Schoharie Country. – Arrival of Regulars. – Escape of Walter Butler. – Treachery of Great Tree. – Butler and Brant march toward Cherry Valley. – Colonel Alden warned. – Capture of American Scouts. – Mr. Dunlap. – Mr. Mitchell. – Destruction of the Settlement. – Treatment of Prisoners. – Butler’s Stratagem and Brant’s Humanity. – Character of Walter Butler. – The Settlements menaced. – Expedition against the Onondagas. – Destruction of their Towns. – Alarm of the Oneidas. – Expedition against Oswegatchie. – Attack on Cobleskill. – Scalping Parties. – Preparations to invade the Indian Country. – General Sullivan, Commander-in-chief. – General James Clinton. – Capture of Hare and Newberry. – Information from General Schuyler. – Mr. Deane. – Damming of Otsego Lake. – Its Effects. – March of Sullivan’s Expedition. – Fortifications of the Enemy. – General Edward Hand. – The Battle. – The Effect of the Artillery. – Retreat of the Enemy. – Destruction of Catharinestown and other Villages and Plantations. – Approach to Genesee. – Council of the Indian Villages. – A Battle. – Capture and Torture of Lieutenant Boyd. – Destruction of Genesee and the surrounding Country. – Picture of the Desolation. – Name given to Washington. – Corn Planter. – Return of the invading Army. – A Celebration. – Arrival of the Expedition at Wyoming. – The Oneidas driven from Home. – Johnson’s Incursions into the Schoharie Country. – Attack on the Schoharie Forts. – Boldness of Murphy. – Johnson’s March to Fort Hunter. – Destruction of Property. – Expedition of General Van Rensselaer. – Death of Colonel Brown. – Pursuit of Johnson by Van Rensselaer. – Inaction of the latter. – Battle of Klock’s Field. – Capture of some Tories. – Pursuit of Johnson and Brant. – Conduct of Van Rensselaer. – Capture of Vrooman and his Party. – Threatened Invasion. – Gloomy Prospect in the Mohawk Country. – Patriotism of Colonel Willett. – His Command of the Tryon County Militia.

XIII.

Changes in the Mohawk Country. – Present Aspect of the Mohawk Valley. – Fultonville. – Fonda. – Caughnawaga. – John Butler’s Residence. – Johnstown. – An Octogenarian. – Biography of Butler. – Johnson Hall. – Its Stair-case and Brant’s Hatchet Marks. – Progress of Western New York. – Only Baronial Hall in the United States. – Sir William Johnson and his Wives. – The Dutch Girl. – Molly Brant. – Sir William Johnson’s Diploma. – His Amusements and sudden Death. – Flight of Sir John. – His Invasion of the Valley in 1780. – Capture of the Sammons Family. – Cruelties and Crimes of the Invaders. – Johnson’s Retreat. – Recovery of his Negro and Plate. – Pursuit of Johnson. – Incursion of Ross and Butler. – Action of Willett. – Battle at Johnstown. – Adventures of the Sammonses. – Retreat of Ross and Butler. – Fight on West Canada Creek. – Death of Walter Butler. – Last Battle near the Mohawk. – Return to Fultonville. – The Sammons House. – Local Historians. – The departed Heroes. – The Kane House. – Dutch Magistrate and Yankee Peddler. – Currytown. – Jacob Dievendorff. – Indian Method of Scalping. – Attack on Currytown. – The Captives. – Expedition under Captain Gross. – Battle at New Dorlach, now Sharon Springs. – Death of Captain M‘Kean. – The Currytown Prisoners. – Dievendorff. – Sharon Springs. – Analysis of the Waters. – Arrival at Cherry Valley. – Judge Campbell and his Residence. – His Captivity. – Movements of Brant. – Brant deceived by Boys. – Death of Lieutenant Wormwood. – Shrewdness of Sitz. – "Brant’s Rock." – Morning Scene near Cherry Valley. – Light. – Departure for Albany. – Woodworth’s Battle. – Descent of Tories upon "Shell’s Bush." – Shell’s Block-house. – Capture of M‘Donald. – Luther’s Hymn. – Death of Shell and his Son. – Cessation of Hostilities. – Departure from Fort Plain. – Albany. – Hendrick Hudson. – Early History of Albany. – Fort Orange. – First Stone House. – The Church. – The Portrait of Hudson. – Kalm’s Description of Albany. – Its Incorporation. – Destruction of Schenectady. – Colonial Convention. – Walter Wilie. – Proceedings of the Colonial Convention. – Names of the Delegates. – Plan of Union submitted by Franklin. – Early Patriotism of Massachusetts. – Albany in the Revolution. – General Schuyler’s Mansion. – Return to New York.

XIV.

Departure for Wyoming. – Newark and its Associations. – The old Academy. – Trip to Morristown. – Arrival at Morristown. – Kimble’s Mountain. – Fort Nonsense. – September Sunset. – The "Head-quarters." – Spirit and Condition of the Continental Army. – Place of Encampment. – Free-masonry. – Inoculation of the Army. – Jenner. – Proclamation of the Brothers Howe. – Disappointment of the People. – Washington’s counter Proclamation. – Opposition to Washington’s Policy. – His Independence and Sagacity. – Good Effect of his Proclamation. – Winter Encampment at Morristown. – The Life-guard and their Duties. – Pulaski and his Cavalry. – Effect of Alarum Guns. – Sufferings and Fortitude of the Army. – Sterling’s Secret Expedition. – Extreme Cold. – Chevalier Luzerne. – Death of Miralles. – Mutiny at Morristown. – Excuses for the Movement. – Injustice toward the Soldiers. – Policy and Success of Wayne. – Final Adjustment of Difficulties. – Emissaries of Sir Henry Clinton. – Patriotism of the Mutineers. – Fate of the Emissaries. – Mutiny of the New Jersey Line. – Prompt Action of Washington. – Success of Howe. – Illustrations of Washington’s Character. – Prohibition of Gambling. – Washington’s religious Toleration. – Anecdote of Colonel Hamilton. – Room occupied by Washington. – View of an Eclipse of the Moon. – Reflections. – Finances of the Revolutionary Government. – Emission of Bills of Credit. – Continental Paper Money. – Form of the Bills. – Devices and Mottoes. – Paul Revere and cotemporary Engravers. – New Emissions of Continental Bills. – Plans for Redemption. – Counterfeits issued by the Tories. – First coined Money. – Depreciation of the Paper Money. – Confusion in Trade. – Foreign and Domestic Debt. – Specie Value of the Bills. – Unjust Financial Law. – Washington’s Deprecation of it. – Hopes of the Tories. – Cipher Writing of the Loyalists. – Charge against General Greene. – Excitement throughout the Country. – Riot in Philadelphia. – Convention at Hartford. – Battle-ground at Springfield. – Invasion by General Knyphausen. – Clinton’s Designs. – Plan of the Springfield Battle. – Washington deceived by Clinton. – Second Invasion under Knyphausen. – Disposition of opposing Troops. – The Battle. – Partial Retreat of the Americans. – Burning of Springfield. – Retreat of the Enemy. – Colonel Barber. – Connecticut Farms. – Murder of Mrs. Caldwell. – Her Murderer identified. – Timothy Meeker and his Sons. – His Idea of a Standing Army. – Burial-ground at Elizabethtown. – Caldwell’s Monument. – Dickinson’s Tomb. – Boudinot’s Vault. – Death of Mr. Caldwell. – Execution of his Murderer. – Mr. Caldwell’s Funeral. – His Orphan Family. – Old Elizabethport. – Ancient Tavern and Wharf. – Fortification of the Point. – Naval Expedition. – Franklin Stove. – Capture of a Provision Ship. – Privateering. – "London Trading." – "Liberty Hall." – Designs against Governor Livingston. – Scenes at "Liberty Hall." – Spirit of Governor Livingston’s Daughters. – Sketch of the Life of Livingston. – Arrival at Middlebrook. – Place of the Encampment of the American Army. – Howe’s Stratagem. – Skirmishes. – Clinton’s Operations in New Jersey. – Disposition of the American Forces. – Encampment at Middlebrook. – Pluckemin. – Steuben’s Head-quarters. – Recollections of Mrs. Doty. – Visit to the Camp-ground. – "Washington’s Rock." – View from it. – View from Washington’s Rock. – Another similar Rock at Plainfield. – Celebration at Pluckemin in 1779. – Incident at Pluckemin. – Departure from Middlebrook. – Somerville. – Incidents by the Way. – Arrival at Easton. – Sullivan’s Expedition. – Indian Council. – Whitefield and Brainerd.

XV.

Departure for Wyoming. – Nazareth. – Its Origin. – A chilling Mist. – Nap in the Coach. – Passage through the Wind-gap. – The great Walk. – Roscommon Tavern. – An Office-hunter. – Ascent of the Pocono. – The Mountain Scenery. – Solitude of the Region. – A Soldier Coachman. – First View of Wyoming. – A charming Landscape. – Arrival at Wilkesbarre. – Charles Minor, Esq. – His Picture of old Wyoming. – Ancient Beauty and Fertility of Wyoming. – Campbell’s "Gertrude of Wyoming." – Its Errors. – First Tribes in the Valley. – Count Zinzendorf. – Jealousy of the Indians. – Attempt to murder him. – Providential Circumstance. – Toby’s Eddy. – Zinzendorf’s Camp-ground. – Alienation of the Indians. – Gnadenhutten. – The Susquehanna Company. – Purchase of Wyoming. – The Delaware Company. – Opposition of Pennsylvanians. – Death of Teedyuscung. – Hostilities between the "Yankees" and "Pennymites." – Erection of Forts. – Capture of Durkee. – Surrender of Ogden. – Treatment of Ogden. – Another Attack on the Yankees. – Capture of Fort Durkee. – Pennymites Expelled. – New Fortifications. – Close of the Civil War. – Organization of a Government. – Effort to adjust Difficulties. – "Lawyers and Bull-frogs." – Peace and Prosperity of Wyoming. – Renewal of Hostilities. – Action of Congress. – Expedition of Plunkett. – The Colonies before the Revolution. – Indian Outrage. – Indian Speech. – Colonel Butler deceived. – Strangers in Wyoming. – Suspicions of the People. – The Wintermoots. – Erection of a Fort. – Counteraction of the old Settlers. – Affair on the Millstone River. – Alarm in Wyoming. – Condition of the Settlement. – Apathy of Congress. – Patriotism of Wyoming Women. – Approach of Indians and Tories. – Preparations for Defense. – Council of War. – Position of the Wyoming Forts. – Decision of the Wyoming People. – Preparations for Battle. – Forces of the Enemy. – Campbell’s Injustice toward Brant. – Disposition of the Belligerents for Battle. – Speech of Colonel Zebulon Butler. – The Attack. – Colonel Zebulon Butler. – Battle of Wyoming. – Denison’s Order mistaken. – Retreat of the Americans. – Scene at Monocasy Island. – Escape of Colonels Butler and Denison. – Cruelties of the Indians. – Scene at "Queen Esther’s Rock." – Queen Esther. – Cruelties of Queen Esther. – Scenes at Forty Fort. – Negotiations for a Surrender. – Escape of Colonel Zebulon Butler. – Surrender of the Fort. – Treaty Table. – Conduct of the Tories. – Bad Faith of the Indians. – The Treaty. – Flight of the People over the Pocono. – Incidents of the Flight. – Providential Aid of Mr. Hollenback. – Preservation of Papers. – Picture of the Flight. – Story of the Fugitives published at Poughkeepsie. – Errors of History. – Bad Faith of the Invaders. – Departure of the Invaders from the Valley. – Indian Cruelties. – Arrival of Succor. – Expedition against the Indians. – Return of Settlers. – Continued Alarm. – Murder of Mr. Slocum. – Sullivan’s Expedition. – Situation of Wyoming.

XVI.

Present Scenery in Wyoming. – Allusion to Campbell’s Farm. – Visit to Kingston and Forty Fort. – The "Treaty Table" at Forty Fort. – Site of the Fort. – Visit to the Monument. – Inscription upon it. – Efforts to erect the Wyoming Monument. – Success of the Ladies. – Incidents of the Battle. – The Inman Family. – Residence and Grave of Colonel Zebulon Butler. – Mr. Slocum and his Family History. – Abduction of his Sister. – Mrs. Slocum’s Presentiments. – A Foundling. – Disappointment. – Singular Discovery of the "lost Sister." – Interview between the "lost Sister" and her white Kindred. – Her Narrative. – Her Condition. – Children and Grandchildren. – A Sabbath in Wyoming. – Visit to Mrs. Myers. – Incidents of her Life. – Escape of her Father and Brother from Indians. – Revival of Civil War in Wyoming. – Decree of Trenton. – Its Effect. – Injustice toward the "Yankees." – Inaction of Congress. – Great Deluge in Wyoming. – Danger and Distress of the Inhabitants. – Reappearance of the Soldiers. – Renewal of Hostilities. – Armstrong’s Expedition. – Stratagem. – Change in Public Sentiment. – The Censors. – Appeal for Relief. – Luzerne. – Timothy Pickering in Wyoming. – Organization of the County. – Memoir of Pickering. – New Difficulties in Wyoming. – John Franklin. – Arrest of Franklin. – Ethan Allen. – Pickering’s Escape to Philadelphia. – His Return. – Abduction and Treatment. – Wyoming quieted. – Departure from Wyoming. – A Yankee Lumberman. – Carbondale. – The Coal Mines. – Fatal Accident. – Heroic Benevolence of Mr. Bryden. – Escape of Mr. Hosea. – Effects of the Concussion. – Entrance and Exploration of the Mine. – Interior Appearance. – Fossils. – Ascent from the Mine. – Night Ride. – A Grumbler. – Change in the Coal Region. – A Coach Load. – Result of Politeness. – Bad Coach and Driver. – Milford. – The Sawkill. – Delaware River and Valley. – Port Jervis. – The Neversink Valley. – Shawangunk Mountains. – Orange and Rockland.

XVII.

Poughkeepsie. – Origin of its Name. – Condition of the State in 1777. – Meeting of the Legislature at Kingston and Poughkeepsie. – State Convention. – Federal Constitution. – Ann Lee. – Huddlestone. – State Convention at Poughkeepsie. – Patriot Pledge. – Federal Constitution. – The Federalist. – The Livingston Mansion. – Henry A. Livingston, Esq. – Kingston, or Esopus. – Its Dutch Name. – Early Settlement at Kingston. – Indian Troubles. – The Huguenots. – Formation of the State Constitution. – Completion and Adoption of the Constitution. – Its Character. – Subsequent Constitutions. – Effects of a Mixture of Races. – Marauding Expedition up the Hudson. – Landing at Kingston. – Burning of the Town. – Rhinebeck Flats. – Livingston’s Manor. – An Advantage thrown away. – Gates’s Letter. – Loyalists. – Rondout. – An Octogenarian. – Landing-places of the British. – A frightened Dutchman. – Departure for the North. – Ride to the Hoosick Valley. – Van Schaick’s Mills. – Place of the Bennington Battle-ground. – Baume’s Dispatch. – Foraging Expedition to Bennington. – Burgoyne’s Instructions. – Baume’s Indian Allies. – Skirmish near Cambridge. – Measure for defending New Hampshire. – Langdon’s Patriotism. – Raising of Troops. – General Stark. – Stark’s Refusal to accompany Lincoln. – Censure of Congress. – The Result. – Movements to oppose Baume. – Life of Stark. – Preparations for Battle. – Disposition of the Enemy’s Troops. – English Plans of Battles. – Errors, and Difficulties in Correction. – Skirmishing in the Rain. – The Hessian Encampment. – A bellicose Clergyman. – Stark’s Promise and Fulfillment. – Commencement of the Battle of Bennington. – Terror and Flight of the Indians. – Victory for the Americans. – Second Battle. – Pursuit of the Enemy. – Loss in the Battle. – Stark’s Popularity. – Visit to the Battle-ground. – Anecdotes. – View of the Walloomscoick Valley. – Incident while Sketching. – Insurrection in that Vicinity. – Its Suppression. – Stark and Governor Chittenden. – End of the Insurrection. – Ride to Troy. – The Housatonic Valley. – Danbury.

XVIII.

Tryon’s Expedition to Danbury. – Trumbull’s "M‘Fingal." – Life of the Author. – Landing of the British at Compo. – Object of the Expedition. – Rising of the Militia. – Character of the People. – Enemy’s March to Danbury. – Entrance into the Village. – Anecdotes of Holcomb and Hamilton. – Officers’ Head-quarters. – Imprudence of some Citizens. – Retaliation of the British. – Destruction of Stores and of the Village. – Estimated Damage. – Revolutionary Men. – Levi Osborn. – Joel Barlow. – The Sandemanians. – Obscurity of Wooster’s Grave. – Resolves of Congress. – A centenarian Loyalist. – Treatment by his Neighbors. – Tory Guides. – Night Ride toward Ridgefield. – Return to Danbury. – Ridgefield. – Military Movements. – The British attacked by Wooster. – Return Fire. – Death of Wooster. – Sketch of his Life. – Approach of Arnold. – Barricade at Ridgefield. – Bravery of Arnold. – Narrow Escape. – March to Compo. – Skirmishes. – Erskine’s Maneuver. – The Connecticut Militia. – Action of Congress concerning Arnold. – Place where Wooster fell. – Relic of the Revolution. – Reading. – Threatened Mutiny there. – Putnam’s Speech. – Putnam at Greenwich. – Tryon’s Expedition to Horseneck. – Skirmish at Greenwich. – Defeat of the Americans. – Escape of Putnam. – Putnam’s Hill. – Its present Appearance. – Norwalk. – Fitch’s Point. – Landing of Tryon at Norwalk. – Destruction of the Village. – Conduct of Tryon. – Scenes at Darien Church. – Visit to Gregory’s Point. – The Cow Pasture. – Ancient Regulations. – Grummon’s Hill. – Nathaniel Raymond. – Time of Tryon’s Landing. – Departure from Norwalk. – New England Villages. – The Green at Fairfield. – Pequots. – Destruction of the Pequots. – Greenfield Hill. – Dwight’s Poem. – Journey to New Haven. – A Stroll to East Rock. – East Rock. – View from its Summit. – Quinnipiack. – Settlement of New Haven. – Organic Law of the New Haven Colony. – The "Regicides." – The Concealment. – Friendship of Davenport. – Narrow Escape. – Goffe at Hadley. – Colonel Dixwell. – Tomb-stones of the Regicides. – Stamp Act Proceedings. – Treatment of the Stamp-master. – Joy on the Repeal of the Act. – Patriotism of the People. – Boldness of Benedict Arnold. – March of Arnold and his Company to Cambridge. – Expedition under Tryon. – Landing of the Troops near New Haven. – Alarm in New Haven. – Bravery of the Militia. – Battle on Milford Hill. – West Bridge. – Death of Campbell. – Campbell’s Grave. – Entrance of the Enemy into New Haven. – Dr. Daggett and his Treatment. – Landing of Tryon. – Conduct of the Enemy. – People on East Rock. – Evacuation by the British. – Destruction of Fairfield. – Dwight’s Account of the Destruction of Fairfield. – Tryon’s Apology. – Extent of the Destruction. – The Buckley House. – Treatment of Mrs. Buckley. – Interference of General Silliman. – Humphrey’s Elegy on the Burning of Fairfield. – Tryon’s Retreat from Fairfield. – Journey resumed. – Return to New Haven. – Visit to West Bridge and other Localities. – The Cemetery. – Humphrey’s Monument. – The Grave of Arnold’s Wife. – Her Character. – Colonel Humphreys. – Arnold’s Disaffection. – Dr. Eneas Munson. – Death of Colonel Scammell. – His Epitaph by Humphreys. – Nathan Beers. – Yale College. – Its political Character in the Revolution. – A Tory Student.

XIX.

New England and its Associations. – Arrival at Hartford. – Continuation of the Storm. – First Settlement at Hartford. – First Meeting-house in Connecticut. – Government organized. – Union of New England Colonies. – Conjunction of New Haven and Connecticut Colonies. – James II. – Quo Warranto. – Governor Andross. – The "Charter Oak." – Concealment of the Charter. – Expulsion of Andross. – Accident at Hartford. – Washington’s Conference with Rochambeau. – Conference at the Webb House. – Its Object. – Junction of the allied Armies. – Attempt on New York. – Windsor. – Connecticut Historical Society. – Dr. Robbins’s Library. – Brewster’s Chest. – The Pilgrim Covenant. – Names of the Pilgrims. – Hand-writing of the Pilgrims. – Robinson’s short Sword. – Ancient Chair. – Putnam’s Tavern Sign. – Other interesting Relics. – The Connecticut Charter. – Ride to Wethersfield. – Arrival at Boston. – The May Flower. – Rise of the Puritans. – Bishops Hooper and Rogers. – Henry VIII. – Elizabeth. – Puritan Boldness. – Position of Elizabeth. – The Separatists. – Puritans in Parliament. – James I. – Robinson. – Character of the Puritan Pilgrims. – Preparations to sail for America. – Departure from Delfthaven. – The May Flower. – Exploration of the Coast. – Attacked by Indians. – First Sabbath of the Pilgrims in New England. – Landing on Plymouth Rock. – Founding of Plymouth. – Destitution and Sickness. – Death of Carver. – Election of Bradford. – Defiance of the Indians. – Condition of the Colony. – Further Emigration from England. – Winslow. – Standish. – Settlement of Weymouth. – Shawmut. – Settlement of Endicott and others at Salem. – Arrival of Winthrop. – Founding of Boston. – Progress of free Principles. – The Puritan Character. – Witchcraft. – English Laws on the Subject. – The Delusion in New England. – Effects of the Delusion. – Religious Character of the Puritans. – Mildness of their Laws. – The representative System. – Influx of Immigrants. – Trade of the Colony. – First coined Money. – Marriage of the Mint-master’s Daughter. – The Quakers’ Conduct and Punishment. – Origin of the Quakers. – Their Peculiarities. – Sufferings in America of those calling themselves Quakers. – Arrival of Andross. – His Extortions. – Revolution in England. – Government of Massachusetts. – Hostilities with the French. – First American Paper money. – Prowess of Colonial Troops. – The French and Indian War. – The Revolutionary Era. – First Step toward Absolutism. – Democratic Colonies. – Board of Trade. – Courts of Vice-admiralty. – Commercial Restrictions. – First Act of Oppression. – Colonial Claims to the Right of Representation. – The Right acknowledged. – Governor Burnet. – Wisdom of Robert Walpole. – Restraining Acts. – Loyalty and Patriotism of the Colonies. – Heavy voluntary Taxation. – Designs of the British Ministry. – Expenditures of the British Government on Account of America. – Accession of George III.

XX.

Death of George II. announced to his Heir. – Influence of the Earl of Bute. – Cool Treatment of Mr. Pitt. – Character of Bute. – His Influence over the King. – Discontents. – Resignation of Pitt. – Secret Agents sent to America. – Writs of Assistance. – Opposition. – James Otis. – Episcopacy designed for America. – Enforcement of Revenue Laws. – Resignation of Bute. – Grenville Prime Minister. – Opposition to Episcopacy. – The Stamp Act proposed. – Right to tax the Americans asserted. – Stamp Act not new. – Postponement of Action on it. – Opposition to Taxation by the Colonies. – Instructions to their Agents. – The Stamp Act introduced in Parliament. – Townshend. – Barré’s Speech rebuking Townshend. – His Defense of the Americans. – Effect of his Speech. – Passage of the Stamp Act. – Excitement in America. – A Congress proposed. – The Circular Letter of Massachusetts. – Mrs. Mercy Warren. – Assembling of a Colonial Congress in New York. – Defection of Ruggles and Ogden. – The Proceedings. – Stamp-masters. – Franklin’s Advice to Ingersoll. – Arrival of the Stamps. – Patrick Henry’s Resolutions. – "Liberty Tree." – Effigies. – Riot in Boston. – Destruction of private Property. – Attack on Hutchinson’s House. – Destruction of "Liberty Tree." – Destruction of Governor Hutchinson’s Property. – Character of the Rioters in Boston. – "Constitutional Courant." – Proceedings in Boston in Relation to the Stamp Act. – Effigies burned. – Effect of the Stamp Act. – Non-importation Associations. – The Non-importation Agreements. – Rockingham made Prime Minister. – Apathy in Parliament. – Domestic Manufactures. – Meeting of Parliament. – Speeches of Pitt and Grenville. – Boldness of Pitt. – Proposition to repeal the Stamp Act. – Position of Lord Camden. – Repeal of the Stamp Act. – Causes that effected it. – Rejoicings in England and America. – Rejoicing in Boston. – Release of Prisoners for Debt. – Pyramid on the Common. – Poetic Inscriptions. – Hancock’s Liberality. – Liberality of Otis and others. – The Rejoicings clouded. – New Acts of Oppression. – Insolence of Public Officers. – Pitt created Lord Chatham. – Picture of his Cabinet by Burke. – New Scheme of Taxation. – Commissioners of Customs. – Fresh Excitement in the Colonies. – Increasing Importance of the Newspapers. – "Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer." – Honors to John Dickenson. – Massachusetts’s Circular Letter. – Boldness of Otis and Samuel Adams. – The "Rescinders." – Treatment of a Tide-waiter. – Seizure of the Sloop Liberty. – Excitement of the People. – Public Meeting in Boston. – Attempted Bribery of Patriots. – Soundness of their Principles. – Proposed Convention in Boston. – Organization of the Meeting. – Governor Bernard’s Proclamation. – Meeting of the Convention. – Arrival of Troops at Boston. – Origin of Yankee Doodle. – Landing of the Troops. – Imposing Military Display. – Exasperation of the People. – Non-importation Associations. – The Duke of Grafton. – The King’s Speech, and the Response. – Proposed Re-enactment of a Statute of Henry VIII. – Lord North. – Colonel Barré’s Warnings. – General Gage in Boston. – No Co-operation. – Dissolution of Assemblies. – Bernard. – Departure of Governor Bernard for England. – Effect of the Non-importation Agreements. – Hillsborough’s Circular Letter.

XXI.

Secret Workings of the Spirit of Liberty. – Brief Review. – Alternative of the Colonies. – The Newspaper Press. – Bickerstaff’s Boston Almanac. – Explanation of its Frontispiece. – Revival of the Terms "Whig" and "Tory." – Abuse of Mr. Otis. – Massachusetts Song of Liberty. – Evasion of the Non-importation Agreements. – Tea proscribed. – Spirit of the Women. – Spirit of the Boys. – Fracas at the Door of a Merchant. – Death of a Boy. – Its Effect on the Public Mind. – Pardon of the Murderer. – Riot in Boston. – Attack of the Mob upon the Soldiers. – Discharge of Musketry. – Three of the Citizens killed. – Terrible Excitement in Boston. – Delegation of Patriots before the Governor. – Boldness of the second Committee. – Concessions. – Removal of the Troops. – Defense of the Soldiers by Adams. – Result of the Trial. – New Ministerial Proposition. – Its Effects upon the Colonies. – James Otis. – The Boston Patriots. – Hutchinson made Governor. – His asserted Independence of the Assemblies. – Further Agitation in Boston. – Committees of Correspondence. – Letters of Hutchinson and others. – Petition for their Removal. – Franklin before the Privy Council. – Wedderburne’s Abuse. – Franklin’s Vow. – New Taxation Scheme. – East India Company. – Tea Ships sail for America. – Preparation for their Reception at Boston. – Treatment of the Consignees. – Hand-bills and Placards. – Arrival of Tea Ships. – Proceedings in Boston. – Monster Meeting at the "Old South." – Speech of Josiah Quincy. – Close of Quincy’s Speech. – Breaking up of the Meeting. – Destruction of Tea in the Harbor. – Apathy of Government Officials. – East India Company the only Losers. – Quiet in Boston. – A Smuggler punished. – Names of Members of the "Tea Party." – Age of Mr. Kinnison. – Events of his Life. – Escape from Wounds during the Wars. – Subsequent personal Injuries. – No Knowledge of his Children. – His Person and Circumstances. – Speech at a "Free Soil" Meeting. – G. R. T. Hewes. – Character and Patriotism of Hewes. – His Death. – Excitement in Parliament in Consequence of the Boston Tea Riot. – The Boston Port Bill proposed and adopted. – Debates in Parliament. – Apparent Defection of Conway and Barré. – Burke. – Opposition in Parliament to the Boston Port Bill. – Passage of the Bill. – Goldsmith’s "Retaliation." – Epitaph for Burke. – Other oppressive Acts of Parliament. – Madness of Ministers. – Warnings of the Opposition unheeded. – The "Quebec Act." – Proceedings in Massachusetts on Account of the Port Bill. – Recall of Hutchinson. – Division of Sentiment. – Quebec Act. – Arrival of General Gage in Boston. – Meeting in Faneuil Hall. – Excitement among the People. – Newspaper Devices. – Real Weakness of the British Ministry. – Newspaper Poetry. – The Snake Device.

XXII.

General Gage at Boston. – Proceedings of the Massachusetts Assembly. – Proposition for a General Congress. – Boldness of the Patriots. – Attempt to Dissolve the Assembly. – The "League." – Appointment of Delegates to a Continental Congress. – Denunciation of the "League." – Closing of the Port of Boston. – Peaceable Resistance of the People. – Preparations for War. – Recantation of the Hutchinson Addressors. – Spirit of the American Press. – Zeal of the Committees of Correspondence. – Their importance. – Fortification of Boston Neck. – Attempted Seizure of Arms and Ammunition at Cambridge. – Alarm concerning Boston. – Convention in Boston. – Revolutionary Town Meetings. – Order for Convening the Assembly countermanded. – Meeting of the Assembly. – Appointment of Committees of Safety and Supplies. – Appointment of military Officers. – Spiking of Cannons. – Efforts of Franklin and others. – Counteraction by Adam Smith and others. – Proceedings in Parliament. – Appearance of Pitt in Parliament. – His Speech on American Affairs. – His conciliatory Proposition. – Virtual Declaration of War against the Colonies. – Warm Debates in Parliament. – Chatham and Franklin. – Gibbon and Fox. – John Wilkes in Parliament. – His Character and Career. – Bill for destroying the New England Fisheries. – A conciliatory Bill. – Singular Position of Lord North. – His Triumph. – Action of the London Merchants. – The moral Spectacle in the Colonies. – Carrying Ammunition out of the City. – Detection. – Hostile Movements of Gage. – Counteraction of the Whigs. – British Expedition to Concord. – Its Discovery by the Americans. – Lexington aroused. – Midnight March of the Enemy. – The British Troops and Minute Men at Lexington. – Conduct of Major Pitcairn. – Battle on Lexington Common. – The Concord People aroused. – Assembling of the Militia. – Concord taken Possession of by the Enemy. – Colonel Barrett. – Destruction of Property in Concord. – Rapid Augmentation of the Militia. – Preparations for Battle. – March toward the Bridge. – Battle at Concord Bridge. – Retreat of the British to the Village. – The Scalping Story explained. – Retreat of the Enemy from Concord. – Their Annoyance on the Road by the Militia. – Re-enforcement from Boston. – Junction of the Troops of Percy and Smith. – Their harassed Retreat to Charlestown. – Skirmish at West Cambridge. – British Encampment on Bunker Hill. – Quiet the next Day. – General Effect of these Skirmishes. – Unity of the American People. – Massachusetts Provincial Congress. – Accounts of the Battles sent to England. – Excitement in London. – Government Lampooned. – List of the Names of the first Martyrs.

XXIII.

Preparations for Raising an Army in Massachusetts. – Zeal of the Committee of Safety. – Circular of the Provincial Congress. – Army collected at Boston. – Organization of the Troops. – Preparations to Besiege the City. – Issue of Paper Money. – Gage’s Restrictions. – Gloomy Prospects of the People of Boston. – Arrangements with the Selectmen. – Perfidy of Gage. – Benevolence of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts. – Efforts of other Colonies. – Organization of the Army. – Increase of British Troops in Boston. – Arrival of experienced Officers. – Operations in the Vicinity. – American Military Works. – Disposition of the American Troops. – Preparations for Blockading Boston. – Charlestown and adjacent Grounds. – Night March to Bunker and Breed’s Hill. – A Fortification planned on Bunker Hill. – British Vessels in Boston Harbor. – Construction of the Redoubt on Breed’s Hill. – Discovery of the Works by the Enemy. – Surprise of the People of Boston. – Cowardice of the Tories. – Crossing of a British Force from Boston to Charlestown. – Bravery of Prescott. – New England Flag. – Excitement in Cambridge. – Re-enforcements for both Parties. – Sufferings of the Provincials. – Warren and Pomeroy. – March of the British toward the Redoubt. – Position of the American Troops. – Cannonade of the Redoubt. – The British Artillery. – Silence of the Americans. – Terrible Volleys from the Redoubt. – Flight of the Enemy. – Burning of Charlestown. – Second Repulse of the British. – Re-enforced by Clinton. – Ammunition of the Americans exhausted. – Death of Colonel Gardner. – Third Attack of the British. – Storming of the Redoubt. – Death of Warren and Pitcairn. – Confusion of the Americans. – Efforts of Putnam to Rally them. – Cessation of the Battle. – The Loss. – Spectators of the Battle. – Reflections on the Battle. – Burgoyne’s Opinion of the Conflict. – The Character of Warren. – The Energy, Boldness, and Patriotism of Warren. – Masonic Honors to his Memory. – The old Monument on Breed’s Hill. – Character of the Troops engaged in the Battle on Breed’s Hill. – Monument to Warren ordered by Congress.

XXIV.

Boston Common. – Trip to Concord. – Major Barrett. – His Connection with the Revolution. – Concealment of Stores at Concord. – Concord Monument. – The Village. – Ride to Lexington. – The Lexington Monument. – The "Clark House" and its Associations. – Tradition of the Surprise. – Abijah Harrington. – Incidents of the Battle at Lexington. – Jonathan Harrington and his Brother. – Anniversary Celebration at Concord in 1850. – Ride to Cambridge. – Early History of the Town. – Washington’s Head-quarters. – Description of Washington’s Head-quarters at Cambridge. – Phillis, the black Poet. – Washington’s Letter to Phillis. – The "Riedesel House." – Description of the Place by Baroness Riedesel. – Attestation of the genuineness of Phillis’s Poetry. – Autograph of Riedesel. – The "Washington Elm." – Bunker Hill Monument. – Desecration of the Spot. – Description of Bunker Hill Monument. – View from its Chamber. – Its Construction and Dedication. – "Hancock" and "Adams." – View from Bunker Hill Monument. – The Past and the Present. – Dorchester Heights. – Condition of the Fortifications. – Mementoes of John Hancock. – The State House. – Chantrey's Washington. – Copp's Hill. – The Mather Tomb. – Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. – Colonial and other Relics. – Departure from Boston. – Appointment of a Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. – Washington’s acceptance of the Office. – His Modesty. – Departure of Washington for the Camp. – Reception at New York, Watertown, and Cambridge. – Takes Command of the Army. – Council of War. – Character of the Army. – Punishments. – Riflemen. – Number of Troops in the Field. – A model Order. – Arrangement of the Army. – Location of the several Divisions. – Officers of the same. – General Joseph Spencer. – Relative Position of the belligerent Armies. – American Fortifications. – Emerson’s Picture of the Camp. – Action of Congress. – Treason of Dr. Church. – The New England Colonies. – Franklin’s Post-office Book. – The belligerent Armies at Boston. – Skirmishes and other hostile Movements. – Naval Operations on the Coast. – Navy Boards. – Capture of Ammunition. – Attempt to seize Manly. – Repulse of Linzee. – Scarcity of Powder. – Expected Sortie. – Fortifications on Plowed Hill. – Heavy Bombardment. – Condition of Troops and People in Boston. – American Hand-bills in the British Camp. – Opinions concerning the Provincials. – Plan for relieving Boston. – Council of War. – Situation of the Army. – Washington’s Complaints. – Gage recalled. – His Life and Character. – Loyal Address to Gage. – Superiority of Howe. – Fortifications in Boston. – The "Old South" described. – Officers frightened. – Harsh Measures, and Retaliation. – Congress Committee at Head-quarters. – Little Navy organized. – Floating Batteries. – Vessels of War authorized by Congress. – Letters of Marque and Reprisal. – Condition of the Army before Boston.

XXV.

First unfurling of the Union flag. – Return of Colonel Knox, with heavy artillery. – Plan of Attack on Boston. – Re-enforcement of the Army. – Council of War. – Number of the Troops. – Situation of Washington. – Condition of the British Troops in Boston. – A Farce and its Termination. – Bombardment of Boston. – Industry of the Patriots. – Astonishment of the British. – Insecurity of the Fleet and Army. – Preparations for Bombarding Boston. – Condition of the Patriots in Boston. – Tacit Agreement to spare the Town. – Cannonade renewed. – Commission to plunder. – Bad Conduct of the British Troops. – The Embarkation. – Entrance of the Americans into the City. – The Refugees. – Condition of Boston after the Evacuation. – Troops sent to New York. – Lingering of British Vessels. – Final Departure. – Capture of Campbell and Store-ships. – Effect of the Evacuation of Boston. – Medal awarded to Washington. – Denunciations by John Wilkes. – The King teased. – Boldness of the Common Council. – Governor Penn. – John Horne Tooke. – Strength of the Americans. – Political Change in the London Common Council. – Persecution of Stephen Sayre. – Tenor of the King’s Speech. – His false Hopes. – Warm Debates in Parliament. – Duke of Grafton in opposition. – The Colonies placed under Martial Law. – Augmentation of the Army and Navy. – Proposition to employ foreign Troops. – Reasons for employing German Troops. – Opposition to it in Parliament. – Terms on which the Mercenaries were hired. – Parliament alarmed by a Rumor. – French Emissary in Philadelphia. – Official Announcement of the Evacuation of Boston. – Royal Approval of Howe’s Course. – Opinions of the People. – Position of the Colonies. – Count Rumford. – Fortifications. – Boston Harbor. – Remains of the Revolutionary Fortifications around Boston. – The "Convention Troops." – Their Parole of Honor. – Picture of the Captives. – Burgoyne in Boston. – Expedition against Penobscot. – Its Failure. – General Phillips. – General Wadsworth. – Close of the Chronicles of Boston.

XXVI.

Departure from Boston. – Scenery on the Route. – Cochituate. – The Quinebaug. – Traditions of the Mashapaug. – Arrival at Norwich. – A literary Friend. – Indian History of Norwich. – Uncas and Miantonomoh. – Surrender of Miantonomoh to the English. – Unjust Decision. – Murder of Miantonomoh. – Settlement of New London. – Settlement of Norwich. – Mohegan Cemetery. – Uncas’s Monument. – Revolutionary Spirit. – Owaneko. – Norwich Liberty Tree. – Celebration under it. – Honors to John Wilkes. – Patriotic Town Meeting. – Benevolence of the People. – March of Militia to Boston. – General Huntington. – The French Officers. – Benjamin Huntington. – A precious Heir-loom. – The Road to Lebanon. – Bozrah and Fitchville. – Situation of Lebanon. – Governor Trumbull. – Character and Services of Governor Trumbull. – His Dwelling and War Office. – Settlement of Lebanon. – Lauzun. – The Alden Tavern. – General Prescott horsewhipped there. – The Williams House. – The Trumbull Vault. – Return to Norwich. – Destruction of the Yantic Falls. – Birth-place of Arnold. – Inscription upon the Trumbull Monument. – Arnold’s early Years. – Attempt to commit Murder. – A Ringleader in Mischief. – His Mother. – Scorching Acrostic. – Residence of Governor Huntington. – Unpublished Letter written by Washington. – Family Vault of Governor Huntington. – Tomb of General Jabez Huntington. – His five Sons. – The old Burying-ground. – Captain Perkins. – Old Men of Norwich. – Greenville. – Tory Hill. – Letter of General Williams. – New London. – Its Settlement. – Fortifications. – The Harbor. – Revolutionary Movements. – Forts Griswold and Trumbull. – Prizes. – Clinton’s Designs. – Arnold’s Expedition. – Naval Force of Connecticut. – Landing of the Enemy. – March toward New London. – Destruction of the Town. – Property destroyed. – "Fire Lands." – Infamy of Arnold. – Attack on Fort Griswold. – Its Defense and Capture. – Murder of Colonel Ledyard. – Cruelties at Fort Griswold. – Fanny Ledyard. – Departure of the Enemy. – Events in 1813. – Arnold’s Dispatches. – The Groton Monument. – Inscription upon it. – Ascent of its Stair-case. – View from the Top. – A retrospect. – The Pequots. – English Expedition against them. – Attack on their Fort. – Pequot Hill. – Destruction of the Fort. – Terrible Massacre. – Departure of the English. – Another Invasion. – Destruction of the Pequots. – Mrs. Anna Bailey. – Her Husband at Fort Griswold. – Her Mementoes and her Politics. – Mrs. Bailey’s Patriotism. – Landing-place of Arnold. – Bishop Seabury’s Monument. – First Printing in Connecticut.

XXVII.

Voyage to Rhode Island. – Stonington. – Arrival at Providence. – Roger Williams’s Rock. – "Water Lots." – Proposed Desecration. – Arrival of Roger Williams. – His Character. – Narrow Views of the old Puritans. – Zeal of Roger Williams. – Disturbance at Salem. – Williams arraigned for Treason. – Banishment of Roger Williams. – Flight to the Seekonk. – Landing at Providence. – Commencement of a Settlement. – Williams’s Negotiations with the Indians. – Ingratitude of the Massachusetts Colony. – March of the French Army to Providence. – The French Troops at Providence. – Site of the Encampment. – Remains. – Departure of the French from Boston. – Governor Cooke’s Monument. – La Fayette’s Head-quarters. – Roger Williams’s Spring. – Old Tavern in Providence. – Its Associations. – Destruction of Tea in Market Square. – Rhode Island Historical Society. – Valuable Manuscripts. – A telescopic Peep at the Moon and Stars. – Bryant’s "Song of the Stars." – Voyage to Gaspee Point. – The Gaspee. – Conduct of her Commander. – Sketch of Gaspee Point. – Governor Wanton. – Montague’s insolent Letter. – Wanton’s Rejoinder. – Captain Lindsey’s Packet chased by the Gaspee. – Grounding of the Gaspee. – Expedition against the Gaspee. – Her Destruction. – Efforts to discover the Incendiaries. – The Commissioners. – Return to Providence. – Visit to Mr. John Howland. – His military Career in the Revolution. – Departure for Newport. – Appearance of Rhode Island. – Old Tower at Newport. – Mansion of Governor Gibbs. – Old Tower at Newport. – Its former Appearance. – Attempt to destroy it. – Obscurity of its Origin. – First Wind-mill at Newport. – Inquiries respecting the Tower. – "Antiquitates Americana." – Inscription on Dighton Rock. – Prescott’s Head-quarters in Newport. – Old Cemetery. – Perry’s Monument. – Runic Inscriptions elsewhere. – ’Tonomy Hill. – Hubbard’s House and Mill. – Inscription on Perry’s Monument. – Oppression of the Whigs by Prescott. – View from ’Tonomy Hill. – Mrs. Hutchinson and Sir Henry Vane. – Persecution of Mrs. Hutchinson and her Friends. – Settlement of Rhode Island. – Its first Constitution. – Royal Charter. – Toleration in Rhode Island. – Separation and Reunion of the Plantations. – Newport. – Destruction of the Sloop Liberty. – Admiral Wallace in Narraganset Bay. – Disarming of the Tories. – Skirmish in the Harbor. – Engagement at Sea. – Continued Hostilities in Newport Harbor. – Privateers. – Arrival of a large British Force. – Conduct of the Enemy.

XXVIII.

Condition of Rhode Island in 1777. – Re-encampment of the British. – General Prescott. – His Character. – Bad Conduct of General Prescott. – Colonel Barton’s Plan for capturing him. – Biographical Sketch of Barton. – Expedition to capture Prescott. – Prescott’s Quarters. – A Sentinel deceived. – Names of Barton’s Men. – Entrance to Prescott’s Room. – Seizure of the General and his Aid-de-camp. – Barton rewarded by Congress. – Predatory Excursions. – French Fleet for America. – Count d’Estaing. – France and England. – Excitement in Parliament. – The King’s Speech. – Boldness of the Opposition. – The British and French Fleets. – Sandy Hook and Amboy Bay. – General Spencer’s Expedition against Rhode Island. – His Resignation. – French Fleet off Newport. – American Land Forces. – Destruction of British Vessels. – Landing of Americans on Rhode Island. – Naval Battle. – Great Storm. – State of the American Troops. – Refusal of the French to co-operate. – They sail for Boston. – Protests. – Retreat of the Americans to Butts’s Hill. – Battle of Quaker Hill. – Scene of the Engagement. – Loss of the Belligerents. – Evacuation of Rhode Island by the Americans. – Return of La Fayette from Boston. – Expedition against New Bedford. – Murmurings against the French. – Evacuation of Rhode Island by the British. – Severe Winter. – Sir Robert Pigot. – Return of La Fayette to France. – His Zeal and Success. – Washington appointed Lieutenant-general by the French King. – Good Tidings brought by La Fayette. – Their effect. – Arrival of the Allies. – Encampment at Newport. – British Blockade of Narraganset Bay. – Clinton’s Expedition. – Death of Ternay. – Washington in Newport. – Property destroyed in Newport. – Ride to Butts’s Hill. – Hospitality. – Fort on Butts’s Hill. – View of the Battle-ground. – North View from Butts’s Hill. – The Narraganset Country. – Massasoit and his Sons. – King Philip. – Jealousy of King Philip. – Treaties with the Whites. – Curtailment of his Domains. – His chief Captains. – John Eliot. – Enlightenment of the Indians. – Sassamon. – Rising of the New England Tribes. – Daniel Gookin. – Philip’s Appeal. – Condition of the Indians. – Commencement of Hostilities. – Canonchet. – Mather’s Magnalia. – Indian Method of Warfare. – Destruction of New England Villages. – Terrible Retaliation by the Whites. – Decimation of the Indians. – Strifes among them. – Philip a Fugitive. – His Death. – His Son. – Captain Church. – Sufferings of the Colonists. – A Happy Change. – Capture of the Pigot by Talbot. – Promotion of Talbot. – Departure from Newport. – Adieu to New England. – Halleck’s "Connecticut."

XXIX.

The Hudson Highlands. – Newburgh. – The Indian Summer. – Its character. – The "Hasbrouck House" and Vicinity. – Its interior construction. – Purchased by the State. – Ceremonies at its Dedication. – Washington’s Dining-hall. – Anecdote concerning it. – Lady Washington’s Gardening. – Settlement of Newburgh. – First Settlements in Orange County. – Indian Wars. – Sufferings of the People. – Attack on Minisink. – Intemperate zeal of the Volunteers. – Unwise Decision. – Battle of Minisink. – Its Location. – The Massacre. – Brant’s Defense. – Effect of the Massacre. – Salvation of Major Wood. – Interment of the Remains of the Slain. – Monument. – Cantonment of the Army near Newburgh. – Head-quarters of the Officers. – Nicola’s Proposition to Washington. – Washington’s Letter of Rebuke to Nicola. – Patriotism of the Chief. – Discontents in the Army. – Memorial to Congress. – Resolutions of Congress respecting Claims. – The Army still dissatisfied. – Action of the Officers. – Major Armstrong. – Meeting of Officers privately called. – Anonymous Address to the Army. – Dangerous Tendency of its Recommendations. – Bold Tone of the Address. – Similar Opinions held by Hamilton. – Washington’s Counteraction. – Second anonymous Address. – Meeting called by Washington. – Major Burnet’s Recollections. – Washington’s Address to the Officers. – Washington’s Address. – Action of the Meeting of Officers. – A strong Resolution. – Record of Proceedings sent to Congress. – Washington’s Opinion of Armstrong’s Motives. – His farewell Address. – Washington’s Tour to the Northern Battle Fields. – Called to Princeton. – A Statue ordered by Congress. – General Clinton. – A very little Maiden. – Her Dignity. – Plum Point. – Fortifications there. – An Acrostic. – Redoubt on Plum Point. – Chevaux-de-frise. – Anecdote. – Head-quarters of Greene and Knox. – Ball at the Quarters of Greene and Knox. – Signatures of young Ladies. – Washington on Dancing. – The Square. – A Spy in the American Camp. – Dispatch in a silver Bullet. – Name and Fate of the Spy. – Site and probable Form of the Temple. – The Camp Ground and Vicinity. – The Temple as described by Major Burnet. – Two living Patriots. – Visit to Major Burnet. – Public Life of Major Burnet and Sergeant Knapp. – Washington’s Letter to Greene. – The Commander-in-chief’s Guard. – Its Organization, Character, and Uniform. – Its Officers. – Sergeant Knapp. – Return to Newburgh. – Departure for Fishkill. – Return of the Commander-in-chief’s Guard. – Fishkill Village. – The "Wharton House." – Enoch Crosby. – The "Spy Unmasked." – Exploits of Enoch Crosby. – Incidents of his Life. – Ancient Dutch Church. – Fishkill Village. – Escape of Crosby. – His Exploits at Teller’s Point. – A very old Man and rejected Lover. – Trinity Church. – Printing of the first Constitution of the State of New York. – Head-quarters of Baron Steuben. – Anecdote of the Baron. – The Society of Cincinnati. – Final Proceedings in the Organization of the Institution. – Plan and Name of the Society of Cincinnati. – The Constitution. – Opposition of Judge Burke and others. – Certificate of Membership of the Cincinnati. – The Design and Engraving. – Alteration of the Plate. – The Order of the Society. – The successive Presidents General. – Departure for West Point.

XXX.

West Point and its Associations. – Mrs. Faugeres. – Sufferings of Mrs. Bleecker. – Scenery around West Point. – The Military Establishment. – Wood’s Monument. – Interesting Relics. – Size of the Mortars and Chain. – Position of the Chain in the River. – Other Relics. – Kosciuszko’s Monument. – Kosciuszko’s Garden. – Other Localities. – Fort Arnold. – Fort Putnam. – View from the Ruins of Fort Putnam. – Names of the Highland Peaks. – Drake’s "Culprit Fay." – Fortifications in the Highlands ordered. – Action of the New York assembly. – Fort Constitution. – New Forts in the Highlands proposed. – West Point selected. – Radière and other Engineers from France. – West Point in 1780. – Construction of the great Chain. – History of the Work. – Map of West Point. – The Chain weakened by Arnold. – Importance of West Point. – Establishment of the Military Academy there. – Forts Webb, Wyllys, and Putnam. – Visit to Constitution Island. – Remains of Fort Constitution. – Buttermilk Falls. – A venerable Boatman. – Beverly Dock and Robinson House. – Arnold’s Willow. – Arnold in Philadelphia. – His Extravagance. – Marriage with Miss Shippen. – Memoir of Beverly Robinson. – Arnold’s Residence and Style of Living. – His fraudulent Dealings. – Charge of Malfeasance preferred against him. – Arnold ordered to be tried by a Court Martial. – His Trial, Verdict, and Punishment. – Its Effects. – Arnold’s Interview with Luzerne. – His Wife and Major Andrè. – Sympathy of Schuyler and Livingston. – Arnold’s Visit to the American Camp. – Washington Deceived by him. – Obtains the Command at West Point. – Correspondence of Arnold and Andrè. – Proposed Plan of the British to gain Possession of West Point. – Andrè appointed to confer with Arnold. – An Interview proposed by the Traitor. – Letter to Colonel Sheldon. – Effect of Andrè’s Letter to Sheldon. – Arnold’s attempted Interview with Andrè. – His Letter to Washington. – Joshua H. Smith. – Further arrangements for an Interview. – Arnold’s Correspondence with Beverly Robinson. – Washington on his Journey. – Washington again deceived by Arnold’s Duplicity. – Smith employed to bring Andrè from the Vulture. – His Difficulties. – Refusal of the Colquhons to accompany Smith. – Final Compliance. – Landing of Andrè and his first Interview with Arnold. – Arrival of the Conspirators at Smith’s House. – The Vulture fired upon. – Plan of Operations arranged. – Colonel Livingston. – The Papers taken from Andrè’s Boot. – "Artillery Orders." – Forces at West Point. – Villefranche’s Estimate. – Return of the Ordnance in the different Forts at West Point. – Arnold’s Description of the Works. – Arnold’s Pass. – Smith’s Refusal to take Andrè back to the Vulture. – His insufficient Excuse. – Andrè’s Exchange of Coats. – He and Smith cross the Hudson. – Smith’s Letter to his Brother. – Ambiguous Memorandum.

XXXI.

Arnold’s Composure in Presence of his Aids. – Washington’s Return from Hartford. – His Approach to Arnold’s Quarters. – Washington’s Delay in reaching Arnold’s Quarters. – Announcement of Andrè’s Arrest. – Flight of Arnold. – His Wife and Son. – Arnold’s Passage to the Vulture. – Treatment of his Oarsmen. – Washington’s visit to West Point. – Discovery of the Treason. – Washington’s presence of Mind. – Condition of Mrs. Arnold. – Attempts to "head" the Traitor. – His Letters from the Vulture. – Beverly Robinson’s Letter to Washington. – The Army at Tappan put in Motion. – Andrè ordered to West Point. – Buttermilk Falls. – Ride to Fort Montgomery. – Mrs. Rose. – A speculating Daughter. – Sites of Forts Clinton and Montgomery. – Lake Sinnipink. – Beverly Garrison. – Mr. Garrison’s Recollections. – "Captain Molly." – Character of Forts Clinton and Montgomery. – Chevaux de frise. – Condition of the British Forces. – Putnam’s intended Expedition. – Sir Henry Clinton’s Stratagem. – Landing of British Troops. – Governor Clinton informed of the Landing of the British. – A reconnoitering Party. – Skirmish near Doodletown. – Treachery of a Messenger. – Putnam deceived. – Skirmish near Fort Montgomery. – Forts ordered to be Surrendered. – Attack on Forts Clinton and Montgomery. – Flight of the Americans. – Destruction of Vessels and the Chevaux de frise. – Evening Voyage in a Fisherman’s Shallop. – Anthony’s Nose. – Peekskill. – Situation of the Village. – The Birdsall House. – An Octogenarian. – Oak Hill. – Van Cortlandt House. – Philip Van Cortlandt. – The Cortlandt Manor House. – Paulding’s Monument, and St. Peter’s Church. – Gallows Hill. – Execution place of a Spy. – Putnam’s laconic Letter. – View from Gallows Hill. – Relative importance of Peekskill. – Stratagem of Sir William Howe. – Invasion of Peekskill. – Destruction of Stores. – Destruction of Continental Village. – Peekskill possessed by the Americans. – The Soldier’s Spring. – Verplanck’s Point. – Hudson and the Indians. – Fortifications at Verplanck’s Point. – Capture of Fort Fayette. – Surrender of the Garrison. – Disposition of the American Troops on the Hudson. – Preparations for attacking Stony Point. – The Negro Spy. – Condition of Stony Point. – Wayne’s Proposition to Storm it. – Biography of Wayne. – His Monument. – Approach of the Americans to Stony Point. – Capture of Sentinels. – Storming of the Fort. – Wayne wounded. – His Bravery. – Surrender of the Fort. – Wayne’s laconic Dispatch. – Fort Fayette Cannonaded. – Relieved by Sir Henry Clinton. – Galley with Ordnance sunk at Caldwell’s. – Medal awarded to Wayne. – His Popularity. – Medal awarded to Colonel De Fleury. – Promised Rewards for the bravest Men. – Division of the Spoils among the Troops. – Medal awarded to Major Stewart.

XXXII.

King’s Ferry. – Jolly old Waterman. – Stony Point. – Evening walk toward Haverstraw. – "God’s Acre." – Benson’s Tavern. – Interview with a Builder of Stony Point Fort. – View from Smith’s House. – Ancient black Walnut-tree. – Tarrytown. – Cow-boys and Skinners. – Neutral Ground. – Place where Andrè was Captured. – Journey of Andrè and Smith to Crompond. – Vigilance of Captain Boyd. – Andrè’s Uneasiness. – Volunteer Expedition against the Cow-boys. – Arrest of Major Andrè. – Discovery of Papers in his Stockings. – Deposition of David Williams. – Strange Conduct of Colonel Jameson. – His Letter to General Arnold. – Better Judgment of Colonel Tallmadge. – Major Andrè at Sheldon’s Head-quarters. – Andrè’s Letter to Washington. – Andrè taken to West Point and thence to Tappan. – His Disclosures to Tallmadge. – His Case and Hale’s compared. – Bridge over Sleepy Hollow Creek. – Ichabod Crane and the Headless Horseman. – Castle Philipse. – Greenburgh on the Nepera. – Van Wart’s Monument. – Sunnyside, the Residence of Washington Irving. – View of Sunnyside, the ancient "Wolfert’s Roost." – Jacob Van Tassel. – "The Roost" a Castle. – Its Garrison. – Attack upon, and Defense of "the Roost." – Dobbs’s Ferry. – Old Fort at Dobbs’s Ferry. – The Livingston Mansion. – Rendezvous of the British. – The Palisades. – Tappan. – Massacre of Baylor’s Corps at Tappan. – The "76 Stone House," where Andrè was confined. – Washington’s Headquarters. – Court of Inquiry in Andrè’s Case. – The Prisoner’s Conduct. – Names of those who composed the Court. – Judge Laurance. – Washington’s Approval of the Decision of the Court. – Memoir of Andrè. – Honora Sneyd. – Mr. Edgeworth. – Miss Seward. – Andrè’s Death-warrant. – His Will. – Disposition of his Remains. – His Monument. – Equity of Andrè’s Sentence. – Efforts to Save him. – Embassy of Colonel Ogden. – Washington Vilified. – Proposition to Exchange Andrè for Arnold declined. – A Deputation from the British General. – Result of the Efforts to Save Andrè. – His Letter to Washington asking to be Shot. – Willis’s Paraphrase. – Andrè’s Composure of Mind. – Pen-and-ink Sketch of himself. – Name of his Executioner. – Dr. Thacher’s Account of Andrè’s Execution. – Feelings of the Spectators. – The Place of his Death and Burial. – The Captors of Andrè rewarded. – Disinterment of Andrè’s remains. – Honored by the Duke of York. – Desire to secure Arnold. – A Plan to Abduct him. – Its Execution committed to Major Henry Lee. – Sergeant Champe. – His Sense of Honor. – Consents to attempt the Abduction of Arnold. – His Desertion favored by Lee. – Pursuit of Champe. – His Skill in eluding his Pursuers. – He escapes to a British Galley. – Sir Henry Clinton deceived. – Champe sent to Arnold. – Joins his Legion. – Preparations for carrying off the Traitor. – Champe foiled. – Taken by Arnold to Virginia. – Escapes and rejoins his Legion in the Carolinas. – Ramapo Valley. – Ramapo Village. – Mr. Pierson. – Movements of the two Armies in 1777. – Washington’s Perplexities. – March of the American Army toward the Highlands. – Howe’s Destination determined. – The Clove. – The Ramapo Pass. – March of the allied Armies to Virginia. – Clinton deceived by Washington’s Letters. – The "Hopper House." – Patriotism of the Owner. – Interesting Relics. – Burr’s Head-quarters. – Colonel Aaron Burr at Sufferns’s – Confusion of the Militia. – Night Attack upon the British Pickets near Hackensack.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

VOLUME II.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

html prepared by Bill Carr, last updated 11/09/2001.

Please provide me with any feedback you may have concerning errors in the transcription or any supplementary information concerning the contents. wcarr1@nycap.rr.com

Copyright Notice: Copyright 2001. All files on this site are copyrighted by their creator. They may be linked to but may not be reproduced on another site without the specific permission of their creator. Although public information is not in and of itself copyrightable, the format in which it is presented, the notes and comments, etc., are. It is, however, quite permissible to print or save the files to a personal computer for personal use ONLY.