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LINCOLN COUNTY
 

LINCOLN COUNTY is bounded on the north by the counties of Marshall, Bedford, and Moore; on the east by Moore and Franklin; on the south by the State of Alabama; and on the west by Giles County. It lies almost wholly within the central basin of Middle Tennessee. The geological situation of the county is about equally divided between the siliceous group of the lower Carboniferous formation, and the Nashville group of the Silurian formation. On the line of railroad may be seen large quantities of black shale, which is so impregnated with petroleum or bitumen that it will sustain for a month a fire when kindled on it. This black shale is also rich in sulphuret of iron, by the decomposition of which copperas and alum are formed. It easily disintegrates upon exposure and is valueless except for the manufacture of the salts mentioned. Many of the limestone rocks are but aggregations of fossil remains. A few miles east of Fayetteville is a quarry where a very fair article of reddish variegated marble is found. This marble is sometimes injured by particles of iron pyrites. The county is divided into two almost equal parts by the Elk River, with which its numerous tributaries affords it excellent water facilities. The streams which enter this river from the north are Bradshaw Creek, Swan Creek, Cane Creek, Norris Creek, Mulberry Creek, Roundtree Creek, Tucker Creek and Farris Creek. Those from the south are Shelton Creek, Duke Creek, Stewart Creek, Wells Creek, Coldwater Creek, and Kelley Creek. Between Elk River and the Alabama line is a belt of high land which is the watershed between Elk River and the Tennessee. This watershed embraces a strip about eight miles wide and includes nearly one-third of the county. It is an exceedingly level high plateau and is not well drained. The sub-soil a pale yellowish clay porous and leachy except in swamps where the clay is bluish. However, a few spots are found with a good red clay subsoil, and when this is found, lands are rated higher. No limestone is seen on this plateau and the main vegetation is wild growth.

The remainder of the county comprises spacious valleys, alternating with productive hills and ridges. Upon some of the hills however, the loose limestone lies in such abundance as to preclude cultivation. The valleys of Elk River and Cane Creek will average a mile in width, and the latter is probably fifteen miles long. The land in these two valleys is as productive as any in the State. Many knolls near Elk River are upraised alluvium. An abundance and a general variety of timber grows in the county. It is mainly of the following varieties: Linn, Buckeye, hickory, poplar, box elder, black walnut, wild cherry, black locust, chestnut, beech, gum, dogwood, ironwood, horn beam, sugar tree, hackberry, cedar and elm.

As early as 1784 land explorers passed through this section, and some surveys were made and grants issued prior to 1790. North Caroline grants for land in this country were issued to John Hodge, Robert Walker and Jesse Comb in 1793. There are also land grants recorded in the office of Lincoln County Register, bearing date of 1794, to the following persons: William Smith, Elizabeth W. Lewis, Ezekiel Norris, William Edmonson, Alexander Green, Thomas Perry, Thomas Edmonson, Mathew Buchanan, Mathew McClure, Andrew Green and John Steele. In the spring of 1806 James Bright, at the head of a surveying party, passed where Fayetteville now stands, striking Elk River near the mouth of Nelson Creek. He found a very rank growth of cane and occasionally discovered Indian trails. Near Fayetteville he found a deposit of periwinkle and muscle shells, giving evidence of an Indian village site, and by some it is supposed that this was the village in which De Soto camped through the winter of 1540-41: This supposition has recently been strengthened by the finding of a coin bearing the inscription of the Caesars.

It is impossible to tell who first settled within the present bounds of Lincoln County. The first settlers are now all in their graves and many have no descendants in the county.. In the fall of 1806 Ezekiel Norris settled on his grant of 1,280 acres of land at the mouth of Norris Creek, and this creek is all that now bears his name in the county. He was a shrewd man. Being led to donate 100 acres of land for the county seat under the false representation that other parties had made the same offer, he afterward sued the county and recovered $700 for the land. He was probably the first permanent white settler in the county.

James Bright also became a citizen of the county, and many deeds are recorded transferring land from him to other parties. For twenty-five years he was clerk of the circuit court and was clerk and master of the chancery court for a term of years. John Greer, a very wealthy man, settled near the mouth of Cane Creek on his large tract of land. He took interest in organizing the county and in conducting the public affairs afterward He was once general of the militia. He erected a valuable mill for those days on Elk River, two miles from Fayetteville.

Joseph Greer settled on his vast domain on Cane Creek near Petersburg. He was a giant in stature, standing six feet seven inches and well built proportionately. He was one of the forty gallant defenders of Watauga Station in 1769. He was also a hero of King s Mountain, and it was he who bore the news of that splendid victory to Congress, then sitting in Philadelphia. He dressed in the style of the old aristocratic Virginia gentleman. Thomas Leonard, Hugh M. Blake, Jesse Riggs, Peter Luna, James Blakemore, Capt. William Crunk and Ezekial March were also settlers on Cane Creek in the first and second decades of this century. Crunk and Blakemore were noted for their social qualities, and dances were frequent at their homes. On Swan Creek, N. G. Pinson, Joel Pinson and Wright Williams were prominent first cane cutters, and men who bore their share of the load in administering public affairs. In what is now embraced in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Civil Districts the first settlements were made by James McCormick, John Anderson, Henry Taylor and Richard Wyatt. On Norris Creek early homes were made by Fielden MacDaniel, Moses Hardin, William Edmonson, John Ray, George Cunningham, Samuel Todd, Isaac Congo, ____ Jenkins and ____ Parks. On Mulberry Creek were John J. Whittaker, a good and prominent man; John Morgan, grandfather of Hon. John M. Bright, Brice M. Garner, who soon removed to Fayetteville, and Gen. William Moore. Others were the several Whitakers, Hardy Holman, William Brown, Enoch Douthat, the Waggoners and Isaac Sebastian.

Other settlements on Norris Creek were made prior to 1810 by Ebenezer McEwen, Robert Higgins, Amos Small and Philip Fox. It is said that Davy Crockett also lived in the vicinity of the waters of Mulberry, in the eastern part of the county, in 1809-10.

In Fayetteville James Bright, who is mentioned above, was one of the most prominent first settlers. James Buchanan, Francis Porterfield, Brice M. Garner, John P. McConnell, Robert C. Kennedy, Benjamin Clements and many others, made up the first citizens of the town. Alexander Beard settled near Fayetteville, south of the river. He has a large body of land, but lost a great portion of it in confirming his title, which, among many other North Carolina grants, was contested. Philip Koonce settled between Shelton Creek and Duke Creek in 1807 or 1808, and near by him, on Shelton Creek, settled Henry Kelso, about the same time. Tunstall Gregory settled on the waters of Shelton Creek, and John Duke on Duke Creek. Michael, Rolinson was one of the first settlers on Coldwater Creek; but an old man, named Abbot, lived in that part of the county five years, before he knew any one else lived within one hundred miles of him, so says one who vouches for the truth of it. A great many settlements were made prior to 1810, on the waters of Coldwater, but names can not be obtained. A man named Peyton Wells was the first to make a home in the vicinity of Wells Hill. He kept a noted ordinary or tavern. A man named Harper was the first to settle on the branch that now bears his name. Joseph Dean and William Todd soon became his neighbors.

The southeastern part of the county was sparsely settled along in the twenties, but the barrenness of the soil has deterred many from locating there.

Many other settlers suffered privations and hardships, as well as those above given, but their names and places of settlement are lost to reliable tradition. In 1808 land entries were made by the following: Anthony Foster, Daniel Cherry, John Morgan, Benjamin Fitzrandolph and George Maxwell. Other land entries were made as follows : 1809-- Adam Meek, William Richey, Robert Davis, Nicholas Perkins, John Richardson, Joseph Greer, Michael Robertson, W.P. Anderson, Oliver Williams, Nicholas Coonrod, Newton Cannon, Wright Morgan, Abram Maury, Stephen Holbert, Malcom Gilchrist, William Martin, Edward Bryans, Jacob Castleman, Nimrod Williams, Jesse Franklin, John Tesley, Daniel Kinley, Philip Phillips, Michael Campbell, Samuel Garland, William Townzen, Robert Bigham and Robert Tucker. 1810 -- Armstead Stubblefield. Abner Wells, William Rountree, Lemuel Koonce, Thomas R. Butler, Francis Nichson, John Cunningham, William Edmiston, James Buchanan, Morris Shaw, Thomas Edmiston, John Alcorn, Robert Elliott, Robert Nelson, James Winchester and Thomas Hickman, 1811-12-- Reuben Stuart, John Cone, Timothy Hunter, James Coats, Roger B. Sapington, Henry Rutherford. 1813-14 -- Robert C. Kennedy, Robert Henry, Alexander Newberry, Brice M. Garner, John Coffman, Francis McCown, Mary Gray, David Cowen, Hugh Heartgrave, James McBride, Joseph Garner, Jeremiah Burks, Elyan Clements, Alden Tucker, Thomas Clark, Joel Butler, Daniel Read, William McGehee, Jesse George, Edward Harding, Samuel Ragsdale, Samuel Yager and Aaron Dutton. 1815-20 - William Dickson, Jr., Jesse Pugh, William Smith, Warren Calhoun, Lavis Pugh, John Russell, Andrew Greer, William Dickson, David McGlathery, Henry Rutherford, David Dodd, James Boyle, John Clark, George Price, Joseph Byers and Joseph Street.

Doubtless many others grants were issued, the records of which are lost. Many of the above persons settled here before obtaining their grants, and some who obtained grants did not permanently settle, and even some were speculators who never lived in the county. On account of the climate and the fertile soil settlers were attracted to Lincoln County, and in 1833 it had a population of 10,788 free white persons. Since then parts of the county have been formed into other counties. In 1880 the population was 26,960.

Among the oldest persons now living in the county and who have been in the county since its pioneer days, are Hon. John M. Bright, Rev. J. W. Holman and C.A. French of Fayetteville, and Hugh M. Blake and Joseph Gill of Petersburg . Early pioneers found it no trival matter to develop their farms and raise their families. Not only was farming to be developed, but milling, merchandising, schools and churches, all required attention. However, these people were happy in their condition, and various were their amusements. Fayetteville, Petersburg and Arnold s Grocery (now Smithland) were noted places for settlement of all grudges in pummelling fights. The lookers-on enjoyed this very much, and it was their duty to see fair play. No weapons or missiles were to be used, and it was not fair to bite. In Fayetteville was a grocery, in which fighting was such a common occurrence that it was known as the war office, Militia musters were big days for the people.

Grist-mills were erected on the creeks and on Elk River, and there were several horse-mills in the county. To these horse-mills each man took his own horse or horses, and hitched them to the sweep to turn the mill while his grist was grinding. The water-mills were more economical, that is, they needed no horse power.

Joel Yowell, an early citizen of Petersburg, had a large horse mill two miles from Petersburg, with a hand-bolting machine attached. Jesse Riggs and Thomas Leonard also had mills of this kind. Leonard and Yowell had wheat threshers attached to their mills, and Leonard also had a cotton-gin attached. However, threshing was mostly done by tramping it out.

In 1811 the county court granted Elias Lunsford permission to build a saw mill on Mulberry Creek. This mill was built the following year. In 1814 David ; . Monroe built a grist-mill on the west fort of Cane Creek. Francis Finchee built a grist-mill in 1815. In 1820 Nathaniel B Binkingham built a mill on Cane Creek on a tract of school land.

Taverns were numerous, and were situated in all parts of the county without regard to towns. Ephraim Parham, Vance Greer, William Cross, Brice M. Garner and John Kelley obtained tavern license in 1811. Collins Leonard, Jesse Riggs, Cornelius Slater, John D. Spain, John P. McConnell, Elisha Boyles, William Garrett, George Stobah, C. R. Milborn, David Cobb, Joseph Dean, John Parks, William Smith, Walter Kinnard, Enoch Douthat, John H. Zevilly, John Houston, John Parks, Thomas Rountree and William Mitchell were other tavern keepers in the teens. These taverns were also know as ordinaries, houses of entertainment , etc.

Elk River was crossed by means of ferries. Ezekiel Norris had one of the first ferries on the river. William P. Anderson established a ferry at the mouth of Farris Creek in 1820, and Andrew Hannah, in 1822, established one at Hannah Ford.

Produce was marketed by means of flat-boats carrying it out of Elk River and down to New Orleans, and by wagons to Nashville. The very earliest merchants obtained their goods mainly from Baltimore, and brought them here by wagons from that city. Estill & Garner were experienced flat-boatmen. They took out boats each years, and returned on foot from New Orleans. At first cotton was not raised here to any extent, and that article was obtained in Alabama and freighted by wagons. Scouting Indians frequented these first settlements, but very few depredations were committed by them. It is handed down by reliable tradition that three men, whose names were Taylor, Anderson and Reed were scalped by the Indians while out searching for a horse. Another incident occurred wherein the Indians forced their way into a house where a woman was making soap. The woman had secreted herself behind the door with a gourd full of boiling soap, and upon their entrance she anointed the dirty red-skins with telling effect, causing them to flee for cooler parts.

Lincoln County was created by an act of the Legislature in 1809. The following is the act so far as it relates to establishment of the county:
AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A COUNTY SOUTH OF BEDFORD, TO BE KNOWS BY THE NAME OF LINCOLN.

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Tennessee, That Lincoln County shall be laid off and established within the following bounds, to wit: Beginning on the northeast corner of Giles County and extending south with the eastern boundary line of Giles County to the southern boundary line of the State; thence with that line east to a point due south of the mouth of the mouth of Cove Spring Creek; thence north to the southern boundary line of Bedford County, and thence, with the said line, westwardly, to the beginning.

Sec. 2. Be it enacted, that John Whitaker, Sr. Wright Williams, Eli Garret, Littleton Duty and Jesse Woodruff be, and they are hereby, appointed commissioners with full power to procure by purchase, or otherwise, 100 acres of land on or near the north bank of Elk River, as near the center of the county, east and west, as a proper situation will admit of, and at all events not more than two miles from said center.

Sec. 3. Be it enacted, that the said commissioners, immediately after procuring the aforesaid 100 acres of land, shall cause a town to be laid off thereon, reserving near the center thereof a public square of two acres, on which the court house and stocks shall be built, likewise reserving a lot in any other portion of said town for the purpose of erecting a jail; and the said town, when so laid off, shall be named Fayetteville.

Sec. 6. Be it enacted, that the court of pleas and quarter sessions, for the county of Lincoln shall be on the fourth Monday in the months of February, May, August and November annually, at the house of Brice M. Garret until a place is provided for holding the said court in the town of Fayetteville.

Sec. 11. Be it enacted, that the militia of the county shall compose the thirty-ninth Regiment and be attached to the Fifth Brigade.

Sec. 14. Be it enacted, that this act shall be in force from the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and ten.

The county thus established assumed the form of a rectangle in outline, but in 1835 a part of the territory now constituted in Marshall County was taken from the original Lincoln County, and in 1872 Moore County was created, embracing a part of Lincoln.

The first County court met Monday, February 26, 1810, at the house of Brice M. Garner, and the following men were qualified justices of the peace by Oliver Williams, Esq. of Williamson County: Thomas L. Trotter, Wright Williams, William Smith, John Whitaker, Sr. William Dickson, William Roundtree, Eli Garrett, Philip Koonce, Henry Kelso, Robert Higgins, Samuel Barns, Littleton Duty, James Stallard, Jesse Woodruff and Nathan G. Pinson. Philip Koonce was appointed chairman and Thomas H. Benton was made clerk pro tem., and entered the first minutes upon record. County officers were elected, an allowance of $1 each for wolf scalps was made, stock marks were recorded, constables were sworn in, justices were appointed to take the tax. etc. At this term 2,662 acres of taxable land were reported. Harvey Holman, Wright Williams, Littleton Duty, Eli Garrett and John Whitaler were appointed to locate the county seat. They bought 100 acres of land of Ezeckiel Norris and plated the town of Fayetteville.

At the May term William Allen was fined $3 for profane swearing, and the August term taxes laid as follows: 6 + cents on each 100 acres of land: 6 + cents on each poll {white and black}, and 12 + cents on each stallion. Ferriage rates across Elk River were established at the following: Wagon, team and driver, 50 cents; cart or other two-wheel carriage, 25 cents; man and horse, 6 + cents, footman, 6 + cents , and live stock 2 cents per head. Tavern rates were made: Good whisky per half pint, 12 + cents; good peach brandy, 12 +; good West India rum, 25 cents; good diet, 25 cents; good lodging, 6+ cents; good stableage with hay or fodder for 12 hours, 25 cents; good corn per gallon, 6+ cents. Brice M. Garner was allowed $15 for the use of his house for the holding of court, and $30 for furnishing county and record books. Jurors were allowed 50 cents each per day for service. At this term a man entered court with an ear bleeding from being bitten off in a fight. He had the incident recorded at length to avoid the imputation of having been cropped under the penal laws. The clerk charged the usual fee for recording a hog mark. At a term in 1811 two men were each fined $125 for not attending as witnesses in an important civil suit.

The county officers, so far as names and dates can be obtained, have been as follows: Sheriffs--Cornelius Slater, 1810; John Greer, 1812; Francis Porterfield, 1822, William Husband, 1826; Andrew Kincannon, 1828; Alfred Smith, 1833; William C. Blake, 1836; Constant Smith, 1840; William B. McLaughlin, 1844; E.G. Buchanan, 1847; Eli L. Hodge, 1848; James Hanks, 1852, W. M. Alexander, 1854; Moses Cruse, 1856; W. M. Alexander, 1858; Moses Cruse, 1860; William Moffett, 1862; John H. Steelman, 1864; William F. Taylor, 1866; C. S. Wilson, 1868; F. W. Keith, 1868; H. B. Morgan, 1870; W. A. Mallard, 1872; R. F. Holland, 1878; W. A. Cunningham, 1882; George W. Poindexter, 1884; Trustees-- John Rhea, 1810; Ebenezer McEwen, 1816; William Neeld, 1826; Samuel E. Gilleland, 1828; E. M. Ringo, 1836; John J. Ramsay, 1838; Richard White, 1842; E. M. Ringo 1844; S. J. Isaacs, 1850; William B. Rhea, 1853; William Neeld, 1854; A. S. Randolph, 1858; William R. Smith, 1862; William P. Neeld, 1864; J. D. Scott, 1866; J. H. Carey, 1868; J. D. Scott, 1870; J. J. Cummins, 1872; H. C. Street, 1874; Henry Henderson, 1876-86. Registers-- Samuel Barns, 1810; Cornelius Slater, 1816; Peter M. Ross, 1832; John Goodrich, 1836; Daniel J. Whittington, 1852; Peter Cunningham, 1860; Miles Ramsay, 1862; A. T. Nicks, 1864; A. J. Childress, 1869, P.D. Boyce, 1870; B. B. Thompson, 1874-86. Rangers-- Philip Koonce, 1810-41; William T. Berry, 1843; A. H. Berry, 1848; N. O. Wallace, 1853-86. County Court Clerks-- Brice M. Garner, 1810-32; Robert S. Inge 1832; F. L. Kincannon, 1832; Charles Boyles, 1836; George W. Jones, 1840; Harmon Husband, 1843; Henry Kelso, 1844; George Cunningham, 1852; E. L. Hodge, 1854; Norris Leatherwood, 1857; Daniel J. Whittington, 1858, John T. Gordon, 1864; E. P. Reynolds, 1868; John Y. Gill, 1870; P. D. Boyce, 1874; E. S. Wilson, 1882.

In 1856 J. R. Chilcoat was elected county judge, and served until the war. Afterward were elected T. J. McGarvey, 1869; J. C. Cowen, 1870; M. W. Woodard, 1873; N. P. Carter, 1874. Circuit court clerks: James Bright, 1810-36; Alfred Smith, 1836; J. R. Chilcoat, 1848; R. S. Woodard, 1868; Rane McKinney, 1870; A. B. Woodard, 1873; Theodore Harris, 1874; W. C. Morgan, 1878.

Chancery clerks and masters previous to the war were Davis Eastland, James Bright, Robert Farquharson and John Fulton served successively. Afterward were Robert Farquharson, until 1869; David Clark, 1869; A. S. Fulton, 1876; W. B. Martin, 1879. Chancellors: B. L. Bramlitt, Terry H. Cahall, B. L. Ridley, John Steele, A. S. Knox, J. W. Burton and E. D. Hancock.

The first court house built was only for temporary use, until another could be erected. It was 18x20 feet in the clear, built with round logs, and covered with a good cabin roof. It had a seat for the jury, court and a resting place for the feet of the court, all of good plank. It was built in 1811 on one corner of the Public Square, by James Fuller, for $35. The first jail was built in 1810, with logs not less than twelve inches in diameter and ten feet long. The walls, floor and loft were all of logs of the same description. In November 1811, a contract to built a new two-story brick court house on the Square, was taken by Micajah and William McElroy, for $3,995. The court afterward allowed $750 extra for the work, thus making the total cost of the building $4,745. This court house was torn down in 1873, and the present one was erected by William T. Moyers, James N. Allbright and William E. Turley, for $29,579,30. J. H. Holman, H. C. Cowan and John Y. Gill composed the committee to report the plans, specifications and estimates for the building; Theodore Harris superintended the work. The second jail that was built, was a two-story brick building, lined on the inside with logs, the logs being protected by sheet iron. It was built about the same time as the court house. The present jail was built in 1868, and by contract was to cost not more than $23,000. It is of stone.

The stone bridge across Elk River is one of the best structures of the kind in the State. It was built in 1861 at a cost of about $40,000. It is of limestone, contains six elliptical arches, and is 450 feet in its entire length. The roadway is flanked on either side by a stone wall three feet high and two feet wide.

The civil divisions of the county were first designated by the companies of militia in the respective parts of the county, i.e., the civil officers of the county were elected from the various militia companies, as they now are from the civil districts. In 1835 the county was laid off into twenty-five civil districts. The lines have been changed from time to time, but still the same number is retained. The school districts have not always coincided with the civil districts, but are now one and the same.

Among the first acts of the county was one to provide for the poor, and in 1815 a special tax was assessed for the county poor. About 1826 a poor farm was purchased and a poor house erected, the supervision of which was put under three commissioners, regularly appointed by the court. The poor are still cared for in this manner.

At different times agricultural societies have been organized, but have as often proved to be institutions of short life. This first one was organized in 1824.

In the year 1858 Fayetteville was connected with the main line of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad by the branch built from Decherd to Fayetteville, and in 1882 the narrow gauge road was built from Columbia to Fayetteville. The main support of these roads in the agricultural product, which in turn brings in articles of general merchandise. Pikes connect Fayetteville with Lynchburg and Shelbyville, and extend from Fayetteville for several miles in all directions.

The political cast of the county is strongly Democratic. In 1884 the vote for president and governor stood as follows: Cleveland, 2,382; Blaine, 890; Bate, 2,220; Reid 941.

Financially old Lincoln is on a strong foundation. She has first class public buildings, good general improvements, with a firm backing of a good agricultural soil. The tax for 1884 shows a total valuation of taxable property of $3.564,340; number of acres of land, 345,722, valued al $2,628,780. The State tax for 1886 is $10.192; county tax, $12,692; School tax, $16,257; road tax, $2,393; making a total tax of $41,535. These figures include the estimate on railroad and telegraph property valued at $166,890. In 1885 there was reported in the county 9,325 horses and mules, 14,090 cattle, 11,969 sheep, 42,415 hogs, 1.070 bushels barley, 213 bushels buckwheat, 1,252,919 bushels corn, 37,908 bushels oats, 1,641 bushels rye and 275,463 bushels wheat.

Upon the bench of the circuit court sat Judge Thomas Stewart to hold the first court in the county. Then came Judge Kennedy for a time, who was succeeded by Judge Edmund Dillahunty, who held for a number of years. A. J. Marchbanks was the next judge and continued on the bench until the war. Gov. Brownlow then appointed N. A. Patterson, who became the laughing stock for the lawyers who attended court. He was deficient in the organs of hearing, and very eccentric in nature. Then came W.P. Hickerson, who did not serve a full term. He resigned and was succeeded by Judge J. J. Williams, who was afterward elected to fill the term now closing. For many years Erwin J. Frierson was the attorney-general, and he was superseded in turn by A F. Goff, James H. Thomas, Joseph Carter, George J. Stubblefield, J. H. Holman, J. D. Tillman and A. B. Woodard, the present incumbent of the office. The court in early days was engaged mainly in trying petty offenses, and not until 1825 was there a sentence of death pronounced. Duncan Bonds had murdered Felix Grundy, and was found guilty. He took an appeal to the Supreme Court of the State. A jury in 1828 rendered a verdict of guilty upon a charge of murder committed by a man named McClure, upon D.C. Hall. He received the sentence of death, and was hung in the spring of 1829. About 1847 a negro named Bill Moore was sentenced and hung for an attempted rape. In 1862 John George was sentenced to be hung for murdering Hosea Towry. He escaped from jail. Two years previous to this, in 1860, a negro, Alf, was hung for murdering his master, William Stevens. The whipping post and pillory often received the victims of the judge s sentence for the various offenses, and men were imprisoned for debt.

The bar of Lincoln County is one that ranks high in Tennessee. Not only are the members at present eminent and able lawyers, but from the first Lincoln County has given a home to many able men. At the first meeting of the county court was present Thomas H. Benton. He drew up the minutes of the first session of that court, and was the county s legal advocate on organization. He resided in Fayetteville for a number of years He then arose to adorn the nation s highest legislative council, of which he was a member for thirty-two years, and was truly an eminent man of America. Contemporary with him was L.P. Montgomery, widely, known as the brave Capt. Montgomery, who began the practice of law in 1810, and who fell at the battle of Horse-Shoe. In 1810 George B. Baulch, George Coalter, William White, Joseph Phillips, Marmaduke Williams, Matthew D. Wilson and Alfred Harris were permitted to practice in the county. In 1811 Eli Tolbert, Samuel Acres and Charles Manton were allowed to practice. George C. Witt and W. S. Fontine also practiced here in that year. Hon. C. C. Clay, of Huntsville, Ala. attended this court as early as 1811, as also did John McKinney and John Tolbert. Other lawyers from adjoining counties visited this court professionally, among whom were Judge Haywood, and later, Nathan Green, James Campbell, William Gilchrist, Oliver B. Hays, Lunsford M. Bramlett and Thomas M. Fletcher. Other prominent early lawyers were James Fulton, Samuel W. Carmack, Charles Boyles, William C. Kennedy, William P. Martin, William M. Inge and John H. Morgan. John H. Morgan, after a number of years in Fayetteville, moved to Memphis, thence to Mississippi, and was elected to the bench in that State. He was the father of Hon. J. B. Morgan, of Mississippi. William P. Martin moved from Fayetteville to Columbia, Tenn, and there was a judge for many years.

Kennedy also removed to Columbia, where he too was elected to the bench. He became the owner of quite a number of slaves, which he emancipated and transported to the African colony of Liberia. W. M. Inge was for many years associated in law with L. W. Carmack at Fayetteville. He served one term in Congress from the district which then included Lincoln County, and afterward made his home in Alabama.

Carmack was born in 1802; was an able and learned lawyer. In 1832 he moved to Florida, although retaining a summer home in Fayetteville. He arose to prominence in Florida, and died in 1849.

James Fulton has been styled the father of the Fayetteville. He located in Fayetteville in 1820, when twenty-two years of age. He filled one term as attorney-general in early life, but devoted his time to the prosecution of his profession rather than pursue official honors. He was an able lawyer and a highly respected citizen. His death occurred in 1856.

Previous to 1825 the following were permitted to practice law in the county: E. B. Robertson. William Kelly, Tryon Yancey, besides those above mentioned. Others were W.D. Thompson and Henry B. Ely, 1827; David Eastland, 1829; John R. Greer and Robert Inge. 1832; Andrew A. Kincannon and Elliott H. Fletcher, 1834; George W. Jones, 1839. Mr. Jones was born in 1806, and came to this county when young. He was three times elected to the Legislature. For sixteen years he was a member of Congress, and was in the Senate once. In his congressional career he received the nickname of the watch dog of the treasury . He was also a member of the Confederate Congress and of the constitutional convention of 1870. He was a very able and popular man, filling many of the county offices and taking especial pride in his county s welfare. His death occurred in 1884. He devoted no time to the practice of law, but lived almost wholly in political circles. Other prominent early attorneys of the county were Felix G. McConnell, who went to Alabama and afterward served in the United States Congress, committing suicide while a member of that body; W.T. Ross, a very able advocate; John C. Rodgers, who died young, but was an able lawyer; and Archibald Yell, who was a man of ability and temper. He and Hon. G. W. Jones once engaged in a physical combat before the county court, of which Jones was chairman. Yell threw a book at Jones, and Jones immediately returned the salute by a personal presentation with knife in hand. By the interference of other parties, no injury was done. Yell commanded a regiment in the Mexican war and was killed at the battle of Buena Vista.

The influence of W. H. Stephens, R. G. Payne, W. F. Kercheval, F. B. Fulton and J. W. Newman, has been felt at the bar. Since 1840 Robert Farquharson, who was prominent in the county, but did not give much time to law; David P. Hurley , who was a member of the bar but a short time, and Jas. M. Davidson, an able young lawyer, have held licenses to practice in these courts. Others were D.B. Cooper, who died when yet young; David W. Clark, who pursued the profession but a short time, but was an influential man; J. R. Chilcoat, who was the first county judge; Thomas Kercheval, now the mayor of Nashville; Ed E. Bearden, O. P. Bruce and Thomas B. Kercheval.

Hon, John M. Bright is the oldest member of the bar now living, and probably acquired the most prominence in political circles. He was born in Fayetteville about 1818, and has ever since made this his home. He is able as an attorney, and a prominent member of the Legislature of Tennessee before the war. In 1880 he retired from Congress, where he had served for several years. J. B. Lamb is one of the oldest and most successful attorneys of the county, and has been a member of the Legislature. He is the senior member of the law firm of Lamb & Tillman, of which Col. J. D. Tillman is the other member. He is a son of the Hon. Lewis Tillman, late of Bedford County. He was lieutenant-colonel (afterward colonel} of the Forty-first Regiment of Tennessee Infantry in the late war. J. H. Holman has been a member of the bar since 1866, and is widely known for his ability. J. H. Burnham is a good speaker, and was on the Hancock electoral ticket. He is now making the race for chancellor of this district. N. P. Carter is the county judge and a practicing lawyer. A. B. Woodard, the attorney-general, was reared in Fayetteville, the son of R. S. Woodard, who was a prominent man of the county. M. W. Woodard, also a son of R. S. Woodard, is a practicing attorney, and has been identified with public offices of the county. Joe G. Carrigan and G. W. Higgins are also able attorneys, and have both been in the Legislature. G. B. Boyles is an attorney at law, and now fills the office of recorder at Fayetteville. Others are Col. N. J, George, who was a lieutenant-colonel in Turney s First Tennessee; A. M. Solomon, an ex-member of the Legislature; R. L. Bright, S. W. Carmack, C. C. McKinney, F. P. Taylor, W. B. Lamb, John Routt and George H. Newman.

The sobriquet of The Banner County, so applied to Lincoln, appropriately represents its attitude matters. Hardly had the first few settlers begun to call this their home before Jackson s troops for the war of 1812 asked and received recruits from the county, among whom were Gen William Moore, who commanded a company; Charles McKinney, S. S. Buchanan, William B. McLaughlin, Frank Smith and others as many as fifteen altogether. These troops made Fayetteville their rendezvous, and upon starting upon the campaign they marched out 2,500 strong and crossed Elk River, near where the stone bridge now is. These men served throughout the war, participating in the battle of New Orleans. A patriotic response was again made to the call for troops in 1836. A full company, commanded by Capt.---Tipps, entered from Lynchburg , and another company was raised by Capt. George A. Wilson, but was not mustered into service. However, Capt. Wilson raised a spy company of about fifty men and entered the service. The following are remembered as members of this company: Augustus Steed. Lieutenant; W. H. Bright, bugleman; William Robertson, David F. Robertson, Henderson Robertson, C. B. Rodgers and Oliver Garland. These were from Fayetteville and the immediate vicinity, while many from the various parts of the county also enlisted in this company, as well as in that of Capt. Tipps. By the act organizing the county the militia of Lincoln was made the Thirty-ninth Regiment and was attached to the Fifth Brigade. For many years the militia musters were largely attended, and amusements invariably attended them.

In the spring of 1846 a company of eighty-three men, known as the Lincoln Guards, was raised at Fayetteville for the Mexican war . It was officered as follows: Captain, Pryor Buchanan; first lieutenant, A. S. Fulton; second lieutenant, John V. Moyers; third lieutenant, C. A. McDaniel; orderly sergeant, William T. Slater. The company left Fayetteville March 31, 1846, and participated in the battle of Monterey, where several members were killed.

Early in the spring of 1861, and after the fall of Fort Sumter, and the call of President Lincoln for troops from Tennessee, war was the only thing discussed in Lincoln County. Old gray haired men, devoted wives, sisters and mothers talked of war until the whole atmosphere was full of it. Children after listening to the discussions and imagining that they could almost see the blood flow were afraid to go to bed, and were often afflicted with nightmare. Little tow-headed boys were shouting the battle whoop from every cabin. Old saws, hoes, etc., were soon upon forge or held to the grindstone to make the large, ugly, ill-shaped bowie knives. Almost every man carried two of these knives which were to repel the invasion in the hand-to-hand conflict which was imagined to be approaching. Public meetings were almost daily occurrences and fiery speeches were long and loud. Men, women, and children, of all ages, sizes and colors, went out to these meetings and joined in the general enthusiasm. Even ladies fell into the ranks of the drilling companies- even the most refined and intelligent; willing to part with -sacrifice, if necessary- those most near and dear to them, were enthusiastic and materially aided in sending forth the grand array of volunteers.

When the question of separation was submitted to the people, Lincoln polled 2,892 votes for separation and not one for no separation. However, even before the State seceded companies were organized and war preparations were rapidly going on. The first companies raised were four, which composed a part of Turney s First Tennessee, and one of which was raised principally in what is now Moore County. The others were officered as follows: Company G- B. F. Ramsey, captain; John Shackelford, first lieutenant; F. G. Buchanan, second lieutenant; Thomas Wilson, third lieutenant; and John Thoer, orderly sergeant. Company K- N. C. Davis, captain; T. J. Sugg, first lieutenant; Joe Davidson, second lieutenant; J. B. Turney, third lieutenant; John W. Nelson, first sergeant. Company H- Jacob Cruse, captain; M. V. McLaughlin, first lieutenant; N. J. George, second lieutenant. These companies left Fayetteville April 29, 1861, for Winchester, where the regiment was organized. These companies were with Turney s First Tennessee Confederates from the first of the war to its close, being in the hottest parts of many of the great battles of the war.

The field officers of this regiment who were from this county were, upon organization J. H. Holman, lieutenant-colonel; D. W. Holman, major. Upon re-organization John Shackelford, lieutenant-colonel; M. V. McLaughlin, major. These officers were killed at Gaines Mill and their places filled by N. J. George, lieutenant-colonel, and F. G. Buchanan, major. Dr. C. B. McGuire was surgeon of the regiment and was afterward brigade surgeon.

While these companies were organizing and going forth to duty, others were also forthcoming. On May 14, 1861, four other companies left Fayetteville, and on the same day arrived at Camp Harris, in Franklin County, where they were mustered into the service of the State on the 17th of the same month by Colonel D. R. Smythe of Lincoln County. These companies were assigned to the Eighth Tennessee, under the command of Col. A. S. Fulton, of Lincoln County. Lincoln County was also represented in this regiment by W. Lawson Moore, lieutenant-colonel; Chris C. McKinney, adjutant; Dr. G. B. Lester, assistant surgeon; and David Tucker, chaplain. Company B. known as the Petersburg Sharp Shooters, was raised at Petersburg, with A.M. Hall as captain; Chris C. McKinney, first lieutenant; T. W. Bledsoe, second lieutenant; C. N. Allen, third lieutenant; and N. P. Koonce, orderly sergeant. Company C was officered as follows: Rane McKinney, captain; N. M. Bearden, first lieutenant; T. W. Raney, second lieutenant; A. M. Downing, third lieutenant; and R. D. Hardin, orderly sergeant. It was known as the Camargo Guards. Company G. Norris Creek Guards, was raised at Norris Creek with George W. Higgins, captain ; W. C. Griswell, first lieutenant; David Sullivan, second lieutenant; E. S. N. Bobo, third lieutenant; Joseph G. Carrigan, orderly sergeant. Company H. Was commanded by W. L. Moore until he was elected lieutenant-colonel, and was then officered as follows: W. J. Theash, captain; William Bonner, first lieutenant; T. H. Freeman, third lieutenant; G. W. Waggoner, first sergeant.

The Eighth Tennessee was one of the two regiments that made the almost unparalleled Cheat Mountain campaign, enduring those severe privations, marching through rain day and night, leaving the roads stained with blood from their feet, and almost starving for want of food. Without blankets or tents and with very little food, for eight days these troops were undaunted in their onward march and in their flight for life, but many took sick and died from exposure and fatigue. Two companies were raised in the western part of the county and constituted in the Thirty-second Regiment. One of them was known as the Millville Men: J. J. Finney, captain; W. P. A. George, first lieutenant; Jno. W. Wright, second lieutenant; Jno. P. McGuire, third lieutenant; David F. Hobbs, first sergeant. The other was the Swan Creek Guards: C. G. Tucker, captain; John Roach, first lieutenant; J. T. Pigg, second lieutenant; H. H. Tucker, third lieutenant; J. S. Finley, first sergeant. The quartermaster of this regiment was E. S. Wilson, of this county.

Then came the organization of the Forty-first Tennessee, whose colonel was Robert Farquharson, of this county, and whose lieutenant-colonel {afterward colonel} was J. D. Tillman, now of Lincoln, then of Bedford. Lincoln furnished four companies to this regiment, viz.: One {company C} commanded by Capt. J. D. Scott, whose lieutenants were B. J. Chafin, J. R. Feeney, and Jacob Anthony, and afterward commanded by Chafin and Feeney successively; one from Mulberry {company A} commanded by W. W. James whose lieutenants were L. Leftwich, Christopher Carrigher and A. D. Johnson; one (knows as Liberty Guards) commanded by J. H. George; with the following lieutenants: William Smith, T. D. Griffis and S. A. Hopkins; and one commanded by W. B. Fonville, whose lieutenants were W. S. Bearden, A. A. Woods and E. R. Bearden. These companies left Fayetteville about the last days of September, 1861, and the regiment was organized at Camp Trousdale.

The Forty-fourth Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Trousdale in November, 1861, with C. A. McDaniel, colonel, and D. J. Noblett, assistant surgeon, from this county. It also included four companies from Lincoln; one commanded by C. A. McDaniel, who, upon being elected colonel, was superseded by T. M. Bell, and he by J. E. Spencer, with the following lieutenant, Joseph Cunningham, A. B. Rhea, and J. J. Martin; one by W. A. Rhodes, with J. H. Patterson, Jacob Van Hoozer and C. K. Moody as lieutenants; one from Shelton Creek, commanded by Capt Smith, and one from Swan Creek, commanded by Capt. Stiles.

The Forty-fourth was actively engaged in some of the fierce conflicts of the war. At Shiloh forty-two per cent of those of the regiment actually in combat were killed and wounded. Afterward this regiment and the Fifty-fifth Tennessee were consolidated, still retaining the name of the former, and embracing another company from this county, which was organized in the latter part of 1861, by W. H. Moore, and embraced in the Fifty-fifth upon the organization of that regiment. Early in 1862 another company was raised by Capt. James R. Bright, with R. B. Parks, J. L. Moore and Stephen Loyd, as lieutenants, and entered an infantry regiment of Kentucky. After the battle of Shiloh the company was reorganized with W. P. Simpson, captain, and J. B. Price, T. D. Hill and G. W. Jones, lieutenants. J. L. Moore who was second lieutenant at its first organization, afterward raised another company and entered the service.

December 21, 1861, there were twenty-one companies of infantry from Lincoln County in the service. However, this number included those raised in Moore County, which was then a part of Lincoln. The company of J. L. Moore, was probably the last full company of infantry to leave the county as a company. Recruits were added to the old commands throughout 1862-64. About September, 1862, Freeman s Battery, which was a part of Hardin s Artillery, received about fifty members from Lincoln County, only one of whom was killed in the service. A great many of Forrest s escort were from this county, probably the majority of the members. Capt. Nathan Boone was captain of the escort. Other cavalry regiments received members from the county. Wheeler s First. Tennessee Cavalry was composed of some Lincoln County boys, as was the Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry and also the Fourth Tennessee Cavalry.

Including all men in the service from first to last, Lincoln County furnished nearly 5,000 soldiers. Besides the regular companies of infantry there were several who entered war in companies from adjoining counties. This was also case with artillery men and cavalry men. At all times recruits were entering the old commands.

At the organization of Capt. Higgins company of the Eighth Tennessee, the ladies of Norris Creek and vicinity presented the boys with a beautiful large flag, the presentation being made by Miss Sallie Landess in an eloquent and stirring address. On the 25th of August, 1861, a magnificent flag was presented to the Eighth Regiment by the ladies of Lincoln County, accompanied by an inspiring address from the Hon. John M. Bright. On the flag were written in large gold letters the words, Patience, Courage, Victory. Many times did the ladies send stores of provisions, containing delicacies for the sick, clothing and all kinds of hospital and camp supplies. Much of the inspiration that enabled the troops to remain in the field with sickness, danger and deprivations, came from the encouragement received from the ladies at home.

The Federals first entered Fayetteville April 9, 1862, causing a sudden suspension of business. They withdrew after about two months stay, and again occupied the town in the spring of 1863, remaining until 1865. The court house was used as a stable for the horses a part of the time, and for the protection of troops at other times. It was surrounded by a bomb proof wall about six feet high, built of brick. The whole county was almost impoverished by the foraging armies passing to and fro. Sherman s whole army, on its march from Memphis to Chattanooga, passed through Fayetteville and crossed Elk River on the stone bridge, which, affording an excellent passage over the river, caused many of the passing armies, both Federals and Confederates, to pass through here. While Fayetteville was occupied by the Federals, business was at a standstill and many depredations were committed. When requested to do anything the citizens did not wait for time to argue points. The depredations, however, were mostly committed by Brixie s band of robbers, who in the main, claimed to be Yankees. Among the most dastardly acts, which the people suffered, was the murder of Judge J. R. Chilcoat. Afterward John Massey, a Confederate soldier, who had returned home {together with two other men named Pickett and Burrow}, was brutally murdered- riddled with bullets. Some buildings were burned county records were destroyed and, of course, property was confiscated. Guerrillas did not injure the people to any great extent.

The war over, the soldiers laid down their arms to return to their avocations of life. They found their farms in a deplorable condition. Their stock was gone, fences burned, buildings going to rack or entirely destroyed. The cost of the war to Lincoln County can hardly be estimated. However, she has now almost recovered from the effects, the hard times and desperate conflicts are remembered as in the past, and all unite in one grand army for the upbuilding of the welfare of the country.

There was a differences of opinion as to the expediency of the location of the county seat where it was located. One-hundred acres of land was obtained of Ezekiel Norris, and a town of 128 lots was platted. On September 5 and 6, a sale of lots was made, the following, among others, being purchasers: Potter & Wilson, 11; Eleanor Buchanan, 1; John Buchanan, 2; Charles Porter, 2; Francis Ross, 1; Robert Ramsey, 1; Joseph Sumner, 2; John Kelly, 2; William Whitaker, 2; Hugh Blake, 2; Joseph Commons, 2; Walter Kinnard, 2; Rice M. Garner, 2; Peter Looney, 1; Joseph Jenkens, 2; Joseph McMillan, 1; James Bright, 2; John Angel, 1; James Cochran, 1; Stephen Chinnault, 1; Jacob Van Zand, 1; The records in the register s office are not all preserved, hence, the names of all the first purchasers can not be obtained.

Among the earliest merchants were Francis Porterfield, Robert Buchanan, Robert H. McEwen, and Robert H. Dickson, all of whom were successful. Mr. Dickson also ran a tan-yard and saddlery. Ephraim Parham was the first man to obtain tavern license; John P. McConnell and Vance Greer also kept taverns in Fayetteville very early. Between 1820 and 1830 existed the following firms: General merchants--Buchanan & Porterfield. R. & W. Dickson. Mason & McEwen, Alex R. Kerr & Co., A. A. Kincannon, Akin, Bagley & Co., McEwen & Gilleland, Daniel Dwyer, H. S. Morgan, William F. Mason & Co., Thompson & Wardaw, John Thompson, Dickson & Wallace, J. H. Wallace, William Akin & Co. Grocers--Parks & Moyers, and J. G. Selph & Co. Physicians-- J. B. Sanders, G. & R. Martin, William Bonner, A. C. Gillespie, Charles & J. V. McKinney, J. J. Todd. C. J. Smith and R. Stone. Besides these, James Crawford had a saw-mill, gristmill and distillery; S. A. Pugh ran a saddlery and Barclay & Ross a furniture store; E. M. Ringo was a watch-maker, Jacob Moyers a coppersmith, I. H. Wallace a shoe-maker, Weigart & Bryant and H. Worsham, tailors. C. Wilson had a bookbindery. An inn was kept by W. H. Talbot. Wool cards were run by Frost & Co., and by Johnson & Garner.

In December, 1823, Robert Dickson, Esq., was elected mayor. Vance Greer, R. H. McEwen, Chas. McKinney, Elliott Hickman, Joseph Commons and J. P. McConnell were elected aldermen; Wm. F. Mason, recorder; Vance Greer, treasurer, and Wm. Timmins, constable. In the thirties, the most prominent general merchants were Wm. Dye & Son. Napoleon Garner, Gilliland & Roseborough, Gilliland, Smith & Co., Martin & Murphy, and A. C. McEwen & Co. The physicians were J. B. Chas. McKinney, Wm. & M. C. Bonner, and Elliott Hickman. In the forties general merchandising was carried on by H. & B. Douglas, A. T. Nicks, John Goodrich, Jno. A. McPhail, S. Hart & Co. R. H. C. Bagley. Fulghum & Short, J. S. & J. T. Webb, Morgan & Neil, A. B. Shull, H. C. Holman & Bro., W. W. Petty, Southworth & Co., D. M. Tucker, T. C. Goodrich, W. H. Webb, Webb & Thompson, George F. Smith, B. L. Russell, Southworth, Morgan & Neil and Scott & Gray. Rane McKinney and Deimer & Hampton were druggists. Webb & Smith had a book store.

In the fifties, Wright & Trantham, T. C. Goodrich, Wright & Ransom, Thomson & Buchanan, Goodrich, Buchanan & Beavers, W. D.& S. M. Ewing and Russell & Tucker were general merchants. Fletcher & Stogner were produce dealers. Groceries were kept by all the general merchants. Scott & Gray were merchants tailors and furnishers. The first carriage manufactory ever established was by Raboteau, Hobbs, & Walker. C. S. Wilson kept a livery stable and Chilcoat & Edmonson a tavern. Diemer & Hampton were druggists.

In the sixties after the halt caused by the war had place to business, general merchandising was carried on by Wright & Trantham, Newman & McLaughlin, J. C. & J. F. Goodrich, Murray & Morgan, P. T. Murray, Morgan Bros., F. W. Brown & Co. Druggist were Diemer & Miles and Smith & Blake. Grocers were Foster & Co., and Woods & Woodard. Moyers & Wilson were dealers in furniture. In the seventies business assumed wider proportions. Morgan Bros., P. T. Murray, Wright & Wright, J. C. Goodrich. T. J. Gray Co. , Smith & Miles, J. E. Caldwell, Nassauer & Hipsh, Hart & Fisher and F. W. Brown did a general mercantile trade. B. J. Chafin & Co., Bagley Bros., Bryson & Lauderdale, J. W. Barnett & Co., J. C. Goodrich, R. L. Gains & Co., W. H. Webb and W. R. Smith dealt in groceries. J. B. Hill, who had been in business for many years, and S. Heymann were jewelers. E. C. McLaughlin, J. S. Alexander and C. S. Wilson ran liveries. S. W. Brown & Co., Blake & McPhail and R. H. Ogilvie were hardware merchants. Douthet Bros. and Gray, Hatcher & Waddle were dealers in boots and shoes. J. T. Medearis ran a tan-yard.

The present business is as follows: General merchants--Wright & Wright. Nassauer & Hipsh, Kilpatrick & Co., Morgan Bros., J. A. Murray & Co., J. A. Lumpkin, J. W. Naylor & Sons, Whitaker & DeFord and T. C. Goodrich & Co. Groceries-- J. C. Goodrich, Lauderdale & Rowell B. J. Chafin, Bagley Bros., E. E. Feeney, Stonebraker & Co., Bryson & Francis, J. L. McWhirter, W. K. Woodard, Blake & Rawls, Z. P. Gotcher, J. A. Bunn & Son, H. Nevill and J. W. Bennett. Hardware--Lamb & Robertson and Benedict & Warren. Drugs--W. A. Gill & Co. Smith & Miles, W. W. Christian and C. A. Diemer & Son. Jewelers--J. B. Hill, S. Heymann and A. D. Ruth. Bookstore--R.S. Bradshaw. Saloons--W. W. Alexander & Co., Eaton & Evans, Alexander & Copeland, B. J. Chafin and J. L. McWhirter. Livery stables--C. S. & R. M. Wilson and J. S. Alexander. Physicians--W. C. Bright, C.A. Diemer, C.B. McGuire, R. E. Christian and W. W. Christian. Grain merchants-- Holman & Woods and Bruce & Cowen. General produce-- C. Bonds and Caldwell & Scott. Furniture and undertaking-- J. B. Wilson and J. A. Formwalt. The leading hotel is the Petty House. Others are kept by Sanford Prosser, S. G. McElroy, Mrs. A. Johnson, and T. S. King has a restaurant. Bearden & Thomas have a flouring-mill, J. L. Waggoner a planing-mill, and L. Peach runs a stone, saw and marble works. J. L. Vaughn manufactures carriages and buggies.

The first newspaper in Fayetteville was the Fayetteville Correspondent, edited and published by David Augustine Hays; only a few numbers were issued. The Village Messenger was then published from March 11, 1823 to July 18, 1828, by Ebenezer Hill. In 1829 the Western Cabinet was commenced by Ebenezer Hill and John H. Laird. Mr. Hill published one volume of Haywood s reports in his office. He published Hill s Almanac for a great many years, making it a part of the standard literature of southern Tennessee and northen Alabama. As early as 1833 the Independent Yeoman was published by Joe B. Hill, afterward by Joe B. & E. Hill. Then it was purchased by W. L. & A. H. Berry, and published as the Lincoln Journal, from 1840 to 1848, at which time C. A. French, became the editor ans publisher, continuing it until the war. In 1840 a Whig paper, the Signal, was started and issued but a few numbers. After the war the Lincoln County News was started by Ebenezer Hill, Jr., and continued by W. P. Tolley for some years. The Fayetteville Express was established in 1873 by S. H. McCord, was afterward published by McCord & Lloyd, and is now by Lloyd & Blake. The Fayetteville Observer was established in 1850, stood the war stroke, and continues to be a thriving paper, edited and published by N. O. Wallace.

The Lincoln Savings Bank was established in 1870 with a capital of $100.000, did a seemingly good business, but suspended in 1884, jarring the financial status of the whole county considerably. The First National Bank was organized in June, 1873, with a capital stock of $60.000. Its first president was Hon. George W. Jones. Its present president is Dr. C. B. McGuire; its cashier, J. R. Feeney.

As early as the year 1824 a Masonic Lodge was established but existed only a few years. Jackson Lodge, No. 68, F. & A. M. Was chartered October 9, 1828, and now has a membership of over 40. Calhoun Lodge, No. 26, I. O. O. F., was chartered April 6, 1846, and now has nearly 30 members. Fayetteville Lodge, No. 181, K. Of H., was established April 1, 1875, and has a membership at present of nearly 65. Protection Lodge, No. 8. A. O. U. W., began its existence from charter dated May 2, 1877. Jewel Lodge. No. 59, K. & L. Of H. Was established April 1, 1879, and has about 60 members. There are five church edifices in the town, owned respectively by the Cumberland Presbyterians, Presbyterians, Methodist Episcopal Church South, Christians and the Protestant Episcopalians. The Missionary Baptists have an organization but no building. There are four churches for the colored people of the following denominations: African Methodist Episcopal, Primitive Baptist, Missionary Baptist and the Cumberland Presbyterian.

About 1815 George L. Leonard settled where Petersburg now is and cleared up the land there. He put up a cotton-gin, and afterward began the first mercantile trade of the place by selling small articles of merchandise, such as thread, etc. Porterfield & Akin established a small store in 1828, and Wm. DeWoody conducted their business. In 1833 they were superseded by Rowlett & Hill, and soon others followed. Holman & Loyd, Jones & Yowell, Rives & Hayes and Stone & Reese were merchants before 1840 and all did a large business. Then came a lull in the business tide of Petersburg instil the war; however, Metcalfe & Son did a good business during this time, as also did Wynus, Blake & Co., Smith, Blake & Co. And Fonville & Bledsoe. Since the war the principal merchants have been W. J. Hamilton, P. B. Marsh & Son, Fogleman & Cummings and Hall & Hamilton, together with the present business firms. General merchants-- G. A. Jarvis, Cummings & Bledsoe and B. S. Popflanus, grocers--E.M. Crawford and L. L. Rebman; W. R. Hanaway, undertaker and furniture dealer; Rives & Christopher, saddlers and harness-makers; saloons--J. W. King & Co., F. S. Cummings & Co. And Pack & Byrd; blacksmiths--Alex Lancaster and George Morrison. J. C. Montgomery has a large frame flouring-mill, and Dwiggins & Co. Are erecting a fine brick mill. Gillespie Bros. Do a livery business.

The secret societies are Unity Lodge, No. 84 I. O. O. F., which has a membership of twenty; Petersburg Lodge, No. 123, was organized in 1846, and for many years was very strong, but now has only a weak organization; Petersburg Lodge, No. 607, K. Of H., has a membership of thirteen, and was organized in 1877. Petersburg has a good school, and five churches of the following denominations: Methodist Episcopal South, Presbyterian Cumberland Presbyterian, Missionary Baptist and Christian. It is a chartered town, but by some the charter is considered a burden. It is situated on the Duck River Valley Railroad, twelve miles from Fayetteville.

Mulberry began to exist as a village about 1840. Among the merchants that have transacted business there were Booker Shapard, Drury Conley, Abner Brady, R. N. Whitaker, W. W. James & Co., Hoots & Logan and J. & W. H. Reese, previous to the war. Since the resumption of business after the war have been W. W. James & Co., W. L. Shofner, R. A. & J. H. Reese, Whitaker & Yates, E. S. Terry and J. G. Reese, the last two of whom are now in business. Several family groceries, etc., have existed from time to time. The Mulberry Academy began about 1830, and has become a noted school. There was once a male and female academy, but it is now known as the Mulberry Male and Female Academy. There in one Missionary Baptist Church, one Cumberland Presbyterian Church, one Methodist Episcopal Church South and one Christian Church. Physicians are G. W. Jones, A. R. Shadden and S. Dance. Mulberry Lodge, No. 404. F. & A. M., was organized in 1870, and is in a prosperous condition. It had twelve charter members. Mulberry Lodge, No. 148, was chartered in 1871 and has only a very weak organization. The Good Templars have a lodge of about ninety members. There are two good mills near by. In the village are two blacksmith shops, two wood-work shops and a cabinet-maker and undertaker.

Boonshill was one of the first postoffices established in the county. Previous to the war Wood & Daniel, Hudson & Horton and Sumner & Ewing were merchants there. Since the war have been Buchanan & White, E. S. Wilson & Co., Swinebroad & Co., Templeton & Son and H. D. Smith, the present merchants. Physicians have been Dr. John Wood, Dr. Dunlap, Dr. Porter, Dr. Parks and Dr. Sumner. Stephen Hightown first settled where Millville now is. Stone & Baird were the first merchants; others were Frank McLane, Sam Isaacs, Thomas McLaurine, McGuin & Son, McGuire & Franklin, Ezell & Hudspeth. Since the war have been Ezell & McGuire, F. L. Ezell, Ally Smith and Finney & Son. Dr. C. B. McGuire practiced medicine there from 1847 to 1859; others have been Dr. M. P. Forehand and Dr. G. W. McGuire.

Dellrose was first known as Roosterville. Hog Bruce was the founder and first merchant. It has only been a village since 1867. D. C. Sherrill & Co. Are now doing business there. These is a good school. Dr. B. S. Stone is the physician of the place. Molino postoffice was established in 1849, by D. C. Hall, the first postmaster and merchant. Since the war, merchants have been Robert Stewart, James W. Rawls, Joe Montgomery and J. H. Dale & Co. J. W. Rawls was a blacksmith, and John Hays the present one. It has a Missionary Baptist Church there, and is located in a good locality. Howell is a small station on the narrow-gauge railroad, seven miles from Fayetteville. It was first known as Renfroe Station. Harris Bros, and George Bros, are merchants. It has a good railroad depot and a Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Oak Hill is a village nine miles north of Fayetteville. The postoffice is Norris Creek. H. L. Cole and James Bell are merchants. It has a good school, a Cumberland Presbyterian Church and a Missionary Baptist Church. There is also a Masonic lodge of thirty-eight members-Mount Hebron, No. 344, and a weak lodge I. O. O. F.- Oak Hill, No. 39. A pike connects Oak Hill with Fayetteville. Stonesborough is a chartered town and consist of a distillery owned by Stone & Thomas, and a store and saloon owned by Stone & Patterson. W. J. Landers has a tan-yard between this place and Oak Hill. Chestnut Ridge is also in the north part of the county. J. N. Stallings is a merchant. James Freeman a blacksmith, and Wash. Gilbert a wagon-maker. Chestnut Ridge Lodge No. 499, F. & A. M., has about fifteen members, and Chestnut Ridge Lodge, No. 157, I. O. O. F., has nearly fifty members. There is a church near by.

Booneville, received its name from Capt. Nathan Boone. Musgraves and Shofner, and J. E. Reese are merchants. It is about three miles from Mulberry Village. Blanche was first known by postoffice as Pleasant Plains. Samuel Parker was the first postmaster, and W. W. Petty the first merchant in 1849. It began to assume the proportions of a village after the war, and is now a pleasant and thriving little town. Dr. J. C. Coasts is the merchant and physician. There is located here Pleasant Plains Lodge, No. 305, F. & A. M. , and a church. There are several county stores near by.

Smithland was known as George s Store until 1884. At first the postoffice was on the north side of Elk River, having been established about 1840. It was moved to Arnold s grocery about 1850, and there Smithland has been built. This was a notorious fighting place. Taylor & McLaughlin and R. Smith are the present merchants. An I. O. O. F. Lodge, Sereno No. 195, is located at Smithland.

Camargo was established in 1849 and was a flourishing village prior to the war. John Caughran was the first merchant. Others have been Nicks & Webb, J. N. & W. A. Stallings, Wm. Ashworth, Samuel Dehaven and J. A. Corn.

Lincoln is settled mainly by northern people who went to that place after the war. J. F. Montgomery, J. R. McCown, J. E. Ramsey and J. C. McClellan have been merchants there. In 1887 ____ Crosby started a small spinning Factory at Oregon. In 1839 it was bought by Henry Warren, was afterward operated by H. & T. K. Warren, and is now operated by Henry Warren & Son. This factory has about 1,000 spindles, a cotton-gin and a flouring and grist-mill attached, being an investment of about $20,000 capital. Oregon is three and once-half miles from Flintville, its shipping point. It has a Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Elora was formerly known as Baxter Station, and only dates its beginning since the building of the Fayetteville & Decherd Branch Railroad. It is in the southeast corner of one now existing from Fayetteville to Decherd. J. B. Hamilton and W. M. Parker & Co. Are the merchants.

Flintville, twelve miles from Fayetteville, on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, has sprung into existence since the building of that road. The first merchants were Cunningham & Myrick; J. A. Grills was the first blacksmith; Peter Cunningham put a grist-mill, and then he and L. P. Myrick engaged in distilling. The town was all destroyed by the Federals the time of the war. Since the war merchandising has been carried on by D. M. & J. C. Mimms & Knowles, D. M. Mimms, Kilpatrick & Co., Merrit & Golden (saloon), Chas. Kelley, D. M. & W. G. Mimms, Richard Routt, A. Smith, Peter Cunningham, Brady & Hall, Henry Warren & Son, and Chick & Eslick. J. W. Cooper & J. J. Coston have been blacksmiths and wagon-makers, and Joseph Richardson, a saddler; E. J. Cambron is a carriage and cabinet-maker; Tolley, Eaton and Sims have run distilleries, and Copeland & Co. Now have a large distillery. They also have a good mill. John Young also has a mill. Surprise Lodge, No. 153, I. O. O. F., is located there with sixteen members. There are four church organizations at Flintville.

Kelso s first merchant was A. S. Fulton. Subsequent merchants have been hill Southworth, D. M. Eslick and Jenkens McKinney. Present merchants are J. A. Taylor, G. D. Wicks and M. S. Eslick. Kelso Lodge, No. 490, F. & A. M., and Kelso Lodge No. 172, I. O. O. F., are located there, and also a Cumberland Presbyterian Church is at Kelso.

The attention of the early pioneers was required by almost everything before it was given to means of educating the children. This most important subject was not long entirely neglected, for those who had sufficient education taught short terms of school at the different private residences early in the teens. After a time, by agreement, the settlers would meet to build a schoolhouse in the different localities. These buildings were of logs, with a door in one end and a fire-place in the other, not all of them had fire-places, and those that them generally allowed the escape of the smoke through a large hole in the roof, there being no chimneys to them. This was the condition of the schoolhouses even through the twenties. The seats were made of poles split open, supported on legs about three feet long, and with the flat side up. Light was admitted through an aperture made by leaving out one log along the sides of the building. A bench or plank for writing was supported on pins driven in the log just beneath the window. The roofs of these primitive institutions of learning were of boards held to their place by weight poles. Each pupil took whatever book he could find. Some studied the Life of Washington, others the Life of Marion, and a few would take a Clarion {the paper then published at Nashville} to school, and learn from that. These were pay-schools, the tuition being from 75 cents to $1 per pupil for one month. Various were the rules and requirements of these schools. Each teacher had new rules. An invariable custom was to make the teacher treat or take a duckin on Christmas and at the close of school. If a mischievous boy passing the schoolhouse desired to be chased at a lively rate it was only necessary for him to yell out school butter, when the teacher would say to his pupils: Take him in, boys. Reading and writing were the main branches taught, and arithmetic was sometimes taught. Pupils recited one at a time. They were by most teachers allowed to seek the out-door, pure atmosphere in fair weather to prepare their lessons. Prior to 1820 {probably as early as 1815} the Fayette Academy was established. This was a county academy, and derived its support from a State fund. The building became untenable about 1854, and the new building just then erected by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was to be used by Milton College, which did not materialize, was purchased, and Fayette Academy continued for some years, and then sold the building to the county school commissioners.

The Fayetteville Female Collegiate Institute began its existence almost as early as the Fayetteville Academy. The land was donated by James Bright. This institution is under the control of a company and board of trustees. The building first used was torn down in 1884 to give place to the present splendid brick building. The enrollment for the past year was about 220 pupils. Although it, by name, is known as a female school, both sexes are admitted.

The Mulberry Female Academy was established in 1830 and existed as such until 1869, when it was consolidated with the Mulberry Male Academy, and since the institution thus formed, has prospered under the name of the Mulberry Male and Female Academy. The Mulberry Male Academy was formed and put in working order in 1844.

Viney Grove Academy was founded by the Rev. Henry Bryson and conducted with great success by him for many years. This once ranked with the standard educational institutions of the South, but it has died away. It was five miles west of Fayetteville. Boonshill Academy has existed since before the war. The building is a nice brick house, and good schools are taught there.

The Petersburg Masonic Academy was founded by that fraternity in 1858 and is taught in the lowest story of the brick Masonic Hall at Petersburg. Oak Hill Institute flourished from 1865 to 1880 with considerable success. The building is frame. Nixon Springs Academy, near Smithland, was a good institution from 1875 to 1880. Hopewell Academy at Lincoln was endowed by the United Presbyterian Church and is a well-conducted school. Greenwood Academy, between Mulberry and Booneville, was established in the fifties, and has a brick building. Cane Creek Academy, at Howell, also has a brick building and is comparatively a new institution.

The public school of Lincoln County are gaining is favor, but are yet in their infancy. There are eighty-two public school in the county for white, and thirty-one for colored people. There are but eighty-four public school buildings, but school is taught in other buildings. The buildings are as follows: Stone and brick, 3; frame, 47; log, 34; total, 84. Value of school buildings is estimated at $23,460. And the value of apparatus, etc., at $1,570. The scholastic population of the county for this year is 9,912, and the amount of school fund, at $1.75, per capita, is $17.346.

As in all new countries, the first settlers of this section were more accustomed to the sound of the hunting horn and chasing hound than to pulpit oratory on the Sabbath. However, many good Christian people were among the first pioneers, and they established Scripture readings, and even preached sermons at the different private residences. Early services were held in the court house, and not unfrequently did people assemble at some designated place in the woods to hear a sermon.

In 1811 the earthquake shock which was so sensible felt here was by many regarded as the approach of the Last Great Day, and consequently many accessions to the Christian flock were made. For a considerable time big meetings were held, and a great revival was experienced, but after a time the lull in the tide came, the spirit of the meetings died down. Yet there was a good work being done by some of the good Christian people. As early as 1808 a church was organized at the Forks of Mulberry, and it is a Primitive Baptist organization. Hardy Holman was the first pastor. In about 1812 the Shiloh congregation was organized by the same denomination. Other churches of this {the Primitive or old-school Baptist} denomination, are Concord, which was organized prior to 1820; Mount Olivet, probably organized in the twenties; New Hope, a small congregation, but an old one; Kelly Creek, which began existence in the forties. Pleasant Grove; Rocky Point; Bethel; and Buckeye, which was organized as late as 1866 with a membership of nineteen and now has 165 members. Nearly all of these churches are in a good condition and prospering.

In the fall of 1812 the Presbyterian Church of Fayetteville was organized with the Rev. John Gillespie as pastor. The first elders were David Turner, Andrew Hannah, Francis Patton, John Armstrong and Ebenezer McEwen. Private members were Peggy Hannah, Mrs. Armstrong, Mrs. Patton, Mrs. Turner, Peggie Gillespie, Mary McEwen, Elizabeth Ferguson, John B. Alexander and Barbara Alexander. Subsequent pastors of this church have been John R. Bain, James McLinn, Amzi Bradshaw, E. McMillan, M. M. Marshall, W. C. Dunlap, D.D., George Hall, A. D. McClure, J. H. Bryson, W. H. Groves and R. M. DuBose. The present membership is 105. First worship was in the court house; afterward an edifice was built, which was destroyed by a storm in 1851, and then the present one was erected. Other Presbyterian Churches of the county are: Unity, eight miles from Fayetteville, organized about 1829, and now having a membership of about forty; Petersburg, organized May 5, 186,. And now having about forty members; Swan Creek , organized as early as 1830, now having a membership of fifty; and Young s Chapel, with a membership of twenty-five, and having existed only since 1870. One other church, by the name of Old Unity, once existed, but is now extinct.

Bethel Church of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian denomination was organized 1830 by Rev. H. Bryson, who continued as its pastor until his death in 1874, and was superseded by Rev. A. S. Sloan, the present pastor. There are three other churches in the county of that denomination known as the New Hope, Prosperity and Pleasant Plains.

Early in 1829 a camp-meeting was held near Fayetteville by distant workers in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Great success blessed this meeting and an organization of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Fayetteville was accomplished the same year. Rev. S. M. Cowan was the first pastor, continuing many years, and under him the church multiplied in numbers and strengthened in good work. Subsequent ministers have been Herschel S. Porter, W. D. Chaddick, D. D. , Stokely Chaddick, S. M. Cowen, again M. B. DeWitt, ____McElree, Nat Powers, C. P. Duvall, ____ McDonald and J. S. Weaver. Among the first members were Benjamin Clements and wife, William Norris and wife, Benjamin Wear and wife, S. O. Griffs and wife, George Stonebraker and wife, Jacob Stonebraker and wife and Dr. Charles McKinney and wife.

Cane Creek Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized in 1817 by Rev. R. Donel, and now has 138 members. J. B. Tiger has been its pastor for twenty-five years, and in its seventy years of existence the church has never been without a pastor, although but five men have served as pastors. There are thirteen other Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in the county, viz.: Mulberry, with a membership of about 50; Mount Zion, organized by Rev. D. Tucker about eight years ago; Hebron, an old church with about 125 members; New Unity, with 100 members; Petersburg, with about 70 members; New Salem, and old church, with a membership of about 75; Pisgah, organized about 1856, and now having about 40 members; Liberty, organized about 1878, present membership about 50; Sulphur Spring, with 75 members, built and supported by Henry Warren for his factory hands; Moore s Chapel, a young congregation of about 100; Elkton, a small congregation; Flintville, a new congregation with a small membership; and New Lebanon, about twelve years old and having a large membership.

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Fayetteville was organized prior to 1829. Rev. Joshua Kilpatrick was its pastor that year. Present membership is 162. The present church building was erected about 1846. The other Methodist Episcopal Churches South and their approximate memberships are follows: Shady Grove, 100; Lloyd s Chapel, 75; Providence, Beech Grove, Union and Boonville, 331; Petersburg, __; Macedonia, Hermon, Flintville and Liberty, 350; Medium and Moore Chapel, 263; Mulberry, 90; Shiloh, 100; Dellrose, __; Blanche, Smith s Chapel, Shiloh and Ebenezer, __; and New Bethel, a new organization. This denominations is in a prosperous condition.

The Christians have nine organizations. They are as follows: Fayetteville, which was organized in 1865 and now has a membership of about 75; Gun Spring, Philadelphia, Friendship, Chestnut Ridge, Mulberry, Antioch, one on Lane s Branch, and one at McAlister s chair factory.

The Hard Shell Baptist have small congregations--Mount Carmel and Sulphur Springs.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of Fayetteville is the only one of that denomination in the county. It was organized in 1882 and in 1883 was built the elegant little stone edifice which is used for worship.

The first organization of the United Presbyterian Church in Tennessee was Lebanon Church in this county. It was organized September 15, 1865, by Rev. A. S. Montgomery. The church building cost about $2,000 and the present membership is 145. Other organizations of that name are Hopewell and Pisgah.

The Missionary Baptists also have a number of congregations in the county. They have an organization at Fayetteville, but no church house.


Transcription by Luz Mary Childress 02-Nov-96 for Pea Ridge Relations