WHERE WE CAME FROM
1. Religious freedom and
2. Irish commercial interests.
1. The practise of the Roman Catholic religion was difficult at best, in any part of the British domain prior to the twentieth century. That restriction was profound in Ireland because the British associated catholicism with Irish nationalism and its practise was symptomatic of treason. Young men, and later male and females of all ages, ventured into the French colonies in North America where their religion was practised openly, and Irish communities were established in parts of old Quebec and French Atlantic Canada. There was a significant Irish presence in Louisbourg prior to and subsequent to its final capture in 1758.
Some interesting background: Irish (SE Ireland) to Newfy
1. culture and songs of home
2. the people
3. Irish in Atlantic Canada
Mark Bates was born at Kilmore Quay, Wexford County, Ireland and married Catherine Carrrol. The paper, The Bates/Walsh Family Home Page shows their first child, John, born in Newfoundland and died in Cape Breton. The birth place of the second child, Michael is not shown but the remaining seven of their nine children were born in the Catalone-Bateston area of Cape Breton. These were Patrick, Mark, James, Catherine, Martin, and Paul. Catherine and ancester Martin were twins, born July 30, 1837. The paper, Descendants of Charles Martell and Ann Schmidt, show that Mark and Catherine were married in Newfoundland in 1812 and that Martin married Margaret Mullins of Glace Bay, a relatively large town about 50 kilometers north of Main-a-dieu. (Main-a dieu and Bateston are on the edge of Catalone Lake and, of course, the Broad Atlantic). Margaret was the daughter of Lawrence Mullins and Margaret Buckley.
The Martell paper traces the Buckleys back to Charles Martell, whose parents were huguenots who had escaped French persecution in the very early 1700's. Their first destination was Ireland where Charles was born. In 1747 or 1748, Charles is with the military at Halifax, settling eventally in Main-a-Dieu.
Margaret Buckley was the daughter of Paul Burnaby Buckley and Elizabeth Martell who was born in "Lower Mira," March 12, 1778. Elizabeth was the daughter of Charles Martell and Ann Schmidt, a native of Switzerland. Charles was born in Dublin in 1732. The Bates Family History, compiled by Gertrude (Bates) Walker and Edna
Lawrence and Jane had fourteen children including Wilfred, Martin, Geraldine, Loretta, Willis, Jane, Lawrence (Buddy), and Gertrude. Buddy was born in 1909, and married Evelyn Rigby in 1933, Granny and Grampa Bates. He died in 1976 from lung problems attributed to his many years in underground coal mining.
The '45 in Scotland relates to the largely highlander uprising in support of the deposed Stuart King James II. The Scots were crushed at the historically devastating Battle of Culloden (1746), and the--at least--equally devastating loss of their leadership and youth. The wounded were executed on the field, others at their homes and hiding places, or on the scaffold. Many of the leaders who survived, and families of those who did not, had escaped into French protection where their sons grew up in a different culture. These were to return, eventually, but felt little or none of the social commitment that had been the policy of their predecessors.
In Culloden's aftermath, Britain had placed heavy restrictions on highland culture, the leadership process, some religious and other practises and, for good reason, possession of arms. But the restrictions were eased in the reign of George IV, in consideration of the military potential of the disarrayed youth.
During the reign of George IV and that of his neice, Queen Victoria, Scottish soldiers fought for Britain, and garrisoned her terrirories, from India through the Middle East and southern Europe to North America. Among these was Donnchadh (Duncan), son of Eoin (Jonathan) MacIntyre.
We are told in the website of Florence Palmer that Duncan
"...spent many years in the British army and eventally received a grant of land in the area of Shelburne, Nova Scotia. It appears that he didn't like the area for he never settled there. He went instead to Leitche's Creek and settled on land which had been granted to an officer of his old regiment, Captain MacKinnon, who in time transferred the land to him. They settled in Bridgeport, Cape Breton. His wife might have been Christina."
In any event, Duncan married a lady from Scotland, and their five children included Donald who married Mary MacIntyre. Donald and Mary had nine children including Margaret, who married William Rigby of Lingan, NS. Donnachadh, was born c. 1745, so it's a proper geneologic estimate to put Eoin's birth date at about 1715.
The 1871 census shows only one Rigby in Lingan: Alexander. But this was a count of heads of families only, so the names of Alexander's wife and children were not shown. The 1881 census included, as it does today, the names of the spouse, the children, and members of the extended family within the domicile. The family of William and Margaret, in 1881, included seven children as well as Alexander, 88, and Catherine, 80. Catherine was born in Newfoundland, but of Irish origin, and Alexander was born in Ireland. The oldest child, Mary, is shown as age 20 in the 1881 census, William was 48 and Margaret 44. There are some errors in the census-taking and/or recording, but easily corrected from the two ensuing counts (1891 and 1901).
Their children were: (showing later adult occupations (1891)) Mary 20, Agnes 18, Dan 17 (miner), Alexander 15 (carpentar), William 13 (Mom's grandfather) (coal miner), Kate 11, Peter 10 (farmer), Vincent 7, Jane 6, Thomas 4, Margaret 3. (Margaret (Aunt Maggie) married Ronald MacSween, and their daughter, Elizabeth (Aunt Bessie) married Wilfred Bates, Grandpa Buddy's older brother. They are the parents of Wilf Bates of Pointe Clare, PQ, who provided census material (1881, 1891, and 1901 ) used on this site)
There was no New Waterford in those days. Between Sydney and the Lingan district was South Bar and Low Point, in all a large farming district, still in the clearing mode, I suppose. Previously Lingan was occupied, or at least utilized, for coal supplies, by French military and