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F. Scott Fitzgerald's
"Babylon Revisited":
A Long Expostulation and Explanation

Thomas A. Larson, M.A.


Contents and Introduction

An Annotated Bibliography
on the Biographical Origins of "Babylon Revisited"


This bibliography contains only those works that are of a biographical nature by design. Because "Babylon Revisited" is biographical in its inception, biographical details are often mentioned in critical studies of the story. Refer to the other bibliographies in this study for the areas listed below:

Chapter 2 Annotated Bibliography - Click here for a bibliography concerning the texts and textual studies of "Babylon Revisited."
Chapter 3 Annotated Bibliography - Click here for a bibliography concerning the popular and critical reception of "Babylon Revisited."
Chapter 4 Annotated Bibliography - Click here for a bibliography concerning "Babylon Revisited" and Hollywood.


In Fitzgerald's Own Words:
Primary sources in reference to "Babylon Revisited"

Bibliography
Bruccoli, Matthew J. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Descriptive Bibliography. Rev. ed. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987.

Bruccoli's volume is the foremost bibliography of the primary works, letters, papers, etc., of F. Scott Fitzgerald. The bibliography is a revised edition that "corrects and augments" Bruccoli's 1972 edition and a 1980 supplement (xiv).

The Letters of F. Scott Fitzgerald
The abbreviated titles at left are used for the itemizing of letters found immediately below.

As Ever, Scott As Ever, Scott Fitz--: Letters Between F. Scott Fitzgerald and His Literary Agent Harold Ober, 1919-1940. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1972.
Correspondence Correspondence of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Eds. Matthew J. Bruccoli and Margaret M. Duggan. New York: Random House, 1980.
Scott/Max Dear Scott/Dear Max: The Fitzgerald-Perkins Correspondence. Eds. John Kuehl and Jackson R. Bryer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.
Life in Letters F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Life in Letters. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
Letters The Letters of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Andrew Turnbull. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963.
Crack-Up "Letters to Friends" and "Letters to Frances Scott Fitzgerald." The Crack-Up. Ed. Edmund Wilson. New York: New Directions Paperbook, 1956. First published in 1945.
To His Daughter Scott Fitzgerald: Letters to His Daughter. Ed. Andrew Turnbull. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1965.

Letters with Biographical ties to "Babylon Revisited"
Because some letters are printed in more than one volume, individual letters are referenced below, chronologically, followed by the volumes in which they appear. Letters with purely textual or filmscript ties to "Babylon Revisited" are dealt with in their appropriate chapters.

Date Recipient Tie to "Babylon Revisited" Publication
May 1925 Edmund Wilson Americans in Paris Crack-Up 270-271
Letters 341-342
Life in Letters 109-110
May 1930 Maxwell Perkins Wedding party / dinners / drinking Life in Letters 181
May 1930 Harold Ober Wedding party Letters 394-396
As Ever, Scott 167-169
Life in Letters 182-184
June 1930 Mrs. Edward (Mollie McQuillan) Fitzgerald Scottie in Paris with governess Letters 495-496
Life in Letters 184-185
June 1930 Mrs. Edward Fitzgerald General circumstances of 1930 Letters 496
June 1930 Rosalind Sayre Smith Circumstances of 1930 Correspondence 236
after June 1930 F. Scott Fitzgerald from Zelda Fitzgerald Reminiscent letter / times in Paris Correspondence 238-239
Summer? 1930 Zelda Fitzgerald issue of blame / images of Paris Correspondence 239-241
Life in Letters 187-189
Summer? 1930 Zelda Fitzgerald Responsibility for circumstances Correspondence 244
Summer 1930 Edmund Wilson Homosexuals in Paris Letters 344
Early Fall 1930 F. Scott Fitzgerald from Zelda Fitzgerald Lengthy reminiscent letter Correspondence 245-251
Life in Letters 189-195
ca. Sept. 1, 1930 Max Perkins Circumstances of 1930, drinking Scott/Max 168-169
Life in Letters 199-200
Nov. 1930 Harold Ober Circumstances of 1930 Life in Letters 201
Dec. 1, 1930 Judge and Mrs. Sayre Summary of circumstances of 1930 Correspondence 253-255
Life in Letters 202-203
1930 Mrs. Edward Fitzgerald Scottie in Paris / family split up Correspondence 255
1930 / 1931 Harold Ober Paris / Ritz, Montmartre Correspondence 256-257
rec'd Jan. 2, 1931 F. Scott Fitzgerald from Zelda Fitzgerald Founded on quarrel with Rosalind As Ever, Scott 174-175
Mar. 14, 1932 Dr. Mildred Squires Dislike for Rosalind Life in Letters 208-210
Mar. 20?, 1932 Dr. Mildred Squires Responsibility for circumstances Life in Letters 210-211
July 19, 1934 Rosalind Sayre Smith Circumstances of 1930; drinking Correspondence 373-374
Aug. 8, 1934 Rosalind Sayre Smith Issue of governess for Scottie Correspondence 375-378
Life in Letters 265-268
Dec. 8, 1934 Harold Ober Recount of circumstances of 1930 Letters 396-397
July 1939 Scottie Fitzgerald View of Newman, Rosalind* Letters 59-61
To His Daughter 96-99
late July? 1939 Kenneth Littauer Death of Fitzgerald's illusions Letters 588-589
Life in Letters 402
Jan. 25, 1940 Scottie Fitzgerald Scottie as "Honoria" Letters 63-64
To His Daughter 103
1940 Gerald and Sara Murphy Name of "Honoria" Crack-Up 282-283
Letters 428-429
Life in Letters 458-459
June 7, 1940 Scottie Fitzgerald Scottie as "Honoria" Letters 76-78
To His Daughter 123-126
Life in Letters 448-450
June 14, 1940 Zelda Fitzgerald Paris last great season 10 years ago Life in Letters 452

Uncollected letters

ca. June 1930 Rosalind Sayre Smith Feud with Rosalind Location: Princeton (discussed in Chapter 1)
June 8, 1930 F. Scott Fitzgerald from Rosalind Sayre Smith Feud with Rosalind Location: Princeton (discussed in Chapter 1)

* = The texts in these volumes do not identify Newman and Rosalind; Donaldson in his biography of Fitzgerald does (90, 233n). The references occur in the last sentence of the letter proper.

Papers

F. Scott Fitzgerald's Ledger: A Facsimile. Introduction by Matthew J. Bruccoli. Washington, D. C.: NCR/Microcard Editions, 1972.

Covering the years from 1896 through 1935, the fifth section of the Ledger is a diary of sorts, with jottings and limited commentary of the events of Fitzgerald's life, which he entitled "Outline Chart of My Life." The following is a list of the parts of the Ledger most pertinent to "Babylon Revisited": those times the Fitzgeralds were in Paris and the events surrounding Zelda's breakdown in 1930:

Date Specific Ties to "Babylon Revisited" Ledger p.#
May - June 1921 ----- 175
May 1924 ----- 178
May 1925 The Florida, million Americans 179
June 1925 Ritz, 1000 parties and no work 179
July, Sept. 1925 ----- 179
Oct. 1925 Bricktop's 180
Nov. - Dec. 1925 ----- 180
June 1926 ----- 180
April-May 1928 ----- 182
June 1928 carried home from Ritz 182
July 1928 drinking and general unpleasantness 182
Aug. 1928 Zelli's 182
Apr-June 1929 (June: Russian ballet: Post version) 183
Oct. 1929 ----- 184
Nov. 1929 Zelli 184
Dec. 1929 - March 1930 ----- 184
April 1930 Zelda enters Malmaison, Ludlow Powell, Zelli's 184
May 1930 Bachelor dinner, wedding, wrote "Bridal Party" 184
June - July 1930 Zelda to Prangins, Newman Smith, five days in Paris, Paris with Scotty, Bricktop's 184
August 1930 ----- 184
Sept. 1930 Casino 184
Oct. 1930 Casino 185
Nov. 1930 Scotty to Empire 185
Dec. 1930 ----- 185

other

Feb. 1928 Rosalind 182

"The Note-Books." The Crack-Up. Ed. Edmund Wilson. New York: New Directions Paperbook, 1956. 91-242. First published in 1945.

This initial presentation of the Notebooks was superseded by the 1978 volume edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli (see ensuing note).

The Notebooks of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich/Bruccoli Clark, 1978.

The Notebooks are what their name implies; they contain a little bit of everything, with the outward purpose being that the jottings might find their way into a novel someday. In reference to "Babylon Revisited" are passages about Rosalind (88 n606, 151 n981); the former reference contains Scottie's view of her as a "sweet old bore." Passages from "Babylon Revisited" found in the Notebooks are covered in this study on page 39.

Other Fitzgerald Works with ties to "Babylon Revisited"

"The Bridal Party." The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A New Collection. Edited with a Preface by Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1989. 561-576. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 203 (9 August 1930): 10-11, 109-110, 112, 114.

The bachelor dinner mentioned in Fitzgerald's Ledger in May 1930 was in reference to Powell Fowler's marriage; brother of Ludlow Fowler, a friend of Fitzgerald's from Princeton days. The occasion provided Fitzgerald material for this short story, in which the Ritz Bar is a setting.

"Echoes of the Jazz Age" and other essays. The Crack-Up. Ed. Edmund Wilson. New York: New Directions Paperbook, 1956. 13-22. The Crack-Up was first published in 1945. "Echoes of the Jazz Age" originally appeared in Scribner's Magazine 90 (November 1931): 459-465.

"Echoes of the Jazz Age" is a poetic essay in which Fitzgerald looks back at that period of time between 1919 and 1929. Written a year after "Babylon Revisited" and two years after the Crash, the essay presents Fitzgerald's sense of the age. Other essays in The Crack-Up, notably "Show Mr. and Mrs. F. to Number--" (written with Zelda) and "The Crack-Up," also pertain to the life and times surrounding "Babylon Revisited."

"How to Live on Practically Nothing a Year." Afternoon of an Author: A Selection of Uncollected Stories and Essays. Introduction and Notes by Arthur Mizener. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957. 100-116. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 197 (20 September 1924): 17, 165-166, 169-170.

This essay mostly concerns the Riviera, but two references to Paris are noteworthy: "Outside we could hear the high, clear honk of strange auto horns and we remembered that we were in Paris" (102) and "Every morning a new boatload of Americans poured into the boulevards" (104).

"The Intimate Strangers." The Price Was High: The Last Uncollected Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. 606-627. Originally appeared in McCall's 62 (June 1935): 12-14, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44.

Settings in this story include the Ritz Hotel in Paris. Written soon after the revision of "Babylon Revisited" for Taps at Reveille, "The Intimate Strangers" contains another Fitzgerald reference to the taxi horns. This time, however, the horns fall symbolically silent: "then taxis without horns--it was late" (617).

"News of Paris--Fifteen Years Ago." Afternoon of an Author: A Selection of Uncollected Stories and Essays. Introduction and Notes by Arthur Mizener. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957. 221-226.

"News of Paris" was found among Fitzgerald's papers after his death, and Mizener dates the piece as being written in 1940 (221); its setting of Paris connects the story to "Babylon Revisited," but more important is its mention of "the auto horns playing Debussy" (221).

The Romantic Egoists: A Pictorial Autobiography from the Scrapbooks and Albums of Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Eds. Matthew J. Bruccoli, Scottie Fitzgerald Smith, and Joan P. Kerr. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974.

Among the ties to "Babylon Revisited" are a snapshot of the party at Powell Fowler's bachelor dinner at the Ritz bar in Paris (174); a snapshot of Honoria Murphy taken that winter of 1930-31 (178), a facsimile of the first page of "Babylon Revisited" in The Saturday Evening Post (179), and various photographs of Scott, Zelda, and Scottie during 1930 (176-178).

Tender Is the Night: A Romance. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934.

Tender Is the Night was Fitzgerald's novel in progress when "Babylon Revisited" was written. Scenes set in Paris include the Ritz bar and the Seine. The textual relationship between Tender Is the Night and "Babylon Revisited" is well drawn out in Chapter 2 of this study.

Paris in other Works by Fitzgerald (first American book publications in Fitzgerald collections)*

"A New Leaf." Bits of Paradise: 21 Uncollected Stories by F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Selected by Matthew J. Bruccoli with Scottie Fitzgerald Smith. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 204 (4 July 1931): 12-13, 90-91.

"Not in the Guide Book." The Price Was High: The Last Uncollected Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. 162-176. Originally appeared in Women's Home Companion 52 (November 1925): 9-11, 135-136.

"One Trip Abroad." Afternoon of an Author: A Selection of Uncollected Stories and Essays. Introduction and Notes by Arthur Mizener. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 203 (11 October 1930): 6-7, 48, 51, 53-54, 56.

"A Penny Spent." Bits of Paradise: 21 Uncollected Stories by F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Selected by Matthew J. Bruccoli with Scottie Fitzgerald Smith. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 198 (10 October 1925): 8-9, 160, 164, 166.

"The Swimmers." Bits of Paradise: 21 Uncollected Stories by F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Selected by Matthew J. Bruccoli with Scottie Fitzgerald Smith. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. Originally appeared in The Saturday Evening Post 202 (19 October 1929): 12-13, 150, 152, 154.

* = Sources: André Le Vot's article "Fitzgerald in Paris" in the Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 5 (1973): 49-68, and Matthew J. Bruccoli's F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Descriptive Bibliography (Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987)."A New Leaf," "One Trip Abroad," and "The Swimmers" also appear in The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A New Collection (Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1989).

Zelda's Novel

Fitzgerald, Zelda. "Save Me the Waltz." Zelda Fitzgerald: The Collected Writings. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. 7-196.

Zelda's novel Save Me the Waltz was written between the Post appearance of "Babylon Revisited" and its revision for Taps at Reveille. Zelda's book angered Fitzgerald because it touched on many of the same areas that he was putting into his own novel Tender Is the Night, which was not yet finished. Zelda's novel is considered highly autobiographical and connections may be made to "Babylon Revisited." Some excerpts:

"Nobody knew whose party it was. It had been going on for weeks. When you felt you couldn't survive another night, you went home and slept and when you got back, a new set of people had consecrated themselves to keeping it alive. It must have started with the first boatload of unrest that emptied into France in 1927" (95).

"The rising vogue of the David Knights brought Dickie Axton flying symbolically across their horizons, scribbling over the walls of their prosperity a message from Babylon which they did not bother to read, being at the time engrossed in the odor of twilit lilacs along the Boulevard St-Germain and the veiling of the Place de la Concorde in the expensive mysticism of the Blue Hour" (95-96).

" 'What did you say about the Prince of Wales being sick?' called Alabama" (97).

"The post-war extravagance which had sent David and Alabama and some sixty thousand other Americans wandering over the face of Europe in a game of hare without hounds achieved its apex. The sword of Damocles, forged from the high hope of getting something for nothing and the demoralizing expectation of getting nothing for something, was almost hung by the third of May. ¶ "There were Americans at night, and day Americans, and we all had Americans in the bank to buy things with. The marble lobbies were full of them" (98).

"All of them drank. Americans with red ribbons in their buttonholes read papers called the Eclaireur and drank on the sidewalks, Americans with a million dollars and a standing engagement with the hotel masseuses drank in suites at the Meurice and the Crillon. Other Americans drank in Montmartre, pour le soif and contre la chaleur and pour la digestion and pour se guérir. They were glad the French thought they were crazy" (99).

"There was nobody in Paris; everybody said so. ... David drank with the crowds of people in the Ritz Bar celebrating the emptiness of the city together" (119).

other

Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Charles Scribner Sons, 1926.

Fitzgerald read Hemingway's first major novel, and one of the images Hemingway employed in his book was later employed by Fitzgerald in "Babylon Revisited." Fitzgerald was ever fearful of allowing other author's writings to influence his own, especially Hemingway's, but here is one image which Fitzgerald subconsciously borrowed: Hemingway writes of Jake Barnes, in Paris, noticing "the poules going by, singly and in pairs, looking for an evening meal" (14). Fitzgerald writes of Charlie Wales, in Paris, noticing "cocottes prowling singly or in pairs" (620). Both Jake and Charlie would treat one of these poules or cocottes to a meal. Neither one would (Jake couldn't) take the woman any farther, but Jake left a fifty-franc note for his date, while Charlie left his a mere twenty-franc note.

Biographies and Biographical Studies of
F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald

All biographies of F. Scott Fitzgerald, whether "Babylon Revisited" is dwelt upon in detail or not, necessarily provide biographical origins for the story. Annotations note how the biographical studies relate Fitzgerald's life and times to "Babylon Revisited."

Bruccoli, Matthew J., Scottie Fitzgerald Smith, and Joan P. Kerr, eds. The Romantic Egoists: A Pictorial Autobiography from the Scrapbooks and Albums of Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974.

An editor's insert states that Scottie visited the Newman Smiths in Brussels, where Newman worked for the Guaranty Trust Company, and that Honoria was named for Honoria Murphy (179).

Bruccoli, Matthew J. Fitzgerald and Hemingway: A Dangerous Friendship. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1994. Revised and retitled from Scott and Earnest: The Authority of Failure and the Authority of Success. New York: Random House, 1978.

Passing mention of "Babylon Revisited" states that "Fitzgerald wrote brilliantly about the Ritz bar in Tender Is the Night and "Babylon Revisited" (109) and quotes a May 12, 1950, letter from Ernest Hemingway to Arthur Mizener in which Hemingway writes, "No one of the stories is a great story but the best are `Babylon Revisited' and `The Rich Boy' I guess" (217).

----------. Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.

" 'Babylon Revisited' is usually regarded as Fitzgerald's best story. Here he transferred his guilt to Charlie Wales," " 'Babylon Revisited' is about what it was like to be a rich American in Paris during the Twenties," and "Although considerable self-pity is expressed through Wales, Fitzgerald is clear in assigning blame to the abandonment of traditional values" (309).

Donaldson, Scott. Fool for Love: A Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Dell Publishing, 1989. First published in 1983.

Donaldson explores Fitzgerald's relations with the Sayres during Zelda's first series of breakdowns, stating, "The most condemning portrait [of Rosalind Sayre Smith] occurs in 'Babylon Revisited' " (90). "The story is obviously biographical" (174).

Lanahan, Eleanor. Scottie -- The Daughter of ... : The Life of Frances Scott Fitzgerald Lanahan Smith. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

This volume is a biography of F. Scott and Zelda's daughter Scottie, written by Scottie's own daughter, Eleanor Lanahan. Scottie's "Memoir," begun December 31, 1985, is quoted concerning Zelda's sister Rosalind Sayre Smith and Fitzgerald's quarrel with her (45-46). Interestingly, Scottie had written that "at one point, when things were not going well with my father, wishing they [Rosalind and her husband Newman Smith] had adopted me!" (46).

Le Vot, André. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Biography. Trans. William Byron. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1983.

Le Vot, a French scholar, gives an invaluable perspective of Fitzgerald's life and times in France, and in reference to "Babylon Revisited," he writes, "In December [1930] he wrote 'Babylon Revisited,' investing the story with his own problems. Like him, its hero, Charlie Wales, is profoundly lonely, and his financial prosperity contrasts ironically with his moral poverty; like his creator, he is torn by remorse and anxiety" (256). "The story also marks the end of an era, the foreclosure of the almost divine privileges Americans had enjoyed before the Depression" (256).

Mayfield, Sara. Exiles from Paradise: Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1974. First published by Delacorte Press, New York, 1971.

Sara Mayfield grew up near the Sayres in Montgomery, Alabama, and had continued contact with the Fitzgeralds in later years. Mayfield recounts the biographical aspects that led to "Babylon Revisited," and she states, "Haunted by the fear of a custody suit, he [Fitzgerald] tried to exculpate himself in 'Babylon Revisited' " (161). Sometimes Mayfield's observations are astute, but she does not hide the view she held that Fitzgerald was clearly to blame for Zelda's troubles, a fact not unimportant in consideration of "Babylon Revisited."

Mellow, James R. Invented Lives: F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1984.

" 'Babylon Revisited' drew upon another instance of personal failure and family bitterness, Scottie's stay with her aunt Rosalind Smith in Brussels. The theme is a father's dissipation and his inability to live down the reputation as an alcoholic that he established for himself in the boom days of the twenties" (377).

Meyers, Jeffrey. Scott Fitzgerald: A Biography. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.

Meyers analyzes "Babylon Revisited" through Fitzgerald's biographical connections with the story, "which concerns his own responsibility, guilt and retribution" (210-211); Meyers concludes by stating, "Though Charlie Wales brought himself back from bankruptcy, alcoholism, and broken health, Fitzgerald was never able to achieve this kind of regeneration. Zelda remained permanently ill, and he did have to pay forever" (213).

Milford, Nancy. Zelda: A Biography. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Milford does not write about "Babylon Revisited" directly, but the biography of Zelda necessarily covers events that led to the story.

Mizener, Arthur. The Far Side of Paradise: A Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1951. Revised edition, 1965.

Mizener makes the connection between Fitzgerald's summer of 1925 in Paris by stating, "He put some of the nightmare quality of that summer into 'Babylon Revisited' " (181, Rev. ed. 199*), and he also writes, "He put all his feelings of guilt and pity, as well as his determination to make what restitution he could, into Charles Wales in 'Babylon Revisited' " (218, Rev. ed. 241).
* The revised edition contains a slightly reworded version of this quotation.

Turnbull, Andrew. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962.

In passing mention, Turnbull states, "Like Wales, Fitzgerald would have liked to 'jump back a whole generation and trust in character again as the eternally valuable element' " (205), and in relating "Babylon Revisited" to Fitzgerald's relationship with his daughter Scottie, he writes that the story "had grown from his paternal affection" (223).

Westbrook, Robert. Intimate Lies: F. Scott Fitzgerald and Sheilah Graham -- Her Son's Story. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Westbrook summarizes the plot of "Babylon Revisited" and adds that "Whenever Scott wanted a truly horrible woman to put into a story, he summoned up the image of Zelda's sister, Rosalind; he had used her as 'Baby' Warren, Nicole's sister in Tender Is the Night, and in 'Babylon Revisited' she was nastier still as Marion" (399).

Articles or Sections of Books
with ties to "Babylon Revisited" (Paris, Fitzgerald's drinking, etc.)

Dardis, Tom. "Fitzgerald: 'Bluer Skies Somewhere.' " The Thirsty Muse: Alcohol and the American Writer. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1989. 97-153.

In this analysis of the effects of Fitzgerald's alcoholism, "Babylon Revisited," Dardis states, "is marred by self-pity--Fitzgerald could easily see himself in just this position with Zelda's family and Scottie" (138), and "Fitzgerald is not Wales, but it is clear why this story has become so popular, echoing as it does the biographical facts about a writer whose life has become just as fascinating as his work, and perhaps even more so" (138).

Goodwin, Donald W. "Fitzgerald: 'I'm F. Scott Fitzgerald, the Well-Known Alcoholic.' " Alcohol and the Writer. New York: Penguin Books, 1988. 36-49.

A study of Fitzgerald's alcoholism, this essay attempts to discover the reasons for Fitzgerald's drinking, but it does not mention "Babylon Revisited."

Hemingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964. 147-193.

In this posthumously published memoir, Hemingway recounts his initial and memorable meetings with Fitzgerald in Paris and France, offers opinions on Fitzgerald's drinking and manhood, and portrays Zelda's control over Fitzgerald, all in an unfavorable and questionable portrayal.

Le Vot, André. "Fitzgerald in Paris." Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 5 (1973): 49-68.

Le Vot's article is an invaluable resource in presenting a concise look at Fitzgerald's time in Paris, all the while making connections between Fitzgerald in Paris and "Babylon Revisited" and Fitzgerald's writings. Some of Le Vot's connections include how Fitzgerald "went to the expensive places where he met other Americans, living in an insulated universe where English was the only language and the Americans a race apart: 'We were a sort of royalty, almost infallible, with a sort of magic around us' " (50); and relating how "Scottie's recollections perfectly fit with some of the details in 'Babylon Revisited' " (64).

Tytell, John. "Scott and Zelda." Passionate Lives: D. H. Lawrence, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Henry Miller, Dylan Thomas, Sylvia Plath -- In Love. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1991. 75-141.

Tytell traces Scott and Zelda's relationship, but he deals mainly with Fitzgerald's novels and does not mention "Babylon Revisited."

Wiser, William. "Zelda Fitzgerald: 1900-1948." The Great Good Place: American Expatriate Women in Paris. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1991. 212-263, 320.

The title of the book in which this biographical study appears indicates its relevance to "Babylon Revisited," but no mention of "Babylon Revisited" is made. The concluding section of this book is a study of Josephine Baker (264-314, 321-322)*, who is mentioned in "Babylon Revisited," and a look at her life illuminates some of the Parisian nightlife that is discounted by Charlie Wales in "Babylon Revisited."


Chapter 1 - Return to the essay on the biographical origins of "Babylon Revisited."


An Annotated Bibliography on the Biographical Origins of "Babylon Revisited"
http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~tdlarson/fsf/babylon/bib_bio.htm

© 1995, 1998-2000
Tom Larson

F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited":
A Long Expostulation and Explanation:

Contents and Introduction