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CENTRAL EUROPEAN

Heraldry and Genealogy:

The Reference Library

     Central European Heraldry is a sub-set of the Central-Eastern European classification of heraldic traditions that developed in Belarus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, and Russia.  We’ve created this grouping primarily based upon their geographical location of the regions as well as their historical relationships with the Holy Roman Empire as well as the Kingdom of Hungary.

     The historical lands of the Kingdom of Hungary are sometimes identified with the medieval term Archiregnum Hungaricum ("High Kingdom of Hungary").  The term “Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen” was widely used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to distinguish the  Transleithanian or Hungarian part of theHabsburg Monarchy (later Austria-Hungary) from the Cisleithanian territories. These Hungarian lands encompassed the Kingdom of Hungary proper (including former Principality of Transylvania); the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; and the area surrounding Fiume.  Other central European regions historically connected with authority of the Kingdom of Hungary were: Burgenland, now the easternmost state of Austria;  Dalmatia, a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated

Map of the Kingdom of Hungary

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mostly in modern Croatia;  Galicia and Lodomeria, a Hungarian sergeant province from the 13th century to 1772;  as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, under the control of Serbia and Croatia in the 9th and 10th century, and by the High Middle Ages, the area was contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire.

     Central and Eastern coats of arms are characterized by a pronounced, territorial, clan system wherein, entire villages or military groups were granted the same coat of arms irrespective of family relationships.  The Central-Eastern heraldic tradition differs from some of the other classifications in that marks of cadency are almost unknown, and shields are generally very simple, with only one charge.  Many heraldic shields derive from ancient house marks.  At the least, fifteen per cent of all Hungarian personal arms bear a severed Turk's head, referring to their wars against the Ottoman Empire.

- Table of Contents –

Translating Foreign Text

Pan-Central European Heraldry

Croatian Heraldry

Hungarian Heraldry

Romanian Heraldry

Serbian Heraldry

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PAN-CENTRAL EUROPEAN HERALDRY

     The books and or websites listed herein are those that cover more than two or more of the several geographical areas included within this heraldic classification.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites

HERALDRY:

Books:

Korenić-Neorić Armorial, by  Petar Ohmućević, published 1595

Fojnica Armorial, (Illyrian armorial), by unknown, published in the 17th century (Fojnica Armorial @Wikipedia

)

Websites:

Arms of the Nobility of Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Fojnica Armorial - Wikipedia

Heraldry of The Southern Slav States

Korenić-Neorić Armorial - Wikipedia

The College of the Hereditary Nobility of Hungary

BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES:

Books:

Websites:

Arms of the Nobility of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Nobility of Medieval Central Europe

GEOGRAPHY:

Books: A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, & Historical of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world, by John Ramsay M'Culloch, four volumes, published 1866

Vol. 1:  AA - Caspe 

Vol. 2:  Caspian Sea - Iona

Vol. 3Ionian Islands - Poole

Vol. 4:  PoonahZytomiers

Websites:

Our Favorite Map and Atlas Webpages

Our Favorite Gazetteers

HISTORY:

Books:

Websites:

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CROATIAN HERALDRY

     Croatian Heraldry generally refers to Croatia Proper, Slavonia, Dalmatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Dubrovnik, Kotor, and the Serbian Province of Vojvodina as they all had the same source or influence of grants of nobility.  Although largely unregulated, there are bodies such as the Croatian Heraldic and Vexillologic Association that analyzes and codifies this heraldic tradition.

     The study of Croatian arms started in the 17th century.  From that time Croatia and its associated historical regions were ruled and influenced by the Old Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, (and their constituent countries, Austria and Hungary) and Republic of Venice).  As such Croatian heraldry maintains three distinct sub-categories as follows:

Hungarian-Croatian - In Hungarian-inspired Croatian heraldry, a common charge was the bloodied head of a Turk, (the head of a Turk with a black moustache wearing a turban, blood dripping from the neck), this being a reference to various invasions of the area by the Ottoman Empire.  Also popular were griffins, bears, solar, lunar and stellar images, and horses.  Unlike much of European heraldry, multiple colors are common in mantling, most commonly blue and gold on the dexter side and red and silver on the sinister.  A coronet often replaces the wreath or torse above the helmet. Hungarian-Croatian heraldry also employs a clan system instead of granting individual arms.

Croatian Heraldry areas of influence.jpg

Croatian Heraldry areas of influence

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Austrian-Croatian - Both countries share the same characteristics in heraldry.  Eagles,with one or two heads, are prominent in both German and Austrian-Croatian arms.

Italian-Croatian - Venetian grants to Dalmatian nobility featured not only the heater shield which is common in Italian arms, but also the more ornate jousting shields.  The helmet ,a commoner's steel-colored helmet with visor lowered depicted in profile, is almost universally seen.  Crests are rarely used in Italian-Croatian coats-of-arms.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites

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HERALDRY:

Books:

Websites:

Croatia: Local flags

Croatian Arms Gallery (Adamich - Eterovic)

Croatian Arms Gallery (Eterovic-Prodic-Margetic)

Croatian Arms Gallery (Marijanovic - Rajkovic)

Croatian Arms Gallery (Resetar - Znidaric)

Croatian Civic Heraldry

Croatian Coat-of-Arms Bibliography

Croatian Genealogical and Heraldic Society

Croatian Heraldry

BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES: 

Books:

Arms & History of significant Serbian noble families in the Zadar & Knin of Croatia, by Marko Atlagić, (manuscript), 20 pgs.

Arms & History of some Serbian noble families of Dubrovnik, by by Marko Atlagić, (manuscript), 16 pages

Clans of Croatia

Croatian Code to Nobility

Croatian Genealogical and Heraldic Society

Croatian nobility

Croatian Nobility Index

GEOGRAPHY:

Books:

Websites:

Our Favorite Map and Atlas Webpages

Our Favorite Gazetteers

HISTORY:

Books:

Websites:

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HUNGARIAN HERALDRY

     The history of heraldry in Hungary falls into three main categories.  The first consists of armorial bearings issued during the Árpád dynasty (c. 855-1301).  The second category is made up of coat-of-arms bestowed by the Angevian and other foreign monarchs during their reign in Hungary (1301–c. 1526), and the third group comprises the arms granted to Hungarians during the Habsburg domination, between 1526 and 1918.

     Hungarian heraldry generally follows German heraldry in its artistic forms, but has its own distinctive character.  The early Hungarian armorial achievements (ca. 1400 and before) differ from German heraldry only in the fact that they tend to have more demi-beasts, crowns, and mounts or bases than is found in German heraldry from the same period.  Some Hungarian armorial bearings from this time are very simple with few charges.  On the other hand the Hungarian heraldry from the Hapsburg era is unlike any other style of heraldry anywhere.  For example, Hapsburg-Hungarian heraldry ignores the rule of color on color.  As such, black or dark-colored proper fields are very common, as are red charges on dark fields.  Other common characteristics of Hapsburg-Hungarian heraldry are: (1) most fields are blue or red whereas green and purple fields are never encountered; (2) ordinaries are almost never used.  When they do occur they tend to be fesses or bends.  Chevrons, and palls do not appear;  (3) it is common to see a single central charge on the shield rather than several different ones. When multiple charges do occur, they are generally arranged around a large central charge;  (4) "Stylized" heraldic charges such as maunches, water bougets, mill-rinds, etc. are almost never seen; and (5) Hapsburg-Hungarian heraldry occasionally will use quite complex "picture heraldry," especially in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites

nN

HERALDRY:

Books:

Monumenta Hungariae heraldic, Volume 1, by László Fejérpataky, and ‎Antal Áldásy - 1902

Monumenta Hungariae heraldic, Volume 2, by László Fejérpataky, and‎Antal Áldásy – 1902

The Hungarian empire coat of arms and colors, by Ede Ivánfi - 1874

Hungary Family: crests and nemzékrendi tables, Volume 7, by Iván Nagy, and ‎Ferenc Szakály

Hungary Family: crests and nemzékrendi tables, Volume 10, by Iván Nagy, and ‎Ferenc Szakály

Websites:

Heraldry of Austria-Hungary

Hungarian Armory: A National Database

Hungarian Heraldry

Hungarian Heraldry - Heraldica

Images of Hungarian Heraldry

List of Counts of Austria-Hungary Empire

The College of the Hereditary Nobility of Hungary

BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES: 

Books:

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 5-6, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1881

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 7-8, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1889

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 15-16, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1897

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 17-19, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1899

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 20-22, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1903

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: Vols. 23-26, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1905

Gazette of Hungarian Genealogy and Heraldry: 1882-1892, by Hungarian Heraldry & Genealogy Society, pub.1893

List of Historical Surnames of the Hungarian Nobility, by Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, published 2014, 234 pages

Websites:

Bratislava County Nobility: Hungarian Family Heraldry

Hungarian Nobility:Category

Medieval Hungarian Nobility

Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary

Noblility and Royalty of the Kingdom of Hungary

The early history of the Hungarian nobility

The Hungarian Nobles

Upper Nobility of the Kingdom of Hungary

GEOGRAPHY:

Books:

Websites:

Our Favorite Map and Atlas Webpages

Our Favorite Gazetteers

HISTORY:

Books:

Hungary and Transylvania; with Remarks on Their Condition, Social, Political, and Economical. by John Paget, 1850

Websites:

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ROMANIAN HERALDRY

(Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia)

      Romanian heraldry is rooted in the historical regions of Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia.  There are principle differences in Romanian Heraldry as a result of its disparate historical development.  Much of the early heraldic traditions of this area are rooted in those of the Holy Roman Empire and especially the style of heraldry practiced in the Kingdom of Hungary.

Beginning in the early 15th century, with King Sigismund, (1368 –1437), of Hungary, letters-patent grants were the rule for Transylvania, as well as for the whole of Hungary.  However, armorial bearings were generally granted only to newly ennobled persons.  Older clans used arms of their own choice, the result being an extraordinary development of heraldry among the upper aristocracy.  Moldavian and Wallachian boyars began adopting armorial bearings in the 17th century. Initially these were simple seals or logos, later evolving into full armorial achievements.  During the 19th century,

Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia, early 15th Century.jpg

Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia, early 15th Century

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the use of seals decreased among the lesser nobles and the greater aristocracy began to conform with Western European heraldic styles, especially those of French origins.

     Although the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia were either under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, or the Russian Empire few boyar families received titles from these entities.  As such, an interesting process evolved between such families and those, which have no foreign style, but were considered peers within the inner social organization of those regions.  This allowed any of the great families to add a count coronet upon their achievements.  This created a situation that was a great misfortune for the genealogists of the latter part of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, because of the presumed but improvable supposition that all those boyars had some ancestors which received the title of the Holy Roman or Russian Empires.

     In 1812, the eastern part of Moldavia Basarabia, (now the Republic of Moldavia), was absorbed into the Russian Empire. Like in Bucovina, the Russian administration equated the Moldavian aristocracy to their corresponding degrees of nobility, according to the Russian practices of the time.

     After the creation of the Great Kingdom of Romania in 1918, the Constitution of 1923 stipulated the abolition of all the foreign titles in Transylvania, Bucovina and Basarabia.  However, the heraldic lineages of the former noble class did continue.  Therefore, every person continued to use his arms and title as granted before 1918.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites

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HERALDRY:

Books:

The Development of Heraldry & Genealogy In The Modern Romanian State, by Dr. Tudor-Radu Tiron, 2013, 13 pages

Websites:

Elements of Romanian Heraldry

Heraldry of the World: Romania

Images of Romanian Heraldry

Romanian Heraldry - Wikipedia

Romanian Personal Heraldry

BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES:

Books:

Websites:

Romanian Nobility (Wikipedia category)

Romanian Noble Families (Wikipedia category)

Historical Romanian ranks and titles 

Boyars of Wallachia and Moldavia

Romanian Noble Titles (Wikipedia category)

Romanian Voivodes and Cnezes, Nobles and Villeins

Chancellors of Transylvania

Rulers of Transylvania

GEOGRAPHY:

Books:

Websites: 

Our Favorite Map and Atlas Webpages

Our Favorite Gazetteers

HISTORY:

Books:

Websites:

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SERBIAN HERALDRY

     The history of Serbian heraldry goes back to the medieval Serbian principalities of Rascia, Duklja, Travunia, Zahumlje, Pagania, and Bosnia.  Culturally, Serbian heraldry belongs to the Byzantine tradition.

     The most prominent symbols seen on coats-of-arms are the Serbian eagle and the Serbian cross.  Both have been used together as early as the 14th century and is depicted in the contemporary design of the coat of arms of Serbia.  The double-heads of the Serbian eagle represent the dual sovereignty of the emperor (secular

Medieval Serbian principalities.png

Medieval Serbian principalities

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and religious) and/or dominance of the Byzantine Emperors over both East and West.

serbian cross2.jpg

The Serbian cross is composed of a Cross and four Cyrillic "С" (Latin "S") alt. four fire steels.  The cross has been used by Serbian states and the Serbian Orthodox Church since the Middle Ages.  Today it is the national, religious and ethnic symbol of Serbs and Serbia.

     Other common elements found in Serbian heraldry are: (1) a wild boar’s head either severed or with an arrow through its head.  The theme

was used on flags of the First Serbian Uprising (1804–1813);  (2) the flag of Serbia is a common element of this heraldry;  (3) natural flora such as oak, olive, wheat, plum, or grape are frequently found;  (4) weapons such as a sword, cannon, gun, arrow are a regularly seen in Serbian arms;  (5) St. George slaying the dragon is also a common charge;  and (6) the severed head of a Turk, in reference to the wars with Turkey has been part of Serbian heraldry following the Ottoman Empire's conquest.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites

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HERALDRY:

Books:

Development of Heraldry in Medieval Serbia, by Nenad M. Jovanovich, (manuscript of 2013 lecture), 11 pages

Roots of Serbian Heraldry, by Ljubomir S. Stevović, (a manuscript), 8 pages

Serbian Heraldry during the 12th-14th c. Nemanjića Dynasty, by Ljubomir S. Stevović, (a manuscript), 7 pages

Fojnica Armorial, (Illyrian armorial), by unknown, published in the 17th century (Fojnica Armorial @Wikipedia)

Websites:

Orthodox Monarchism: Heraldic & Genealogical Studies

Serb Heraldic Society "White Eagle"

Serbian heraldry - Wikipedia

Serbian Heraldry Society

Society of Serbian Armigers "Milos Obilic"

BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES:

Books:

Arms & History…Serbian noble families in the Zadar & Knin of Croatia, by Marko Atlagić, (manuscript), 20 pgs.

Arms & History of some Serbian noble families of Dubrovnik, by by Marko Atlagić, (manuscript), 16 pages

Russian nobility of Serbian origin during the Romanov dynasty, by Alexander V. Bačko, (manuscript), 34 pages

The noble family of Branovacki, by Alexander Bačko, (manuscript), 5 pages

About the Arms of the Family Jovanovica-Dakavoc-Popova, by Nenad M. Jovanovic, (manuscript), 8 pages

Serbian Baron of Пшенице (Wheat), by Violeta Talović, (manuscript), 7 pages

Websites:

14th-century Serbian nobility Wikipedia Category

15th-century Serbian nobility Wikipedia Category

16th-century Serbian nobility Wikipedia Category

19th-century Serbian nobility Wikipedia Category

Serbian nobility - Wikipedia

Serbian nobility Wikipedia Category

Serbian noble titles – Wikipedia Category

GEOGRAPHY:

Books:

Websites:

Our Favorite Map and Atlas Webpages

Our Favorite Gazetteers

HISTORY:

Books:

Websites: History of Serbia

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