THE MAKING OF BRICK
while in Preparation for the
HARRY & CO'S
One of the Largest in the
State and One of the
Most Important Manufactories in
Dallas, Representing an Out-
lay of Considerable
of J. M. Harry & Co., one of the largest of its kind in the
state, is situated three and a half miles west of Dallas on a
branch of Texas and Pacific Railroad. The plant represents an
outlay in capital of seventy-five thousand dollars and occupies
over fifty acres of ground. Work is given seventy-five men in
the different departments, the salaries paid them amounting to
over fifty thousand dollars annually. Over twelve thousand dollars
a year are paid out by the company to surrounding farmers for
Between twenty and thirty thousand
barrels of oil is consumed by the plant annually, it naturally
being purchased in the state.
With an expenditure of thousands
of dollars a year, this company is one of the main supports of
Dallas, as with the exception of machinery, they purchase everything
they need from local sources, besides putting in circulation
the money paid in salaries.
The output of this plant ranges
from 15,000,000 to 23,000,000 brick per years, or 60,000 every
ten hours, the output, of course, being regulated by the demand.
During the past year, the output was far in excess of any previous
year, it being like everything else in Dallas, affected by the
vast progress made by the community.
The shale and clay from which the
brick are made lies in stratas closely resembling slate, it being
of three different kinds and colors, red, yellow and blue clay.
The varieties are found in patches of considerable area, and
in some instances, all three are blended. In the manufacture
of brick, the red variety is more preferable, as it is easily
moulded and is stronger than the others, although good brick
is made from the other two kinds.
The brickyard, as shown on the
Sam Street map of Dallas County, 1900
owned by the company has a practically unlimited supply of clay,
it being contained to a depth of four hundred feet.
- February 16, 1902, Dallas Daily
Times Herald, p. 8, col. 4-5.
The making of brick requires a
great deal of skill and patience, the work being tedious and
of long duration; it taking several weeks from the time the clay
is stored, until it is burned and ready for the market.
In preparing the land to remove
the clay from it, the first strata of soil is removed by scrapers
laying bare the clay deposit. It is then harrowed over by disc
cultivators, the clay shoveled into wagons and carted into the
storage sheds for treatment.
The material, to be property prepared,
has to remain fully a month in covered sheds, so as to give ample
time for the moisture in the different stratas to penetrate and
mingle, naturalizing throughout. A certain amount of dampness
is required for the proper molding of the clay when it reaches
When the clay is deemed of suitable
age, it is then carried from the sheds to the crushers, where
it is powdered finely, and carried by means of endless elevators
above to the screens. The fineness of the clay is regulated by
the screens, which are set on an incline, lumps of clay not properly
ground returning by way of a shaft to be recrushed, while the
powder is carried into bins above the moulding machines. From
the bins, the powdered clay is dropped through canvas pipes into
the moulds, where mechanical pressure is applied, and the clay
turned into bricks. From the moulds, the bricks are carried away
on barrows to the kilns to be burned.
On reaching the kilns, the bricks
are piled in rows about seventeen feet high and forty inches
wide, leaving several inches between the rows of brick to allow
the heat to circulate when the fire is applied. Between each
row of brick, the wood fire is built for the water smoke treatment,
as it is called. Surrounding the space occupied by the green
bricks are stationary walls containing doors at the required
intervals and leading into the alley ways built of the unburned
brick. When the kilns are piled full of brick, each containing
two hundred thousand, a tier or two of burned brick is laid over
the others and the fire applied. First, the wood is burned under
the brick ten days to evaporate the water contained in the brick,
and when considered perfectly free from any moisture, jets of
oil are lighted and the brick subjected to a greater degree of
heat for about five days, after when, they are allowed four days
to cool. After cooling, they are stored away, ready for shipping.
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CAR IS DUE
Initial Trip Started from
Fort Worth this Morning---Power
Being Furnished from Both Cities---D. H. Lavenberg
train over the inter-urban road between Dallas and Fort Worth
is expected to arrive at this end of the line this afternoon.
The trolley wire was charged this morning, both from Dallas and
Fort Worth and it is hoped that the electricity will be strong
enough to run the first car the entire distance. The initial
trip was started at Fort Worth this morning at 9 o'clock.
- March 1, 1902, Dallas Daily
Times Herald, p. 8, col. 3-4.
At 2 o'clock this afternoon, officials
of the Oak Cliff electric line declared that the trolley wire
indicated the presence of a moving car some distance from the
limits of Oak Cliff. The inter-urban will be supplied with a
power house at Handley when all equipments are in running order.
Fort Worth, March 1.--President
Bishop of the inter-urban line left for Dallas this morning on
his way to Cleveland, O. The road is to be operated during the
Confederate reunion. In the meantime, one car each way will be
operated daily between Fort Worth and Dallas. D. H. Lavenburg
of Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed superintendent of the
inter-urban and Dallas terminals.
- o o o -
How they are made at La Trini-
dad Cigar Factory of
TEXAS TOBACCO RANKS
The Different Grades
of Cigar Tobacco in
Common Use--Why Domestic Tobac-
co is Substituted for Havana
Goods by the Leading
has one of the largest, if not the largest, cigar factories in
the State of Texas, it having an annual output of a couple of
million cigars a year. The name under which this plant is operated
is the La Trinidad Cigar Factory, and is located at 166 North
- March 30, 1902, Dallas Daily
Times Herald, p. 16, col. 6-7.
This factory first started to operate
in 1877, under rather unfavorable conditions, having but a small
amount of capital invested and being hampered by the lack of
good grades of material, for at that time, the class of tobacco
sold by drummers in Texas was very poor.
As Dallas increased in business
facilities, so this plant expanded, until today, it has an extensive
trade with cities and towns within a radius of a hundred miles.
The home of this factory is in
a frame building 30x80 feet, containing two stories and a basement.
The first story is divided into an office and salesroom and the
manufacturing department. The basement and second story are used
mainly for the storage of tobacco and drying rooms.
In making cigars, Sumatra wrappers
are used in conjunction with domestic fillers, more extensively
than any other kind by this factory, as well as by the majority
of factories throughout the different States.
Havana wrappers and fillers are
also used a great deal, but of late have been substituted by
Porto Rico tobacco. Ohio grows a grade of tobacco which closely
resembles in taste and appearance, certain grades of Havana fillers,
and it is almost impossible to tell the difference between it
and the real article, unless one be a connoisseur in cigar tobaccos.
In Montgomery county, Texas, a
grade of tobacco is raised from Havana seed that closely resembles
the imported tobacco in looks, but the growers there have not
as yet acquired the proper method of fermentation of the leaf.
Experts speak very highly of this tobacco and prophesy a great
future for it.
For wrappers grown in the United
States, the Connecticut leaf makes the best for general use and
has a flavor that is hard to surpass, even by a Havana leaf.
A good example of the general favor in which the Connecticut
wrapper is held by the smoking public was during the war with
Spain, when one of the largest cigar factories in the United
States could not obtain pure Havana wrapper, which they used
to wrap a celebrated brand of their cigars, and had to put out
another brand wrapped with Connecticut leaves. 'After the war,
they reissued their pure Havana brand, but the dealers returned
it, stating that their customers said it was not equal to the
brand they had put out with the Connecticut leaf.
Havana wrappers and fillers are
shipped in bales bound with cloth and palm leaves, the bales
weighing from 80 to 160 pounds. The tobacco is packed in bunches,
hand pressed and tied together with cords into what is known
as carrots. Each bale contains 80 carrots.
The Sumatra tobacco comes in square
bales, all the leaves being packed under heavy pressure and each
weighing about 160 pound. The bales are wrapped in burlap and
The higher grades of cigars are
made by hand, great care being exercised in the selection of
the wrappers and the placement of the fillers, so as to make
the burning properties as near perfect as possible. The lower
grades of cigars are rolled by hand and placed in moulds to give
them the proper shape.
All of the cigars made by the La
Trinidad Cigar Factory are under the supervision of Mr. Reiger,
one of the proprietors, and a practical cigar-maker and a connoisseur
in tobacco. The highest skilled labor is employed to make these
cigars, as the proprietors argue that with the best quality of
tobacco, they cannot afford to have poor labor to work it up.
To put out the best quality of
cigars, selling them at a sufficient price to insure a small
margin of profit, is the plan under which this factory is operated,
and the appreciation of the public of their cigars is ample testimony
of how well they have carried out their purposes.
- o o o -
Old St. James Building
This Morning With a Terrific Crash.
One Death Is Likely To Result.
crash that startled everybody awake in the business portion of
the city, and that was heard for many blocks around, the St.
James hotel, historic for its age and its numerous associations,
collapsed at an early hour this morning. Nearly a miracle was
exhibited in the rescue without fatal injuries of those who went
down with the falling brick and flying dust. That everybody asleep
in that part of the building that sank to the earth was not killed,
is the strangest feature of the accident to all who have viewed
THE COLLAPSED BUILDING.
The building was old and decrepit. Years
ago, when Dallas was but a village, it was built and it has seen
service through all the intervening time. In 1894-5, it was state
Populist headquarters. It was to have been removed in the early
autumn. The accident of the early morning will save the laborers
much work, but at a cost that seems blightful.
The collapse came at the quietest
time of the night, when the streets were nearly deserted. It
aroused sleepy people throughout the down town section of the
city and men and women rushed to the ruined building. First of
all to come were the policemen on that beat, and then the fire
department, with Chief Magee and Assistant Chief Myers at their
head. The police, under the direction of Captain Keehan, did
valiant duty, and too much praise cannot be given the men of
the fire department from the chief down. They expected a fire.
Instead, they saved human lives from imprisonment beneath tons
of timbers and brick and mortar. They worked with a loyal will
and never stopped till every occupant of the structure had been
accounted for. City Health Officer J. H. Smart, Dr. J. R. Wilson
and other physicians also came hurriedly and worked over the
injured with the spirit that only humanity can prompt.
It was an interesting scene, there
in the early morning. Everybody feared at first that many were
dead and all were rejoiced that the wreck was no worse. The incident
has been the chief topic of conversation throughout the city
today and thousands have been to gaze on the ruins.
three-story building, known as the St. James hotel, on Murphy
and Main streets, collapsed at about 2 o'clock this morning and
five of the occupants of the building were severely injured.
The fire and police departments were called out and work was
at once begun rescuing the victims under the piles of brick and
tangled frame work. The five who were taken from the ruins all
had miraculous escapes, and with the probably exception of one,
all will recover.
- June 23, 1902, Dallas Daily
Times Herald, p. 1, col. 4-7.
The following is the list of injured:
John Rose, aged 42, a tailor, injured
about the back and legs; condition serious.
William Phyfe, aged 35, a cook,
fell from the third floor; right leg injured, back hurt and numerous
bruises; will recover.
James Nolan, base ball scorer,
fell from the third floor, severely bruised and lacerated about
the body; condition not dangerous.
J. W. Hoffman, aged 31, a tailor,
fell from the third floor, left leg mangled and bruises about
the body; condition not dangerous.
N. H. Dillon, aged 49, an iron
moulder, a resident of Marshall, Tex., back wrenched and numerous
cuts about the body; will recover.
Other occupants who were in the
building at the time of the collapse, and but slightly injured,
were: Bert Winfrey, F. M. Sasche and H. F. Jenkins.
The hotel was conducted by W. H.
Fletcher, and he and his wife and two daughters narrowly escaped
death by making a hasty exit from their rooms on the first floor.
The roof and floor of the building
collapsed inwardly, and the west wall, on Murphy street, fell
after the inside supports had given way, carrying down telephone
posts and electric wires and effectually blocking the street.
An alarm of fire was turned in and the firemen from the central
and No. 4 were soon on the scene. Under the personal direction
of Chief Magee, the man set to work with axes to chop the victims
James Nolan, who occupied a room
in the extreme northeast corner of the third floor, was dug out
of the northwest corner of the cellar. When interviewed by a
Times Herald reporter at the city hospital this morning, he gave
his experience as follows:
"I was asleep at the time
of the collapse and was awakened by the walls and floor shaking.
I hadn't time to raise from bed before I was carried down under
a mass of timber to the basement. I remained there for several
minutes, lodged under a heavy timber, which protected me until
the firemen dug me out. I was conscious all the time and felt
that very minute would be my last."
N. H. Dillon, who also occupied
a room on the same floor, was carried down under a mass of wreckage
which fell in such a way that the weight did not bear down upon
him. He was conscious all the time and was cool enough to direct
the men who had to work some time to find him.
Several other victims gave interesting
accounts of their narrow escapes. All the seriously injured were
occupants of the top floor, while those on the lower floors escaped
with but slight injuries.
The front part of the building,
which faces Main street, was left standing, and the building
known as the Sherman house, on Murphy street, adjoining the St.
James hotel, which is also a three-story structure, was left
standing. The property is owned by Vice-President E. M. Reardon,
of the National Exchange bank, who purchased it several years
ago. The structure is one of the oldest down-town buildings in
the city and was built by Tom Field about twenty-nine years ago.
It was, at one time, considered to be one of the best buildings
in the down-town district, but of recent years, it has become
antiquated and it has been the intention of the owner to erect
a substantial structure in its place.
At the time of the collapse, Landlord
Fletcher states that there were thirteen guests registered in
the hotel, all of whom, have been accounted for.
The rear of the Mecca saloon, which
occupies the first floor on Main street, was carried away by
the collapse, entailing a loss of several thousand dollars. The
Auditorium restaurant, which was operated in connection with
the hotel, was a total loss.
Mr. Fletcher could not be found
by a Times Herald reporter this morning and no estimate of his
loss can be given. Mr. Reardon would not place the amount of
his loss this morning.
All the seriously injured victims
were quickly removed to the Salvation Army tent on Commerce street,
and there, their wounds were attended to by a corps of physicians.
Health Officer Smart was soon on the scene and took charge of
the unfortunates. They were quickly removed to the city hospital,
where proper medical attention was given them. The nurses at
the hospital were notified by telephone and had everything ready
for the unfortunates when they arrived. Their wounds were dressed,
and when seen by a reporter this morning, they were all resting
The escapes of the occupants from
instant death under the tons of brick and timbers is considered
miraculous in the extreme and entirely without precedent. The
entire side of one of the rooms on the third floor at the east
end of the building was torn away, leaving the furniture uninjured.
One of the occupants of the same floor had hung his hat and coat
on a hook against the wall before retiring and, notwithstanding
the room and three floors collapsed, the coat and hat were not
touched and hung suspended to the wall all morning.
A force of men and teams have been
put to work to clear the debris away from the street and rescue
the property of Mr. Fletcher from the ruins.
- o o o -