TUBERCULOSIS CAMPAIGN RE-
SULTS IN OPENING OF WOOD-
CITIZENS AND OFFICIALS AT-
and City of Dallas Will
Maintain Woodlawn and Are
Responsible For Its
of Dallas county drove home a body blow to the deadly white scourge
of tuberculosis, Saturday afternoon, when the Woodlawn Union
Tuberculosis hospital was officially declared open for patients.
So far as actual numbers were concerned,
there was not a large meeting, but it was forced home to the
earnest group of men and women who were present, that the opening
celebration was significant as the first step towards the prevention
and cure of consumption, not only in Texas, but in the entire
Speeches were brief and to the
point. Editors, physicians, philanthropists and city and county
officials congratulated the citizens of the county on their enterprise
in establishing a public institution for the sole purpose in
aiding the weak and suffering.
There was a tinge of sadness, also,
amid the rejoicing over a task well done. This was expressed
aptly by County Commissioner C. D. Smith, who urged everyone
to be happy during their first visit to Woodlawn, since other
trips would result in the viewing of pain and illness.
"When we come here again,
these white cots will be filled with men and women, mostly sick
beyond recovery. During this visit, we can rejoice that the great
heart of Dallas county has resulted in this pioneer step towards
general human happiness," he said.
Woodlawn well merits its pretty
name. Nestling on the side of a wooded hill, with a pretty lake
of green water nearby, the view of the broad verandas and porches
of the hospital is superb. Far to the southeast, the towering
sky scrapers of the city can be seen, while on other sides, green
foliage of thick woods and grassy slopes make a pretty comparison.
Physicians say that the spot selected
by the city and county officials is ideal for invalids, and with
good fresh air, rest, and sunshine, recoveries almost startling
in their nature, may be expected.
Perhaps one hundred Dallas and
Dallas county people were present at the opening ceremonies.
Matron L. R. Minifee met the party as they arrived in automobiles
and conducted them about the big, roomy buildings.
After a trip of inspection, the
visitors gathered in one of the main wards and sat upon beds
and chairs, while many of those present were called upon for
The majority of the party were
making their first tour of the institution and expressed surprise
at the spacious grounds and buildings, and in the complete manner
in which they were equipped.
Lying in two large wings, the hospital
contains four wards, destined for the use of male and female,
colored and white. Each ward contains, at present, ten beds,
making the present capacity of the institution, forty patients.
This can easily be increased to sixty or even eighty patients.
The beds are arranged in rows along the enormous verandas, which
face the south, in order to secure the benefit of the sunshine.
As shelter against inclement weather, big glass windows can be
drawn down. Every inch of the tubercular quarters and the quarters
for the matron, nurses and help, is screened to afford protection
from flies and insects. The entire hospital is electric lighted
throughout, with a telephone system extending into every ward
and room. The most sanitary of bath rooms and dressing room and
lockers are provided for the use of patients.
Two large sitting rooms with great
open fire places will afford comfort in the winter, while far
warmer weather, the stretch of ground between the two wings,
will be marked off for a lounging enclosure. The kitchens are
spick and span and sanitary in every particular, as are the pantries
and dish washing rooms. Another feature is a large sterilizing
plant, into which mattresses, bed clothes, and any other prerequisites
of the wards can be placed and subjected to the action of steam.
The process kills all germs. Fire protection is afforded by hose
lines from special hydrants connected with the big well, which
provides the water supply for the building.
Patients will be taken to the hospital
Sunday, and the institution is now working permanently. The hospital
is for the benefit of all indigent tubercular patients. To secure
admission, they must be bona fide residents of Dallas or Dallas
county, and have lived in this district for at least six months.
Mayor Holland Talks.
Mayor W. M. Holland called the
meeting to order and made a short talk. In part, he said:
"Eighteen months ago, the
city government conceived the idea of erecting a commodious and
modern sanitarium to be built and maintained jointly by the city
and county governments, for the treatment and care of unfortunate
and indigent consumptives of this city and county. For many years,
indigent consumptives in the city limits had been placed in one
of the wards at the city hospital, and indigent consumptives
in the county had been put on the poor farm. We believed that
the city and county had attained such prosperity and wealth that
our people would be more than glad to maintain, at the public
expense, an institution of this character. We suggested this
matter to the county government at that time, but were informed,
that owing to lack of funds, they could not join us in this worthy
enterprise. About twelve months ago, the question of a joint
hospital or sanitarium was again revived, and at this time, the
county government saw its way clear to finance its half of the
expense incident to the construction of a modern sanitarium,
and by unanimous vote of the county commissioners' court, this
body decided to co-operate with the city in the undertaking.
The United Charities of Dallas, the Texas Anti-Tuberculosis association,
and especially the newspapers of this city, rendered invaluable
services in promoting and insuring its success. The city government
did me the honor of appointing me a committee of one, with full
power to represent the city and the county government [and] conferred
like authority on County Commissioner Miller. I am happy to state
that we have, at all times, worked in complete accord and harmony.
The buildings represent an investment
of about $38,000. If, to this is added the value of the grounds,
our splendid artesian well, the sewerage system, etc., the total
investment will reach the sum of about $60,000, one-half of which
was borne by the city and one-half by the county. Only indigent
consumptives who are bona fide residents of the city or county
will be admitted to this institution. At a joint conference held
this morning between the board of commissioners and the county
commissioners, it was decided that the county government should
have complete control and management of the tubercular hospital,
and the city government should have complete control and management
over the Union hospital, for the treatment of smallpox patients,
but, that in both cases, the expense of maintenance should be
divided equally between the city and county governments. I regret
that it is not possible for every citizen in our city and in
our county to be here today and inspect these beautiful grounds
and the modern, well-equipped buildings, and I hope this institution
will be an example for other cities and counties in Texas.
The city of Dallas is the wealthiest
and most prosperous city in Texas, and Dallas county is the wealthiest
and most prosperous county. It is proper that our city and county
should lead the rest of the state in making war upon this terrible
enemy of mankind. The entire civilized world is fighting tuberculosis
on a broader, more comprehensive and scientific manner than it
has ever done in the past, and I am glad that we are doing our
part in this work for humanity."
Mr. Dealey's Speech.
Mayor Holland then introduced Geo.
B. Dealey, vice president of the United Charities. He praised
him for his whole-hearted work towards securing the Woodlawn
hospital. Mr. Dealey spoke as follows:
Speaking for the directors and
for the social workers of the United Charities, the good women
who are doing so much to relieve, and especially to prevent suffering
and misery in this city, the opening of Woodlawn hospital creates
an epoch of sincere rejoicing and congratulation, for this is
the realization of a dream. Some three years ago, the United
Charities workers came across a good woman, without means, living
in South Dallas, suffering from this dreadful disease, tuberculosis.
She was placed in a tent and treated for some eight or nine months,
improving so rapidly that the board of directors of the United
Charities felt that something practical should be done in behalf
of the sufferer from this dreadful malady. Then began the agitation
and the education to show the necessity of doing what has now
been done. As part of the educational campaign, the organization
ran, for a period of ten days, during the Fair, a year and a
half ago, a tuberculosis picture film, which was visited by many
thousand people. It is the intention of the United Charities
to put a tuberculosis nurse in the field this fall to help take
care of the advanced cases and to locate undiscovered incipient
cases, that they may get the benefit of the treatment at this
Tuberculosis is the great enemy
of mankind. Almost every person one meets, 80 or 90 per cent,
are affected with it in some form or other, or have been at some
time or other.
In this country alone, a half million
of people, it is estimated, are continually ill of the disease.
It snuffs out more than 150,000 lives each year, and the economic
loss by reason of this dreaded malady is estimated at fabulous
sums, even as high as a billion dollars a year. To thinking people,
it has seemed strange that the citizenship of an enlightened
country, such as the United States, should permit such a condition
to develop. Possibly, there are some diseases which cannot be
cured or prevented, but all medical authority insists that tuberculosis
is entirely and absolutely preventable, and notwithstanding that
its ravages are infinitely more serious than the ravages of any
other disease, the people in the past have been comparatively
indifferent to it. They will run from scarlet fever, from diphtheria,
from typhoid or smallpox, and smile complacently at tuberculosis.
Never in the history of this country has there been so much discussion,
so much publicity, so much effort, being made along the lines
of prevention and cure, as at the present time.
Let us hope the day is not distant
when the average citizen will realize his duty in doing those
things which will eradicate this curse from our fair land.
In behalf of the organization I
represent, it gives me very great pleasure to acknowledge the
sympathetic help and progressiveness of our city and county governments
in the inauguration of this splendid institution, and it may
not be out of place here to acknowledge the effective assistance
given to this project by the Texas Anti-Tuberculosis association
and to the Anti-Tuberculosis committee connected with the United
Finally, congratulations are in
order on the location and general environments. Here, the patients
will have isolation, thus rendering the spread of the disease
impossible. Here will be found those things indispensable and
necessary for the eradication of the disease, good scientific
attention, fresh air, good food and rest.
County Judge Quentin D. Corley
followed. He declared that he believed that the people of Dallas
county had made a profitable investment in constructing the Woodlawn
hospital. He urged all people to take an interest in the enterprise
and visit it when they wished to see the progress of the work.
County Commissioner James Miller
declared that when he was first approached on the subject of
building the hospital, he was opposed to the project. He said
that he was afraid that tubercular patients from adjoining states
would come to Dallas and flood the institution. He said that
he had now changed his mind. He declared the building of the
hospital to be a greater achievement than any so far undertaken
by the county or city.
Former City Commissioner J. E.
Lee spoke on the value of the hospital from the standpoint of
isolating tubercular patients. He said that life insurance experts
had exploded the old-time theory that consumption was hereditary.
He said that the disease was infectious, and was caught from
contact with sufferers.
Commissioner W. T. Henderson told
of the existence of hospitals before the time of history. He
told of the erection of the first hospital alms-house in Philadelphia
in 1730, which brought the first hospital to this country. He
rejoiced that the people of the city and county had joined hands
in a great humanitarian enterprise.
County Commissioner C. D. Smith,
of Lancaster, told of the sadness which would be evidenced during
future visits. He said that the utmost publicity should be given
to the fact that the hospital was for Dallas County people only.
He spoke of the hospitals on the county farm, and urged the people
not to stop in their fight against the white plague, but to wage
their campaign vigorously.
Dr. G. K. Leake, chairman of the
city board of health, spoke briefly, dealing with peculiarities
of tuberculosis. He said that many people in the audience doubtless
had tubercular germs lurking in their systems, but that their
constitutions were strong enough to overcome the effects. Dr.
Leake emphasized the value of segregation of tuberculosis victims.
County Physician K. W. Field stated
that he would have charge of the Woodlawn hospital, and said
that everything would be done in a scientific line for the patients.
The Star Catcher.
Dr. A. W. Nash was introduced by
Mayor Holland as "star catcher for the City Hall baseball
team." He made a few remarks, assuring the county authorities
of the waiting aid of the city health department whenever they
thought it necessary to call on them.
Dr. Field then requested the mayor
to call on Dr. M. M. Carrick for a short talk. Dr. Carrick told
of the work of the anti-tuberculosis committee of the United
Thank Judge Kendall.
20, 1913, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 9, cols. 1-3.
The party then left for home in
automobiles, after a vote of thanks to Judge Kendall, owner of
adjoining property, for allowing the hospital to run its sewerage
lines through his land. Miss Kendall is starting a subscription
list to provide a piano for the hospital.
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PLAN IS COMMENDED
FOR NEW HOSPITAL
Dallas business and professional men are giving their hearty
indorsement to the plan of P. P. Martinez for the establishment
of a tubercular school and hospital for children, to be conducted
in connection with Woodlawn hospital. Practically $6000 have
already been raised for the institution, $5000 of which was given
by Mr. Martinez. It is estimated that there are at least 300
children in Dallas needing the benefits of such an institution.
- July 16, 1919, Dallas
Daily Times Herald, p. 2.
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Extensive Improvement at
Hospital to Be Completed This Year
sketches show the buildings that will be completed and ready
for occupancy during the year of 1920 at the Woodlawn hospital
grounds, north of the city on the Maple avenue road. These grounds
have been recently surveyed and laid out to take care of all
future buildings that will be needed later as necessary for our
fast growing community. The driveways, walks, fences and gates
are now being replaced and changed to suit these requirements
and conditions of the future. The buildings to be built at a
near future, as well as those just completed, are so arranged
as to be readily connected to a large central heating plant to
be installed during the year 1920.
The two-story and basement sanitarium
shown above is nearing completion at a cost of about $65,000,
and is located at the south side of the grounds. This building
will take care of sixty-five additional patients, bringing the
total capacity to one hundred and twenty-five patients. Complete
equipment and conveniences are to be installed so as to allow
those in charge of this institution to give patients the most
modern and thorough treatment known to medical science.
Description of Sanitorium.
A diet kitchen on the second floor
will furnish the food for the bedridden patients. An electric
push-button, noiseless sanitorium elevator ascends from basement
to second floor. All patients' rooms, as well as the large open-air
sleeping porches on the ground floor, face the south breeze and
individual dressing rooms, medicine rooms, bath and toilet rooms
are on the north side of the building. A nurses' signal system
and house phones are to be installed on all floors. Large public
waiting and reception rooms for visitors are to be located on
both floors. This building is arranged so that the patients may
be segregated or separated, male from female, and convalescent
or ambulant patients from the very sick or bedridden, for patients
on the way to recovery, or practically cured, should not be placed
in the company of those with extreme cases of tuberculosis. Quarters
for the superintendent, resident physician and nurses will be
located on the west end of this building.
RECREATION AND DINING
Dining Hall Planned.
The construction of the two-story
and basement dining hall, shown above, will be started within
the next few weeks and will cost about $40,000. This building
will be of capacity to take care of the feeding of all ambulant
patients and also tray service to bedridden patients. A most
modern kitchen will installed at the north side of this building,
with patients', staffs' and employes' dining room on the south
and east side. Large store-rooms are located in basement and
first floor, so that food supplies may be purchased and stored
in large quantities, thereby reducing cost of same. The large
general dining room will be so arranged that it can be readily
converted into a recreation or lecture hall. The entire second
floor will be occupied as servants' or employes' quarters and
all conveniences are to be incorporated so as to assist the superintendent
in keeping the help in habitable, sanitary quarters. The matter
of having and retaining competent help around an institution
of this kind has always been a great problem and its importance
has not been disregarded in the development of this institution.
Complete Laundry Plant.
The laundry above shown has been
recently completed at the cost of about $10,000, and is electrically
equipped throughout with the most modern and sanitary laundry
machinery. A large sterilizer at the rear takes care of all bed
clothes, mattresses, wearing apparel, etc., of the patients,
which must be thoroughly sterilized very frequently to avoid
any unnecessary contagion. Preparation has been made in the construction
of this building for the addition of the future boiler machinery
and fuel rooms to take care of the central heating plant later.
The above three buildings are all
absolutely fireproof throughout, permanent in construction, and
it is the intention of the city and county officials to replace
all the present frame buildings as quickly as possible with modern
and fireproof structures.
The construction of the proposed
children's building shown will probably be started this year
and will be paid for by public subscription headed and fathered
by P. P. Martinez, who has given a great deal of time and money
to the cause of tuberculosis work. It is planned to locate this
structure a distance away from those occupied by the adults,
with playgrounds, open air recreation rooms and all other environments
helpful to the recovery of the little ones afflicted with this
As soon as the patients are moved
into the new sanitorium, some of the present buildings will be
remodeled for the use of local negro tubercular patients. It
is also planned to later construct on these premises, a medical
building and a nurses' home.
GATES AND ENTRANCE
The gates shown will be erected
at once and this, as well as all present and future buildings
on the grounds, are carried out in harmonizing exterior appearances,
using the same brick and stone trimming throughout. The Munn
Construction company is building the present sanatorium building.
The architects, F. W. Woerner & Co., who have been employed
to design the future buildings, have made a thorough study of
this particular class of building and with the assistance of
Dr. H. F. Gammons, superintendent and medical director, Mrs.
J. V. Wright, matron and superintendent of nurses, the city and
county officials plan to develop an institution par excellence.
History of Woodlawn.
About six years ago, the city and
county of Dallas started a tuberculosis sanatorium on a tract
of several acres of land off of the Maple avenue pike, about
two miles north of the City hospital, with Dr. J. H. Bernard
as the first superintendent. In October, 1917, through the efforts
of the county commissioners and Dr. T. C. Gilbert, county health
officer. Dr. J. V. Wright was secured as superintendent. Through
Dr. Wright's efforts, the sanatorium was developed up to a high
point of efficiency and the above sanatorium building in process
of construction was planned. Dr. J. V. Wright died just at a
time when his dreams of an up-to-date sanatorium were being realized.
Before his death, he was instrumental in securing a modern fireproof
The present superintendent, Dr.
H. F. Gammons, was engaged after Dr. Wright's death and most
of the nurses and employes who served with Dr. Wright were kept.
Dr. Wright married Miss Hattie Ott, who was matron and superintendent
of nurses, and still remains in the same capacity.
Nurses Specially Trained.
The nurses have all had special
training in tuberculosis work and have every interest of the
patient at heart. The position which they occupy is a hard one
to fill and there are probably none who could do the work as
well in every way as have the present nurses.
The sanatorium is operated by the
county commissioners and the buying is done through the county
auditor. The expenses thereto are borne jointly by the city and
county. Porter Cochran was appointed by the commissioners' court
to have supervision of the institution, and through his efforts,
coupled with those of the mayor and other commissioners and the
county judge, much has been done and much is being planned. Charles
Gross, county auditor, has co-operated in every way in his line
to make this institution a success as far as furnishing good
food and equipment is concerned.
Regarding the hospital, Dr. Gammons
"The people of Dallas city
and county have been exceptionally interested in the welfare
of the patients. It can be truly said that the people in this
vicinity cannot be surpassed in their kindness and charity toward
the institution. The patients are admitted in rotation and must
be citizens of Dallas county and the state of Texas. Unfortunately,
there is not room at present to take all patients the day they
apply for admission, and it is necessary for them to wait their
turn. A great many patients are kept at home or stay at home
until they are hopelessly advanced before seeking admission.
Some of the patients pay, but if they are not able to pay, they
are admitted and treated just the same as the pay patients."
Treatment of Patients.
- January 11, 1920,
Dallas Daily Times Herald, Sec. II, p. 3, col. 1-3.
The treatment used at Woodlawn
is the same as is used in every up-to-date sanatorium. The physician
makes the rounds of all patients twice daily. Patients are examined
on admission and discharge and at two monthly intervals, unless
there are reasons to examine more often. Patients with throat
infections are treated and examined three times a week. There
is an abundance of fresh air and food for all. Patients entering
the sanatorium, if there is much activity, are put to bed absolutely.
If their condition warrants, they are allowed to walk to the
dining room for their meals. Every Friday, the charts are gone
over and patients are given exercise and sitting up time, according
to their condition. The usual laboratory tests are given here,
with Reverdy Scott in charge. Dr. Avann, former city dentist,
has been engaged to make weekly visits to look out for the teeth
of the patients, for patients with tuberculosis need much attention
to the teeth.
Every Saturday morning, the physician
in charge lectures to the patients on the different phases of
tuberculosis. They are instructed how to take precautions against
infecting others; how to take the treatment and how to live after
leaving the sanatorium.
For entertainment, the patients
have moving pictures, music, light games and recreations.
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ENOUGH HAS BEEN SAID,
as a result of the grand jury investigation, to convince the
public that conditions at Woodlawn Tubercular sanitarium, an
institution operated jointly by the city and county, are not
as they should be, and that shortage of funds must not be the
whole cause of the trouble.
- June 3, 1928, Dallas
Daily Times Herald, Sec. II, p. 4, col. 2.
Very likely, the hospital is allowed
to drop into a state of neglect for two chief reasons: it is
too far out of the city to be frequently visited by citizens
who do not have relatives in the institution; and, as it is operated
jointly, neither the County Commissioners' court, nor the city
commission, has felt directly responsible.
If the city and county are to maintain
this hospital for victims of this terrible malady, they should
maintain it, so that those who go there, will be benefited. The
grand jury report indicates that the institution is worse than
valueless. The authorities have announced that conditions will
When the hospital is put back in
proper condition, the county and city officials might well visit
it occasionally, without waiting for action of the grand jury.
In fact, the taxpayers who finance the institution might drive
out once in a while to see how conditions are. Just another case
of what is everybody's business is nobody's business.
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