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Heraldry and Genealogy:

The Reference Library

     The British category of heraldic traditions is a sub-set of the overriding classification known as   Gallo-British Heraldry which includes the customs of French Heraldry.  British heraldry is found in the United Kingdom and some of its associated Commonwealth nations.  

     Some of the distinctive features of British heraldry include the use of cadency marks to difference arms within the same family and the use of semy fields.  In Scotland the most significant mark of cadency being the bordure, the small brisures playing a very minor role.  It is common to see heraldic furs used in British armorial bearings.  In the United Kingdom, the style is notably still controlled by royal officers of arms.   English and Scots heraldries make greater use of supporters than other European countries.

- Table of Contents –

Translating Foreign Text

Pan-British Heraldry

British Commonwealth Heraldry

Channel Islands Heraldry

Cornish Heraldry

English Heraldry

Irish Heraldry

Manx (Isle of Man) Heraldry

Scottish Heraldry

Welch Heraldry

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      The books and or websites listed herein are those that cover more than two or more of the several geographical areas included within this heraldic classification.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites



There are so many books in this category that we had to put them on another web-page ! ! !

To the BRITISH Heraldry Book Collection.


Armorial of the Order of the Garter

British Garter– Arms & Badges Database

British Heraldry

College of Arms or Herald's College

Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies (IHGS)

Ordinary of Arms (British) – Wikipedia

St George's Roll of Arms (c.1285, 677 painted coats-of-arms)

The Heraldry Society

United Kingdom – Heraldry of the World

Balliol Roll of Arms (32 shields from 1332) Scotland

Bruce Roll of Arms (30 shields from 1332)



There are so many books in this category that we had to put them on another web-page ! ! !

To the BRITISH BIO-GEN Book Collection.


A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain

British Gentry

British Nobility

British Titles and Order of Precedence

British Ranks of Nobility

Extinct Noble Families of Britain

Hereditary Titles: peerage,baronetage, extinct titles, etc.

Nobility of the United Kingdom

Noble Families of the United Kingdom


Peerage of the British Empire $



A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, & Historical of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world, by John Ramsay M'Culloch, four volumes, published 1866

Volume 1: AA – Caspe;  Volume 2: Caspian Sea – Iona; Volume 3: Ionian Islands - Poole;  Volume 4PoonahZytomiers


England and Wales Returns of the Owners of Lands in 1873: Vol. 1, by England: Local Government Board, 1875

England and Wales Returns of the Owners of Lands in 1873: Vol. 2, by England: Local Government Board, 1875


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Our Favorite Gazetteers




History of the United Kingdom

Early Modern Britain from 1486

History of Britain – timeline and facts

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     The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire. The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states.

     The following member states currently maintain heraldic authorities: Antigua and Barbuda; Canada; Kenya; New Zealand; South Africa; and Zambia.  In the Caribbean  nation of Antigua and Barbuda the Antigua Herald of Arms and Barbuda Herald of Arms were established under the National Honors Act 1998.  The Canadian Heraldic Authority, established in 1988, is headed by the Chief Herald of Canada is part of the Governor-General's Household.  The Chief Herald grants personal, official, military, municipal, and official arms.  The Kenya College of Arms was established in 1968 and is headed by a Registrar as part of the Attorney-General's Office.  The Registrar has authority to grant and register personal, municipal, and corporate coats of arms.  In New Zealand the Herald Extraordinary was created in 1978 as part of the Governor-General's Household.  The New Zealand Herald Extraordinary represents the English College of Arms.  The South African Bureau of Heraldry was created in 1963 and is headed by the National Herald (formerly State Herald).  The Bureau of Heraldry forms part of the National Archives & Records Service and has authority to register personal, official, military, municipal, and corporate arms. The Colours Control Board, established in 1958, is the heraldic authority in the African nation of Zambia.  It is responsible for registering the arms of associations and institutions as “badges”. 

     Curiously the country of Australia has no formal heraldic authority. To date the Queen has not delegated any part of her Royal Prerogative concerning matters armorial to the Governor-General of Australia.  This omission may be the consequence of the English and Scottish officers of arms exercising the Royal Prerogative on her behalf within their respective jurisdictions and, with the general indifference to matters heraldic in political circles.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites




A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Colonial Gentry: Vol. 1, by Sir Bernard Burke, ‎, 1891 ‎

A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Colonial Gentry: Vol. 2, by Sir Bernard Burke, ‎, 1895 ‎



Coat of arms of Antigua and Barbuda

Heraldry of the World: Antigua and Barbuda

Images for Antigua and Barbuda Heraldry


Australian Heraldic Authority

Australian Heraldry Society

Armorial and Heraldry Society of Australasia

Images of Australian Heraldry

Australia: Heraldry of the World


Canadian Heraldic Authority

Canadian Heraldry - Wikipedia

Canadian Heraldic Authority - Wikipedia

Images of Canadian Heraldry

Royal Heraldry Society of Canada

Heraldry in a Canadian Context


Kenya – Heraldry of the World

Images of Kenyan Heraldry

Introduction to Heraldry in Kenya


Commonwealth Heraldic Jurisdiction (New Zealand)

New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary

The Heraldry Society of New Zealand

Images of New Zealand Heraldry

New Zealand Heraldry – Family Search


South African Heraldry - Wikipedia

Heraldry in South Africa

South African Heraldry Authority

Images of South African Heraldry

South African Heraldry Website

South Africa: Heraldry of the World


Coat of arms of Zambia

Images of Zambian Heraldry

Zambian Coat of Arms and Its Meaning




Australian peers and baronets

Baronetcies conferred upon non-Britons

Canadian peers and baronets




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Our Favorite Gazetteers

Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations



The British commonwealth, A commentary on the institutions & principles of British government, by Homersham Cox, 1854

The British Colonization of New Zealand, by Edward Jerningham Wakefield, John Ward, published 1837, 432 pages


History of the Commonwealth of Nations

Timeline of Commonwealth of Nations history

Timelines for the British Empire

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     The Channel Islands Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, and are not part of the United Kingdom.  Both Bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century; each has its own independent laws, elections, and representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the islands' legislatures are in regular contact). Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule.The coat of arms of both Jersey and Guernsey, are indicative of the historical influences of France and England.  Both arms show a red shield charged with three gold lions (historically described as leopards) passant guardant.  As such they are very similar to the arms of Normandy, and England.  In addition, the Norman language predominated in the islands until the 19th century, when increasing influence from English-speaking settlers and easier transport links led to Anglicisation.  

      The early heraldic traditions in the Channel Islands were straightforward and without the strict codes as found in England and France.  Official grants and confirmations of arms were generally unknown among them.  For the most part they merely retained the original arms of their ancestors.  Yet some attention was paid to the science of heraldry, as an examination of the old private seals does exhibit marks of cadency and quarterings.  Jersey families generally placed their arms on the keystone of the arch leading to their dwellings, or over the door itself.  The humbler classes contented themselves with their initials and those of their wives, on a stone sometimes forming a gatepost, or at others embedded in the wall of the house, connected by the loving symbol of two conjoined hearts.  When an unmarried man built a house, he left on this stone a blank space on the sinister side, to be filled up upon his future matrimony.

      The College of Arms, primarily through the Garter Principal King of Arms, has jurisdiction over all heraldic matters as they pertain to the Channel Islands.  Yet this authority is not without some disagreement as to whether there is a rightful heraldic authority with jurisdiction in the Channel Islands.  This is because although the Channel Islands do form a part of the British Isles (including the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man), they do not form a part of the United Kingdom (i.e. Great Britain and Northern Ireland), nor a part of Great Britain (ie England , Scotland and Wales), nor yet England.  In Scotland the Lord Lyon King of Arms retains his ancient jurisdiction therein, while the two English provincial kings of arms have jurisdiction only in their own provinces.  On the other hand, Garter Principal King of Arms is, in terms of the Letters Patent of his creation, King of Arms of "all Englishmen".  Garter thus has no territorial limits to his jurisdiction and exercises a supreme authority within the English heraldic Establishment; a position he has effectively held since the creation of the first Garter in 1415. 

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites



Index of Armigerous Surnames - Bailiwick of Guernsey, (from Burke’s 1884 Armorial)

Index of Armigerous Surnames - Bailiwick of Jersey, (from Burke’s 1884 Armorial)

Armorial of Jersey:…, by James Bertrand Payne, published 1859, 628 pages


Jersey coats of arms in use in the 19th century

Collection of Channel Islands Crests, Arms, & Mottos

The leopards of England and the Channel Islands



The island of Jersey, its history, …its antiquities and the biography of eminent men, by T. Baker, published 1840






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Our Favorite Gazetteers



Barbet's Guide for the Island of Guernsey, etc. [With a map.], by Stephen Barbet, 208 pages

The History of the Island of Guernsey, by William Berry, published 1815

An Historical Account of Guernsey: From Its First Settlement …to the Present Time, by Thomas Dicey, 1751, 217 pages

A topographical and historical Guide to the Island of Jersey, by James Graves, published 1859

The Channel Islands: Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, &c, Volume 1, by Henry David Inglis, published 1834

The Channel Islands: Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, &c, Volume 2, by Henry David Inglis, Matthew Scholefield, pub.1834

The Channel Islands: Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, etc, by Henry David Inglis, 1835 (2nd Ed.), 343 pgs.

The Channel Island of Jersey, Guernesey, Alderney, Serk, Herm et Jethou, by Henry David Inglis, 1844 (4th Ed.), 333 pgs.

An account of the island of Jersey, by W. Plees, published 1817

The History of Guernsey and Its Bailiwick: With Occasional Notices of Jersey, by Ferdinand B.Tupper, 1854, 527 pages


History of Guernsey

History of Jersey

History of the Channel Islands

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      Cornish heraldry is the form of coats of arms and other heraldic bearings and insignia used in Cornwall, a county of England.  Cornwall is the traditional homeland of the Cornish people and is recognized as one of the “Celtic nations”, wherein their own Celtic language and distinct cultural identity have survived. The Cornish heraldic tradition, while similar to that of England, Scotland, and Wales, has its own distinctive features.  Cornish heraldry typically makes use of the tinctures, sable (black) and or (gold), that have been drawn mainly from Cornish royal and national symbolism.  The “Cornish chough” is widely used in Cornish heraldry as it is the national bird of Cornwall, and also a symbol of the Duchy of Cornwall.  Many Cornish families from ancient times bore mottoes in the Cornish language, many of which were recorded in the 17th century.  In fact the practice of using Cornish language mottoes continues to this day.

      The College of Arms or Herald's College of professional officers of arms, has jurisdiction over Cornwall as with the rest of England.  The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on her behalf in all matters of heraldry, such as the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites




A Plea for the Antiquity of Heraldry: …, by William Smith Ellis, published 1853 (see pages 12, 13, and 17)

A historical survey of the County of Cornwall: a complete heraldry with numerous engravings: Vol. 1, by C.S. Gilbert, 1817

Heraldic church notes from Cornwall:   , by John Arthure Jewers, published 1889, 274 pages

An armory of Devon and Cornwall: From unpublished manuscripts of the XVI century, by Robert Twigge,, 1898


Cornish Heraldry - Wikipedia

Cornish corporate heraldry

Images for Cornish Heraldry

Cornwall: Heraldry of the World



Westcountry families & their armorial bearings: old nobility & gentry of Devon & Cornwall, B.H. Williams, 1916

The Visitation of the County of Cornwall: In the Year 1620, by Henry Drake, ed., 1874

The Visitation of the County of Cornwall, in the Year 1620, by ‎Samson Lennard, ‎, 1884

The visitations of Cornwall: comprising the Heralds' ..., by John Lambrick Vivian,, 1887

The Herald’s visitations of Cornwall, 1530, 1573, & 1620, ed. John Lambrick Vivian,, 1887  (has links to each page)


Great Cornish families

Cornish Gentry –British History Online

Nobility, earldom and ennobled families

Extinct peers and baronial families


Extinct baronets

Extinct gentry families

Gentlemen's seats



Cornwall, Sabine Baring-Gould, published 1910, 188 pages


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Our Favorite Gazetteers



A book of Cornwall, by  Sabine Baring-Gould, published 1906, 472 pages

Magna Britannia: volume 3 – Cornwall, by Daniel and Samuel Lysons, published 1814,


History of Cornwall

Timeline of Cornish History

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      English heraldry is the form of coats of arms and other heraldic bearings and insignia used in England.  The first use of heraldry associated with the English was in the Bayeux Tapestry, recounting the events of the Battle of Hastings in 1066, where both sides used emblems in similar ways.  The first Royal Coat of Arms was created in 1154 under Henry II.  The idea of heraldry becoming popular among the knights on the first and second crusades, along with the idea of chivalry.   Under Henry III it gained a system of classification and a technical language, confirming its place as a science. 

      Coats of arms in England are subject to a system of cadency to distinguish between sons of the original holder of the coat of arms. The English heraldic style is exemplified in the arms of British royalty, and is reflected in the civic arms of cities and towns, as well as the noble arms of individuals in England. Royal orders in England, such as the Order of the Garter, also maintain notable heraldic bearings.

      Many English coats of arms feature charges related to the bearer's name or profession, a practice known as "canting arms".  Representations in person of Saints or other figure are very rare.  This is also the case in many other examples, particularly those depicting Christ, to remove religious complications. Unlike in mainland Europe where family crests make a large use of their eponymous Saints, these are few and far between in England.  The lion is the most common charge, particularly in Royal heraldry.  Heraldic roses are also common in English heraldry, as in the War of the Roses where both houses, Lancaster and York, used them, and in the ensuing Tudor dynasty. The heraldic eagle, while common on the European continent and particularly in Germany, is relatively rare in English heraldry.

      Heraldry in England is heavily regulated by the aforementioned College of Arms, who issue the arms. A person can be issued the arms themselves, but the College fields many requests from people attempting to demonstrate descent from an Armigerous (arms-bearing) person.  A person descended in the male line (or through heraldic heiresses) from such an ancestor may be reissued that ancestor's arms (with differencing marks if necessary to distinguish from senior-line cousins). To that end, the college is involved in genealogy and the many pedigrees (family trees) in their records, although not open to the public, have official status. Anyone may register a pedigree with the college, where they are carefully internally audited and require official proofs before being altered.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites




Armorial of members of the Order of the Garter, by Peter Bale, published 1588

Insignia AnglicaBavarian State Library, published c.1550

English Heraldry, by Charles Boutell

1st edition – 1867

3rd edition - 1875

6th edition – 1900

8th edition - 1904

9th edition - 1907

10th edition – 1908

11th edition - 1914

The Heraldry of Worcestershire, by Henry Sydney Grazebrook, published 1873, 748 pages

The Vale Royal of England, by Daniel King, published 1656

The Rous illustrated armorial roll-chronicle, by John Rous, published c. 1483 (also known as The Warwick Roll)

De Re Militari (51) , By Nicholas Upton, published 15th century


General Heraldry Topics

Birmingham & Midland Society for Genealogy & Heraldry

Cambridge University Heraldic & Genealogical Society

College of Arms

England Heraldry – Family Search

English HeraldryPinterest

English Heraldry - Wikipedia

Heraldry from the 1250-1259 Historia Anglorum 

Images of English Heraldry

Norfolk Heraldry Society

Spencer Family Book of English Heraldry, c. 1589

The White Lion Society

Armorials / Rolls of Arms, etc.

Armorial Bearings of the Vale Royal of England (1656)

Caerlaverock Roll of Arms (from the British Museum)

Caerlaverock Roll of Arms, 1300 (in French & English)

Charles' Roll (an English roll of arms dating from c. 1285)

Cheshire Visitation Roll (illustrated)

Civic Heraldry of England and Wales

Coats of arms of English nobility

Dering Roll of Arms (Wikipedia)

England– Arms & Badges Database

English Badges– Arms & Badges Database

English Coats of Arms A-Z Galleries

English Coats of Arms Database A-Z

English Rolls of Arms

Falkirk Roll of Arms (at the battle of Falkirk, 1298)

Galloway Roll of Arms (dating from c.1300)

Glover’s Roll of Arms (55 English arms from c.1240–45)

Stirling Roll of Arms (from 1304, containing 102 coats)



There are so many books in this category that we had to put them on another web-page ! ! !

To the ENGLAND BIO-GEN Book Collection.

Websites:    see also British Bio & Gen Websites

England Nobility – Family Search

England, Anglo-Saxon & Danish Kings

England, Anglo-Saxon Nobility

England, Earls - Created 1067-1122

England, Earls - Created 1138-1143

England, Earls – Created 1207-1466

England, Kings 1066-1603.

Family Seats of English Peers

Peerage of England

Untitled English Nobility A - C

Untitled English Nobility D - K

Untitled English Nobility L - O

Untitled English Nobility P - S

Untitled English Nobility T - Z




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Historia Anglorum, by Matthew Paris, published c. 1250-55

 Rural Rides: Volume 1, & Rural Rides: Volume 2, In the Counties of Surrey, Kent, Sussex, Hants, Berks, Oxford, Bucks, Wilts, Somerset, Gloucester, Hereford, Salop, Worcester,j Stafford, Leicester, Hertford, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, Huntington, Nottingham, Lincoln, York, Lancaster, Durham, and Northumberland, by William Cobbett, Pitt Cobbett, published 1885


History of England

Timeline of English History

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      Prior to 1943 heraldry on the whole island of Ireland was a function of the Ulster King of Arms, a crown office dating from 1552.  In 1943, the office of Ulster King of Arms was combined with that of Norroy, and the Norroy and Ulster King of Arms now has authority over the counties of NORTHERN IRELAND.  This office also has jurisdiction over Wales as well as England, (north of the Trent River), and adheres to the standards of the British College of Arms.  Since 1 April 1943 heraldry within the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND has been regulated by the Genealogical Office of the Irish government, which includes the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland. The Chief Herald authorizes the granting of arms to Irish bodies and Irish citizens, including descendants of emigrants. 

      A distinctive feature of Irish heraldry is acceptance of the idea of sept arms, which belong to descendants, not necessarily of a determinate individual, but of an Irish sept, the chieftain of which, under Irish law, was not necessarily a son of the previous chieftain but could be any member of the sept whose grandfather had held the position of chieftain.  A member of the particular sept has the right to the arms of that sept, a right that on the contrary does not belong to people of the same surname who belong to a different sept.  For example, a person from the O'Kelly sept of Ui Máine may display the arms of that sept, but a Kelly of the Meath or Kilkenny septs cannot.

      Current Irish heraldic achievements of arms are described in language which, while formal and different from plain language, is not quite so opaque as Anglo-Norman terminology is in English. Nevertheless Irish heraldic terminology is a kind of specialized jargon. Examples utilized since 1943 include the use of Irish words gorm and uaine for blue and green, as compared to the French-derived azure and vert used in English blazon.

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites





Chief Herald of Ireland

Civic Heraldry of Ireland

Gaelic Irish Heraldry and Heraldic Practice

Heraldry in Ireland

Heraldry Society of Ireland

History of heraldry in Ireland

Images of Irish Heraldry

Ireland– Arms & Badges Database

Ireland Heraldry – Family Search

Irish Arms Registers between 1936 and 1980 

Irish Badges– Arms & Badges Database

Irish Badges II– Arms & Badges Database

Irish Coat of Arms Database A-Z

Irish Coats of Arms – The Tree Maker

Irish Coats of Arms A-Z Galleries

Irish heraldry - Wikipedia



A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Ireland; 9th ed., Sir Bernard Burke,, 1899, 495 pgs

Visitation of Ireland, ed. by Frederick Arthur Crisp, ‎ Joseph Jackson Howard. Six volumes originally published between 1897-1918. This is a collection of 160 detailed pedigrees of many prominent families in Ireland during the late 19th century.

Volume 1, 1897

Volume 2, 1898

Volume 3, 1899

Volume 4, 1904

Vol. 5, Limited (search only)

Vol. 6, Limited (search only)

The Peerage of Ireland: A Genealogical and Historical ..., Edward Kimber, ‎John Almon – 1768

The Peerage of Ireland: Or, A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of the Kingdom, by John Lodge, ‎Mervyn Archdall , 1789,

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Volume 4

Volume 5

Volume 6

Volume 7

Consolidated Index to Records of the Genealogical Office Dublin, Ireland, by Virginia W. McAnlis (manuscript), 265 pgs.

Irish Genealogy, Heraldry and Family History: Select Bibliography, by Virginia W. McAnlis (manuscript), 2 pages

The Irish landed gentry when Cromwell came to Ireland, by John O’Hart, published 1887, 800 pages

Index to Irish Wills: Volume II Diocese of Cork and Ross, by W.P.W. Phillimore, published 1910

Index to the prerogative wills of Ireland, 1536-1810, by Sir Arthur Edward Vicars, ed, published 1897, 538 pages


Gaelic nobility of Ireland

Irish Genealogy

Irish Landed Gentry (database) $

Irish Nobility

Irish Nobility (category list)

Irish Noble Families (category listing)

Peerage of Ireland

History and Register of the Nobility of Ireland

Medieval Nobility of Ireland



A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, by Samuel Lewis, published 1837


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Our Favorite Gazetteers



A guide to Belfast and the counties of Down & Antrim, by Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, published 1902, 283 pages

Scotch Irish pioneers in Ulster and America, by Charles Knowles Bolton, published 1910, 398 pages

The Broken Sword of Ulster, by Richard Cuninghame, published 1904, 216 pages

Statistical survey of the County of Antrim, by John Dubourdieu, Royal Dublin Society, published 1812, 742 pages

Highways and Byways in Donegal and Antrim, by Stephen Lucius Gwynn, Hugh Thomson, published 1899, 319 pgs

An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster, 1608-1620, by George Hill, published 1877, 622 pages

The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in Ireland, by Edward Hyde of Clarendon, published 1740

History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798 with Memoirs of Emmett's Insurrection in 1803, by William H. Maxwell, pub. 1854

Annals of Ulster: From 1790 to 1798, by Samuel McSkimin, Elizabeth J. McCrum, published 1906, 104 pages

Ireland, 1494-1868, by William O'Connor Morris, published 1898, 372 pages  (Item notes: +map)

Revolutionary Ireland and Its Settlement, by Robert Henry Murray, John Pentland Mahaffy, published 1911, 446 pages

Memoirs of the Different Rebellions in Ireland: From the Arrival of the English: Volume 1, by Richard Musgrave, pub.1802

Memoirs of the Different Rebellions in Ireland: From the Arrival of the English: Volume 2, by Richard Musgrave, pub. 1802

History of the rise and progress of Belfast, and annals of the county Antrim, by James Adair Pilson, pub.1846, 184 pgs

 A History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland & Civil History of Ulster: Vol. 1,  By James S. Reid,, pub. 1837

A History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland & Civil History of Ulster: Vol. 2,  By James S. Reid, pub. 1853

The traveller's guide through Ireland, by Joseph Robertson, published 1806


History of Ireland

History of Northern Ireland

Timeline of Irish History

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The Isle of Man, otherwise known simply as Mann, is a self-governing possession of the Crown in right of the Isle of Mann, and as such is not a country of the United Kingdom.  It located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.  The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. As one of the six Celtic nations, Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, gradually emerged.

      The history behind coat-of-arms of the Isle of Man appears to be fairly well documented as dating back to the 13th century.    The arms are recorded in the English, “Walford’s Roll”, and “Camden Roll”, as well as the French “Wijgergen Roll”.   Within the “Camden Roll” the arms appear illustrated as: gules, three mailed legs embowed, and conjoined at the thighs, argent; the original Norman French blazon reads: "l'escu de gules, a treis iambes armes".  This symbol appears in the island's flag and coat of arms, as well as its currency.  The coat-of-arms of the Isle of Man were officially granted by Queen Elizabeth II, Lord of Mann in1996.

      There is little literature regarding personal heraldry on the Isle of Man.  It appears that with very few exceptions, none of the ancient Manx families of the 13th and 14th centuries possessed confirmed armorial bearings.   This does not include later settlers from other parts of the British Isles who may have been granted arms through the traditional authorities.  According to Burke’s Landed Gentry, the Christian family of Ewanrigg Hall Co. Cumberland, and Milntown, and the Quayle family of Crogga are noted as armigerous.

The current heraldic authority with jurisdiction over the Isle of Man is the College of Arms.  It is most probable that this has been the case since the College of Arms was founded in 1484 although it may be debated whether Manx families really gave much concern about the formal granting or confirmation of their armorial bearings until recent times.   

Heraldry Books

Heraldry Websites

Bio-Gen Books

Bio-Gen Websites

Geography Books

Geography Websites

History Books

History Websites



Armorial Bearing of the Isle of Man, by  H. R. Oswald, 1860


A discourse regarding Manx armorial bearings

Our Collection of Ancient Manx Heraldry

The Three Legs of Man



Old Manx Families, by A.W. Moore, published 1889


Armigerous Families Associated with the Isle of Man

Manx Names in the Early 16th Century

The Isle of Man Family History Society

Isle of Man Genealogy & Family History $




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A Short Treatise on the Isle of Man:…, by James Chaloner, published 1863, 138 pages

A View of the Jurisprudence of the Isle of Man:…, by James Johnson, published 1811, 234 pages

Manx Note Book: Volume 1, by A.W. Moore, published 1885, 497 pages


History of the Isle of Man

Isle of Man Timeline & Facts

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      Heraldry in Scotland, while broadly similar to that practised in England and elsewhere in western Europe, has its own distinctive features.  Its heraldic executive is separate from that of the rest of the United Kingdom. The earliest existing examples of Scots heraldry are Stewart coats of arms from seals of the last half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th, and show the fess chequy, which is still a feature of 21st century Scots heraldry.

      In Scottish heraldry there is no such thing as a "family coat of arms".  Junior members of a family are assigned specific and relevant differences to the armorial bearings of an ancestor.  Scottish heraldry operates under the proposition that all those who share the same surname are related, however distantly. Consequently, where a coat of arms for the head of a family already exists, new grants of arms to individuals with the same surname will generally be variations on those arms. As such Scottish heraldry, as compared with England and other countries, the basic coats of arms are relatively few in number, but numerous differenced versions of each basic shield exist. Thus the basic, or simple undifferenced arms and crest, are the property, not of the 'family', but of the 'Chief' of each clan or house. 

      The heraldic traditions of Scotland maintain several distinct characteristics that differ it from those found throughout the other countries of the British Isles.  One of the most obvious visual distinctions of Scottish heraldry from heraldic styles used elsewhere is that the scroll on which the motto is displayed is almost always positioned above the crest in Scottish bearings.  Another difference between Scottish and English heraldry lies in the cadency systems employed to distinguish younger sons of an armiger.  English heraldry uses a series of small symbols, termed brisures, to differentiate between the senior representative of an armigerous family and junior lines known as "cadet branches".  In Scotland, except for the line of the immediate heir, this function is served by a series of bordures (borders) surrounding the shield of varying, specified colors and designs, named the "Stodart" system.  Heraldic badges are treated differently in Scottish heraldic practice than in English armory.  A Scottish badge is usually defined as an armorial device, not part of the coat of arms, but available to an armigerous person or corporation for the purpose of identification.  With regard to divisions of a shield Scottish regulations limit to sixteen quarterings, whereas English heraldry appears to put no constraint on such divisions.

      The Scottish heraldic executive is separate from that of the remainder of the United Kingdom and is vested in the Lord Lyon King of Arms.  The Lord Lyon exercises general jurisdiction over all matters armorial in Scotland and serves as a Judge of the Realm.  He also decides on questions relating to family representation, pedigrees and genealogies.  In addition, he supervises all state, royal and public ceremonies in Scotland.  The Lord Lyon also asserts the right to decide who is Head of the Clan or Chief of the Family or Name.

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Queen Mary’s Roll, by Sir James Balfour, published c. 1562, (blazons only)

Scottish Tartans in Full Color, by James Grant - 1992 – ( limited preview) ‎

Scots Heraldry: A Practical Handbook on the Historical Principles and Modern Application of the Art and Science, by Thomas Innes, 1956

The Tartans of the Clans and Septs of Scotland with the ... Volume 2, by W. & A.K. Johnston, 1906

The Peerage of Scotland, by E. Kimber - 1767

Scottish Armorial Seals, by William Rae MacDonald, published 1904, 382 pages

Scotland's Herauldrie: the Science of Herauldrie … as a part of Civil law & Law of Nations, by George Mackenzie, 1680

A System of Heraldry, by Alexander Nisbet, published 1722

Heraldry in Relation to Scottish History and Art:  Being the Rhind Lectures on Archaeology for 1898, by James Balfour Paul,1900

An Ordinary of Arms: Contained in the Public Register of All Arms & Bearings in Scotland, by James Balfour Paul,1893

The Town Council Seals of Scotland, by A. Porteous - 1906

The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland, by George Seton, 1863

A collection of armorials of the County of Orkney: ...,by Henry L. Norton Smith, 1902

The Arms of the Baronial & Police Burghs of Scotland, by J. H. Stevenson,, - 1903

Scottish Arms Volume 1, by R.R. Stodart - 1881
Scottish Arms Volume 2, by R.R. Stodart - 1881


Armorial of Sir David Lindsay (1599)

Arms of the Wardens of Roxburgh Castle, 1174-1460

c1520 Heraldic Ceiling, St. Machar Cathedral, Aberdeen

Civic Heraldry of Scotland

Clan Badges Database A-Z

Dunvegan Armorial (c.1600)

Forman's Armorial (1563)

Hamilton Armorial (1560)

Images of Scottish Heraldry

Kings and Nobilities Arms Vol. II (1638)

Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland

Scotland– Arms & Badges Database

Scotland Heraldry – Family Search

Scottish Badges– Arms & Badges Database

Scottish Bookplates– Arms & Badges Database

Scottish Coat of Arms A-Z Database

Scottish Coats of Arms A-Z Galleries

Scottish Heraldry - Wikipedia

Scottish Peerage Armorial Playing Cards (1691)

Seton Armorial (1591)

The Court of the Lord Lyon

The Heraldry Society of Scotland



The Clans, Septs & Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, by  Frank Adam, ‎, 1970, (limited preview)

The peerage of Scotland: a genealogical and historical ... , by John Almon, 1767 

The Scottish Nation: Surnames, Families, and Biographical History of the People of Scotland, by William Anderson

Volume 1, ABE-CUR, (1877);   Volume 2, DAL-MAC, (1878);   Volume 3, MAC-ZET, (1878)

McIan's Costumes of the Clans of Scotland:…, by D. Bryce and Son,  1899 - ‎343 pages

The Peerage of Scotland, George Crawfurd, Contributor, published c. 1716, 502 pages

Dormant or Forfeit Peerage of Scotland, by W.O. Hewlett - 1882

Epitaphs & Inscriptions in the North East of Scotland Volume 1, by A. Jervise - 1875
Epitaphs & Inscriptions in the North East of Scotland Volume 2, by A. Jervise - 1879

Inscriptions from the Shields or Panels in Trinity Hall Aberdeen, by A. Jervise - 1863
Land of the Lindsays, by A. Jervise - 1882 (2nd ed.)

The Heraldry of the Stewarts, by G. Harvey Johnston - 1906

The Clans of the Scottish Highland:..., by James Logan,Robert Ronald McIan - 1899 - ‎343 pages  

Genealogical Collections Concerning Families in Scotland, by Walter Macfarlane, James Toshach Clark, pub. 1900

Volume 1;    Volume 2

Clans and Tartans, by Charles MacLean – 1997 (limited preview)

The Scots peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom, by James Balfour Paul.  9 Volumes published 1904 to 1914.

Volume 1 Abercorn-Balmerino, 1904

Volume 2 Banff-Cranstoun, 1904

Volume 3 Crawford-Falkland, 1906

Volume 4  Fife-Hyndford, 1907

Volume 5 Innermeath-Mar, 1908

Volume 6, 1909

Volume 7, 1910

Volume 8, 1911

Volume 9, Index 1914

Directory of Noblemen and Gentlemen’s Seat and Villages in Scotland, by Sutherland and  Knox, 1857

Vestiarium Scoticum: …, by Richard Urquhart, 1842, 109 pages (Rolls of the Scottish Clans)


Kings of Scotland (834-1603)

List of family seats of Scottish nobility

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Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland, by Adam and Charles Black , published 1861, 635 pages

Caledonia: Historical & Topographical Account of North Britain: with Dictionary of Places, by Geo. Chalmers

Volume 1, 1887

Volume 2, 1887

Volume 3, 1888

Volume 4, 1889

Volume 5, 1890

Volume 6, 1890

Volume 7, 1894

Volume 8, 1902

Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: Survey of Topography, Statistical, Biographical, & Historical, by Francis H. Groome, 1895


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From Tartan to Tartanry: Scottish Culture, History and Myth, by Ian Brown – 2010, (limited preview)

History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland, from A.D. 1493 to A.D. 1625, by Donald Gregory, pub.1836

Memorials of Angus & The Mearns (Kincardineshire), Volume 1, by A. Jervise - 1885
Memorials of Angus & The Mearns (Kincardineshire), Volume 2, by A. Jervise - 1885

A History of Dumfries and Galloway, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, published 1896, 411 pages

A History of the Border Counties: (Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles), by George Brisbane Douglas, published 1899, 482 pages

The history of the province of Moray, Original Edition, by Lachlan Shaw,  published 1827, 498 pages

The history of the province of Moray: Comprising the Counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the County of Inverness, and a portion of the County of Banff,—all called the Province of Moray before there was a division into Counties.,  by Lachlan Shaw, James F. S. Gordon, published 1882.   Volume 1;   Volume 2;   Volume 3

History of Moray and Nairn, by Charles Joseph Galliari Rampini, published 1897, 438 pages

A History of Peeblesshire, by William Chambers, published 1864, 557 pages

Peebles and Selkirk, by George C. Pringle, published 1914, 149 pages

An Old Berwickshire Town: History of the Town and Parish of Greenlaw, by Robert Gibson, Thomas Gibson, pub.1905


History of Scotland

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     Heraldry in Wales has a tradition distinct from that of English and Scottish heraldry. There is evidence that heraldry was already being used in Wales by the middle of the thirteenth century; for instance, in Gwynedd, two sons of Llywelyn the Great are recorded as having borne coats of arms in this period.  Following the integration of Wales into England in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Welsh heraldic tradition became merged into that of England.

     All heraldic matters in Wales are under the jurisdiction of the College of Arms,  a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms.  The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on her behalf in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees as applicable to Wales.

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Observations on …parts of Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex: also parts of North Wales: Vol. 1, by Gilpin, 1809

Observations on… parts of Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex: also parts of North Wales: Vol. 2, by Gilpin, 1809

Visitation of England and Wales, edited by Joseph Jackson Howard, Maltravers, Frederick Arthur Crisp, 33 volumes published 1893-1921

Volume 01 

Volume 02 

Volume 03 

Volume 04

Volume 05 

Volume 06 

Volume 07 

Volume 08 

Volume 09 

Volume 10 

Volume 11 

Volume 12 

Volume 13 

Volume 14 

Volume 15 

Volume 16 

Volume 17 

Volume 18 

Volume 19 

Volume 20 

Volume 21 

Volume 22 

Volume 23 

Volume 24 

Volume 25 

Volume 26 

Volume 27

Volume 28 

Volume 29 

Volume 30 

Volume 31 

Volume 32 

Volume 33 

Vol. 01 Notes

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Vol. 07 Notes

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Vol. 10 Notes

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A Short History of Wales, by Owen Morgan Edwards, Edition: 2, published 1909, , 139 pages

A popular history of the ancient Britons or the Welsh people, by John Evans, published 1901, 414 pages

A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest: Volume 1, by John E. Lloyd, pub.1912, 815 pgs

A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest: Volume 2, by John E. Lloyd, published 1912

The history of Wales, translated by David Powell, published 1774, 396 pages

The history of Wales: With an Appendix, by William Warrington, Edition: 2, published 1788, 620 pages

History of Wales, by Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward, published 1859, 608 pages

Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales, by Thomas Nicholas, 1872‎


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