U. S. Army Vs. The Indians 1861-1865
Union and Confederate Reports
Transcribed official messages and reports between officers in the field and their headquarters, and messages from Field Office to Field Office.
NOVEMBER 19, 1861-JANUARY 4, 1862. Operations in the Indian Territory.
NOVEMBER 19, 1861-JANUARY 4, 1862. Operations in the Indian Territory.
Nov. 19, 1861. Engagement at Round Mountain.
Dec. 9, 1861. Engagement at Chusto-Talasah (Bird Creek or High Shoal).
Dec. 26, 1861. Engagement at Chustenahlah.
Dec. 27, 1861. Skirmish with Creeks and Seminoles.
Dec. 29, 1861-Jan. 4, 1862. Scout after Hopoeithleyohola.
No. 1. Col. Douglas H. Cooper, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, commanding Indian Department, of operations November 19, 1861-January 4, 1862.
No. 2. Capt. M. J. Brinson, Ninth Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Round Mountain.
No. 3. Capt. R. A. Young, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Round Mountain.
No. 4. Col. D. N. Mclntosh, First Creek Regiment, of engagement at Clmsto-Talasah.
No. 5. Col. John Drew, First Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
No. 6. Col. William B. Sims, Ninth Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
No. 7. Capt. Joseph R. Hall, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah,
No. 8. Capt. Jackson McCurtain, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
No. 9. Capt. William B. Pitchlynn, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
No. 10. Col. James McIntosh, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, commanding division, of engagement at
Chusteuahlah, Cherokee Nation, with letters found in Hopoeithleyohola's camp.
No. 11. Col. W. C. Young, Eleventh Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chusteuahlah, Cherokee Nation.
No. 12. Lieut. Col. John S. Griffith, Sixth Regiment Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
No. 13. Lieut. Col. Walter P. Lane, Third Texas (South Kansas-Texas) Cavalry, of engagement at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
No. 14. Capt. William Gipson, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, of engagement at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
No. 15. Capt. II. S. Bennett, Lamar Cavalry Company, of engagement at Chustenah lah, Cherokee Nation.
No. 16. Col. James Mclntosh, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, commanding division, of skirmish with Creeks and Seminoles.
No. 17. Col. Stand Watie, Second Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of skirmish with Creeks and Seminoles.
No. 18. Maj. E. C. Bondinot, Second Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of skirmish with Creeks and Semiuoles.
Report of Col. Douglas If. Cooper, First Choctaw and Chicftasaw Regiment, commanding Indian Department, of operations November 19, l86l-January 4, 1862.
HEADQUARTERS INDIAN DEPARTMENT,
Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation, January 20, 1862.
SIR: Having exhausted every means in my power to procure an in terview with Hopoeithleyohola, for the purpose of effecting a peaceful settlement of the difficulties existing between his party and the constituted authorities of the Creek Nation, finding that my written over tures, made through several of the leading captains, were treated with silence, if not contempt, by him, and having received positive evidence that he had been for a considerable length of time in correspondence, if not alliance, with the Federal authorities in Kansas, I resolved to advance upon him with the forces under my command, and either compel submission to the authorities of the nation or drive him and his party from the country.
Accordingly, on the 15th day of November last, the troops, consist ing of six companies of the First
Regiment Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles; a detachment from the Fourth [Ninth] Regiment Texas Cavalry under Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle; the Creek regiment, under Col. D. N. Mclntosh, and the Creek and Seminole battalion, under Lieut. Col. Chilly Mclntosh (the Creek war chief), and Maj. John Jumper (Chief of Seininoles), in all about 1,400 men, were moved up the Deep Fork of the Canadian towards the supposed camp of Hopoeithleyohola s forces. The camp, which had been abandoned, was found, and the trail from it followed, with varied prospects of success, until the 19th of the month named, on which day some of the disaffected party were seen and a few prisoners taken. From those prisoners information was obtained that a portion of Hopoeithleyohola s party were near the Red Fork of the Arkansas River, on their route towards Walnut Creek, where a fort was being erected, and which had for some time been their intended destination in the event of not receiving promised aid from Kansas before being menaced or attacked.
After crossing the Red Fork it became evident that the party was near and the command was pushed rapidly forward. About 4 o'clock p. in. some camp smokes were discovered in front a short distance and the enemy's scouts seen at various points. A charge was ordered to be made by the detachment of Texas cavalry, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, upon the camp, which, however, was found to have been recently deserted. Other scouts, being discovered beyond the camp, were pursued by the Texas troops about 4 miles, when they disappeared in the timber skirting a creek, upon which it was after wards ascertained the forces of Hopoeithleyohola were then encamped. While searching for the fugitives the troops were fired upon by the concealed enemy, and 1 man was killed. The enemy immediately appeared in large force, and our troops, rallying and forming, succeeded in making a stand for a short time, when the efforts of the vastly superior force of the enemy to outflank and inclose them caused them to retire. During the retreat towards the main body of our forces a constant fire was kept up on both sides. Many of the enemy were killed, and on our part 1 officer and 4 men and 1 man wounded. So soon as the firing was heard at tlie position of the main body the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment was formed and advanced towards the enemy. The exceeding darkness of the night rendered the relative position of our friends and foes uncertain and restrained the firing on our partuntil the enemy was within 00 yards of our line. Even then the order to fire was withheld until Col. James Bourlaud, of Texas (my volunteer aide on the occasion), and myself rode to the front, and the former called to those approaching, asking if any Texans were there, which was answered by the crack of the enemy's
rifles. A brisk fire was then opened by companies I and K, under Captains Welch and Young, and by companies D, E, and G, under Captains Hall, Reynolds, and McCurtain, as they successively took position. After a short but sharp conflict the firing of the enemy ceased, and under cover of the dark ness he made good his retreat. About 50 Choctaws and Texans were then sent out, under Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. R. W. Lee, to examine the ravine in front and on the flanks, when it was found that the enemy had left the field and retreated in the direction of their camps.
During the action the line was re-enforced by portions of Captains Brinson's, T. G. Berry's, J. E. McCool's, and Stewart's companies, of the Texas regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, and by a few Creeks, under Lieut. Col. Chilly Mclntosh, Captain Severs, and Lieutenant Berryhill. In the last encounter we had 2 men severely wounded and 1 slightly. Many horses were shot. Our men escaped mainly in consequence of being dismounted and by firing either kneeling or lying down. Our entire loss in the engagement was 1 captain and 5 men killed, 3 severely and 1 slightly wounded, and 1 missing. Prisoners taken since the battle concur in stating the loss of the enemy to have been about 110 killed and wounded. Soon after daylight on the 20th the main camp of the enemy was entered, and it was found that they had precipitately abandoned it, leaving behind the chief s buggy, 12 wagons, flour, sugar, coffee, salt, etc., besides many cattle and ponies. Hopoeithleyohola s force in this engagement has been variously estimated at from 800 to 1,200 Creeks and Seminoles and 200 to 300 negroes. The conduct of both officers and men within the scope of my observation was marked by great coolness and courage. I would particularize as worthy of high commendation the conduct of Col. James Bourland (who kindly volunteered his valuable services on this occasion and at other times); Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. Lt. W. Lee; Maj. Mitchell Laflore; Lieut. Joseph A. Carroll, acting adjutant Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles ; Capts. O. G. Welch, R. A. Young, and Lem . M. Reynolds, commanding Chickasaw companies, and Capts. Joseph R. Hall and Jackson McCurtain, commanding Choctaw companies, of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles; Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle and Captains Brinson and McCool, of the Texas regiment; Captain Severs, of the Creek regiment; Lieut. Col. Chilly Mclntosh, Creek battalion; Lieut. Samuel Berryhill, of the Creek regiment, and Maj. J. Jumper, Seminole battalion.
The promptness with which the Choctaws and Chickasaws came into line and the steadiness with which they maintained their position during the entire action merit unqualified praise, especially when it is con
sidered that the night was extremely dark, the number and position of the enemy uncertain, and that they stood for the first time under an enemy s fire. The following is a list of the killed and wounded: W. J. Lyttle, Captain Welch's squadron Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, severely wounded; Daniel Cox, Captain Welch's squadron Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, slightly wounded; Capt. C. S. Stewart, Texas regiment, killed, John H. Crow, Texas regiment, killed; Reed, Texas regiment, killed ; Jackson, Texas regiment, killed; John Friend, Texas regiment, severely wounded; Smith, Creek regiment, killed ; Smith, Creek regiment, severely wounded ; one killed, name not reported. In consequence of notice received from General McCulloch that Fremont was at Springfield with a very large force; that his advance guard had marched, and that probably his main body would move South the next day; that he (General McCulloch) would obstruct the roads and fight from the line down, but might be obliged to fall back to Boston Mountains, and he having directed me to take position near the Arkansas line, so as to co-operate with him, in connection with the fact that the forage of the country had been destroyed by the enemy and the horses of my command worn down by rapid marches, it was considered improper to pursue the enemy farther, and I returned with the troops to my train at Concharta, which was reached on the 24th of November, 1861.
Information being received at this time that the anticipated attack upon General McCulloch had been averted by Fremont s retreat, and that Hopoeithleyohola, with his forces, had taken refuge in the Cherokee country by invitation of a leading disaffected Cherokee, it was considered unnecessary to take post near the Arkansas line (as directed by General McCulloch), but proper to prosecute the operations against Hopoeithleyohola without delay and with the utmost energy, which I accordingly proceeded to do.After a few days rest and preparation the forces under my command at Spring Hill, near Concharta, consisting of 430 rank and file of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment Mounted Rifles, under Maj. Mitchell Laflore; 50 men, under Capt. Alfred Wade, Choctaw battalion ; 285 men of the First Creek Regiment, commanded by Col. D. N. McIntosh, and 15 Creeks, under Capt. James M. C. Smith in all 780 men were put in motion on the 29th of November in the direction of Tulsey Towny and Colonel Sims, who had gone with the sick of his regiment to Tallahassa, Mo., with all the available force of the Fourth Texas Cavalry was ordered to move up Verdigris River in the direction of Coody's settlement, where Col. John Drew, with a detachment of his regiment about 500 strong, was then posted. At Tulsey Town information was received from a prisoner escaped from Hopoeithleyhola s camp that an immediate attack was intended by the enemy, 2,000 strong.
Colonel Drew was ordered to march from Coody's and form a junction with my command somewhere on the road to James McDaniels. Colonel Sims, then at Mrs. McNair s, on Verdigris, was ordered to join me at David Van's. From some misunderstanding Colonel Drew marched direct to Melton's, 6 miles northeast from Hopoeithleyohola. While following the direction contained in his reply I marched north from Van's to Musgrove's, on Caney. Thus he arrived in the immediate vicinity of the enemy twenty-four hours or more in advance of the main body. On the 8th of December, about 12 o'clock, I found him encamped on Bird's Creek. After a brief interview, in which he informed me that Hopoeithleyohola had sent a message expressing a desire to make peace, I authorized him to send in return to Hopoeithleyohola the assurance that we did not desire the shedding of blood among the Indians, and proposed a conference next day. Major Pegg, of the Cherokee regiment, was sent, and I proceeded to encamp about 2 miles below Colonel Drew, on the same creek. Much to my surprise, about 7 o'clock at night several members of Colonel Drew s regiment came to my camp with the information that Major Pegg had returned without being able to reach Hopoeithleyohola, who was surrounded by his warriors, several thousand in number, all painted for the fight, and that an attack would be made upon me that night; that the Cherokee regiment, panic-stricken, had dispersed, leaving their tents standing, and
in many instances even their horses and guns. Soon afterwards the wagon-master of the Cherokee regiment and his teamsters, true to their duty, brought down a portion of their trains and provisions. Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, with a squadron of the Fourth [Ninth] Texas Cavalry, was then sent to Colonel Drew's relief and to report the condition of his camp. Colonel Drew and 28 members of his regiment soon afterwards came into my camp and fully confirmed the statements made by the first party and declared their intention to assist in its defense.
My whole command had been, on the first alarm, formed and so disposed as to protect and defend our camp on all sides and remained under arms all night, quietly awaiting the enemy. No attack was made, however, and soon after daylight Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. E. W. Lee, with a. small party, went up to Colonel Drew's deserted camp and found all standing and apparently untouched. Colonel Drew, with the Cherokees, a portion of the Texas cavalry, and some Choctaws, went up and brought away the camp equipage and other property found there. About 11 o clock I recrossed the creek and proceeded down on the east side, with a view of taking a position which would enable me to keep open communication with the depot at Goweta Mission and with re-enforcements of Creeks, Seminoles, and Choctaws who were expected at Tulsey Town. Captain Foster, of the Creek regiment, was sent with two companies of that regiment again across towards Parks Store, on Shoal Creek, to ascertain whether the enemy had come down from the mountains, and also to look after Captain Parks and his men, who had gone on a scout the night before to the rear of Hopoeithleyohola's camp.After proceeding down Bird Creek about 5 miles two runners from Captain Foster reached me at the head of the column, stating he had found the enemy in large force below. Parks had exchanged a few shots with them, taken prisoners, and was retreating, hotly pursued. Scarcely had this intelligence reached me before shots were heard in the rear. Hastily directing the Cherokee train to be parked on the prairie and a sufficient guard placed over it, the forces were formed in three columns, the Choctaws and Chickasaws on the right, the Texans and Cherokees in the center, and the Creeks on the left, and the whole advanced at quick gallop upon
the enemy, who had by this time shown himself in large force above us, along the timber skirting the main creek for over 2 miles, as well as a ravine extending far out into the prairie. A party of about 200 having attacked our rear guard, Captain Young, in command of a squadron of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, being in rear of the main column, perceiving the encounter, wheeled his squadron and advanced rapidly towards the enemy.
Upon his approach the party retreated towards the timber on Bird Creek. The leading companies of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, commanded by Captains Jones and McGurtain, were directed to the right, so as to form a junction with the squadron under Captain Young. Col. D. N. Mclntosh, with his Creek regiment, was ordered to turn the. right of the enemy on the creek. That portion of the enemy on the ravine in the prairie were driven by the Choctaws and Texans across the open ground intervening- between it and timber on the creek. The position then taken up by the enemy at Chusto-Talasah, or the Caving Banks (the Creeks call the place Fonta-hulwache, Little High Shoals), presented almost insurmountable obstacles to our troops. The creek made up to the prairie on the side of our approach in an abrupt, precipitous bank, some 30 feet in height, at places cut into steps, reaching near the top and forming a complete parapet, while the creek, being deep, was fordable but at certain points known only to the enemy. The opposite side, which was occupied by the hostile forces, was densely covered with heavy timber, matted undergrowth, and thickets, and fortified additioually by prostrate logs. Near the center of the enemy s line was a dwelling-house, a small corn-crib, and rail fence, situated in a recess of the prairie, at the gorge of a bend of the creek, of horseshoe form, about 400 or 500 yards in length. This bend was thickly wooded, and covered in front, near the house, with large interwoven weeds and grass, extending to a bench, behind which the enemy could lie and pour upon the advancing line his deadly fire in comparative safety, while the creek banks on either side covered the house by flank and reverse. The Creeks, commanded by Col. D. N. Mclntosh, on the left came soon into action, and. charging the enemy with great impetuosity, met them in hand-to-hand encounter, drove them from the timber, and dispersed them in every direction. On the right the Choctaws and Chickasaws boldly charged on
horse to the bank of a ravine near the reek under a heavy fire, and, dismounting, drove back the enemy, who disputed every step of their advance with the greatest obstinacy and bravery. Major Laflore, Captains Jones, McCurtain, and Reynolds were particularly conspicuous in this part of the engagement; also Colonel Drew and his men, who acted with the Choctaws and Texans.
Almost simultaneously with these movements on the right and left a detachment of the Texas cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, made a charge to the left of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment and routed the enemy in that quarter; then, changing position to the right of the line, warmly engaged the Indians concealed about the creek and ravines. Another detachment of the Texas cavalry, under Colonel Sims, after making a demonstration to the right of the Creek regiment, moved up the creek about 1 mile, joined Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, and assisted him in completing the rout of the enemy in that direction. In the mean time the enemy appeared in large force about the house at the bend, and Captain Young, of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, was ordered with his squadron, about 100 strong, to attack them. The charge of the squadron was made in gallant style to the timber below the house, and, there dismounting, moved up uader cover of the fence. The enemy were driven from their stronghold and pursued far into the bend, Avhere, receiving on the flank an unexpected fire, the squadron took position at the house. Being then re-enforced by some men upon Captains Reynolds , McCurtain's, and Hall's companies, of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, the conflict with the persistent foe was renewed with increased vigor, and after a fierce struggle the enemy was forced, with heavy loss, through the bend and across the creek. Our troops, changing position at this juncture to meet a flank fire iigain on the right, the enemy in front rallied, and by their direct firing from the creek and 011 the right and rear compelled a retreat again to the house. At this time the force of the enemy at this point was not less than 500, and at no time during the conflict here did our force equal one-half that number. The combat now was at close quarters, and raged with great fury on both sides for some half hour, the enemy alternately yielding and advancing and pouring upon our troops it galling fire. While thus engaged the horses of our men were menaced in rear, and, the alarm being given, caused a movement in that direction. The horses being secured, the troops formed again in line at some distance in front of the house.
I would particularly notice here the conspicuous conduct of Asst. Adjt. Gen. E. W. Lee, who fought on foot with the men, cheering and encouraging them during the conflict at this point, and who here received a contusion, his life probably being saved by his pistol-belt turning the ball. A few minutes afterwards a detachment of Creeks, under Col. D. N. Mclntosh, opportunely came up to the relief of the exhausted men of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, and, throwing themselves upon the enemy, closed the battle. The firing now entirely silenced, the enemy disappeared from our entire front, and the sun having set, the troops were withdrawn and marched to camp. The battle lasted over four hours. On the next morning the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment, he Creek regiment, Colonel Drew and his Cherokees, and a portion of the Texas regiment returned to the battle ground. The enemy had retreated to the mountains. After burying our dead we followed the train, which had been sent with the wounded, under Colonel Sims, to Van's, and encamped again for the night within a few miles of the battle-field. The force of the enemy in the engagement at Chusto-Talasah was certainly over 2,500. Several Cherokee prisoners stated it at 4,000, This was also Major Pegg's estimate after his visits to Hopoeithleyohola's camp. Their loss, as admitted by prisoners taken in our last scout, was 412. It probably was 500 in killed and wounded. The force on our side actually engaged did not exceed
1,100, a strong guard being necessary at the Cherokee train. Our loss was 15 killed and 37 wounded.
The officers and men under my command behaved throughout the engagement at Chusto-Talasah on the 9th of December in such manner as to meet unqualified approbation, and coming under my personal observation I would mention as worthy of especial notice and commendation the conduct of the following :
Col. D. N. Mclutosh, Creek regiment; Lieut. Col. William Quayle, Texas regiment; Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. E.
W. Lee 5 Maj. Mitchell Laflore Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles; Actg. Adjt. Joseph A. Carroll, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles; Capts, E. A. Young, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mouuted Rifles; Lein. M. Reynolds, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles; Joseph E. Hall, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles; Willis Jones, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Eifles; Jackson McCurtain, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Eifles ; W. B. Pitchylynn, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Eifles ; Lieuts. J. W. Wells, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles ; James F, Baker, Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment Mounted Rifles. First Serg. Samuel P. C. Patten particularly distinguished; Capt. Alfred Wade, Choctaw battalion, and my young bugler, Nathaniel J. O. Quine.
The actual loss of the enemy in this engagement far exceeded our first estimate, and, although calculated to dishearten them, was of less importance than the moral effect produced. They had learned that their superior numbers could not compensate for the determined valor of our troops and that they could not successfully meet them in combat; that whenever we could find them we could defeat them, and that without material aid from abroad Hopoeithleyohola's party must be entirely destroyed. Impressed with this conviction, the main body of Hopoeithleyohola's army retired hastily towards Kansas, where an asylum had been offered them. This statement is made by intelligent prisoners, confirmed by the appearance of the trails leading towards Kansas seen on our scout two weeks afterwards. My supply of ammunition being nearly exhausted, and having on my arrival at Van's, the night of December 10, learned that a body of Cherokees from Fort Gibson, about 100, who passed up the previous evening, had put on the shuck badge Hopoeithleyohola's and gone direct to his camp at Shoal Creek, I was impressed with the necessity of placing the force under my command as soon as possible in position to counteract any movement among the people in aid of Hopoeithleyohola and his Northern allies. Colonel Drew, with his train, and Colonel Sims, with the Fourth Texas Cavalry, were ordered on the llth direct to Fort Gibson, and with the Creek and Choctaw regiment I moved by way of Tulsey Town down the Arkansas. An express was at the same time sent to Col. James Mclutosh, at Van Buren, with an account of the battle at Chusto-Talasah, with a request that he would send some white troops into the Cherokee country, in order that the moral effect of their presence might repress any outbreak. We arrived at Choska, in the Creek Nation, 20 miles above Fort Gibson, on the 13th. Leaving the main body of the command there, I hastened with Welch's squadron (Companies I and K, of the Choctaw and Chickasaw regiment) and encamped on Grand River, opposite Fort Gibson. Colonel Sims had
already arrived, and was encamped at Fort Gibson.
The arrival of Colonel Drew with the account of our victory over Hopoeithleyohola, the presence of Colonel Sims regiment, and the knowledge of the proximity of the forces at Choska had already suppressed outward show of sympathy with the enemy. The next day I received a letter from Col. James Mcliitosh, dated Van Buren, December 14, 1861, in which he advised that he had just ordered Colonel Young's regiment, Whitfield's battalion, and five companies of Greer's regiment to report to me at Fort Gibson or wherever I might be found; that he had ordered Capt. Con. Rea, ordnance officer at Fort Smith, to honor my requisition for ammunition, and Major Clark to furnish supplies immediately, and that he hoped with this additional force I would be able to inarch against Hopoeithleyohola with certainty of success, etc. An express was immediately started back to Fort Smith with a requisition for ammunition. 1 remained still at Fort Gibson to see the Principal Chief of the Cherokees, Hon. John Ross, and confer with him on the state of affairs among the Cherokees. On the 19th a letter was received from Lieutenant-Colonel Diamond, commanding Colonel Young's regiment, reporting that he would reach Fort Gibson on the 20th. On the evening of that day 1 crossed over to Fort Gibson, for the purpose of addressing the Cherokees, in conjunction with the chief, on the existing state of affairs among them, and greatly to my surprise found Col. James Mclntosh, who announced his intention of taking the field with some 2,000 troops against Hopoeithleyohola. Major Whittield, with his battalion, crossed Grand River early next morning and reported to me. Neither Colonel Young's regiment nor any companies from Colonel Greer's regiment ever did so (I presume the order previously given was received), but formed part of the separate column Colonel Mclntosh had determined to put in motion.
No objection was made by me to the change in Colonel Mclntosh's intentions. On the contrary, I afforded all the information in my possession as to the situation of Hopoeithleyohola's camp and the surrounding country, and it was understood we were to co-operate, moving the one up the Arkansas and the other up the Verdigris. Colonel Mclntosh also promised me a supply of ammunition from what he had brought along. On the 20th, with Major Whitfield's battalion and Captain Welch's squadron, I returned to Choska, after entering into a satisfactory arrangement with Colonel Drew and the chief in regard to the reorganization of Colonel Drew's regiment. Colonel Drew's regiment, when reorganized, was ordered to join me at Choska, and also the available force of Colonel Sims regiment. December 21 I wrote to Col. James Mclntosh, to know when he would be ready and for ammunition; in answer to which, on the same day, lie fixed upon the next at 12 o'clock for the commencement of his march with the largest part of his forces, and the next morning, the 23d, for the departure of the rest; their destination Mrs. McNair s, on the Verdigris, distance from Hopoeithleyohola's camp about 25 miles, stating that he would reach Mrs. McNair's on the morning of the 24th, expressing the opinion that it would not be well to remain at Mrs. McNair's more than one day, and that he would like to see and concert measures with me on the evening of the 24th, and proposing to meet me at any point I might designate; that it was his design to co-operate with me in any measure for the welfare of the country, etc. This I was then satisfied his precipitancy would render impracticable; nevertheless, having on the night of the 23d received at Choska the promised ammunition, I marched the next day for Tulsey Town, and informed Colonel Mclntosh by letter that it would be impossible to reach that place before the 26th; that Col. Stand Watie was ordered to be at Mrs.McNair 's, on the Verdigris, December 25; that his (Colonel Mclntosh's) well-appointed command was too fast for mine, but if Col. Stand Watie joined him I supposed he would have force enough.
On my arrival at Tulsey Town on the evening of the 20th a letter reached me by express from Col. Stand
Watie, dated December 25, at Mingo Creek (which is some 12 miles west of Mrs. Mclsrair's, in the
direction of Hopoeithleyohola s camp), informing me that Colonel Mclntosh had gone on, but as be was only 6 miles in advance he hoped to overtake him. Colonel Mclntosh pushed on without waiting even for Col. Stand Watie, and attacked Hopoeithleyohola. Col. Stand Watie, however, followed the enemy the next day, overtook him, some 300 strong, had a running fight, and killed 15 of the enemy, without the loss of a man. Hopoeithleyohola, it is said, had gone on with about 200 warriors and made his escape. 1 also heard on the morning of the 27th that Colonel Mclntosh had attacked and dispersed the Indians. It was therefore useless for me to attempt to reach the rear of the enemy by way of the Cherokee settlement in the Big Bend of the Arkansas. The only chance to effect any good was to pursue the enemy by the nearest route. Accordingly I marched for Parks, on Shoal Creek, and there, on the 28th, met Colonel Mclntosh returning to winter quarters. On the 29th I moved up Bird Creek and camped on the Osage trail to the Big Bend, having discovered during the day foot-prints and other evidences that the enemy had gone up Bird Creek. The next morning early we struck a plain trail, and followed it a little west of north for two days. On the second day (the 31st) a party of Cherokees, consisting of 3 men and 2 women, were intercepted on the road from Key's settlement, on Caney, to the Big Bend, 1 of whom was killed in single combat by Capt. W. K. Mclntosh, of the Creek regiment; 2 made their escape; the women were taken prisoners.
Again following the trail, we overtook several Seminole women and children, from whom we learned that Hopoeithleyohola had gone on two days in advance. Having followed the trail nearly if not quite to the Kansas line, we turned across towards the Arkansas, and intercepted several parties of Creeks, Osages, and Cherokees on their way to Walnut Creek, Kansas. After an exciting chase by the advance guaard under Maj. N. W. Townes, of the Fourth [Ninth] Texas Cavalry, and Major Whitfield s battalion, several of the enemy were killed and a large number of prisoners taken, mostly women and children. A few cattle were also captured by the Creeks. The weather was exceedingly cold; sleet fell in considerable quantities during the day, and there being every appearance of a snow-storm, we pushed for the timber. Several new trails were discovered during the evening, all leading in the direction of Walnut Creek. The next morning, finding the earth covered with sleet, I resolved to return to my train, and marched the main body of my command down the Arkansas. Sending Colonel Drew with his regiment to examine a wagon-trail we had discovered the evening previous, he found a small camp of Cherokees, which he broke up, wounding 1 man and taking several prisoners. Late in the evening of the same day the advance guard discovered an encampment of Creeks directly under a rocky, precipitous bluff which overhung the Arkansas Eiver, and by rapidly pushing down the bluff and into the river we were enabled to charge the camp and break it up, killing 1 man and taking 21 prisoners, women and children. Several men made their escape across the river. Turning to the top of the bluff we encamped for the night, without food for ourselves or horses.
The next day we reached Skia Tooka's settlement, in the Big Bend, where an abundance of meat and some corn was obtained. Next day reached Tulsey Town, by a forced march, where we found our train. This fatiguing scout of seven days, embracing the entire country lately occupied by Hopoeithleyohola's forces, accomplished over an exceedingly rough and bleak country, half the time without provisions, the weather very cold (during which 1 man was frozen to death), was endured with great fortitude by the officers and men under my command. Its results were 6 of the enemy killed and 150 prisoners taken, mostly women and children, the total dispersing in the direction of Walnut Creek, Kansas, of Hopoeithleyohola's forces and people, thus securing the repose of the frontier for the winter. It also demonstrated that the capture of the whole of those who remained on Shoal Creek up to the 26th of December, including Hopoeithleyohola himself, could have been easily effected had Col. James Mclntosh waited until the forces under my command reached a position in the rear of the enemy, or even if Col. Stand Watie had been sent up Delaware Creek or up Bird Creek and thence to the rear of Hopoeithleyohola s position, the same result would have been attained and the machinations of
the arch old traitor forever ended. The trails on Bird Creek and on the Arkansas also showed that large
numbers of Indians had descended to Hopoeithleyohola s camp before the battle on Bird Creek of December 9, and that still larger numbers had returned up those two streams before the battle on Shoal Creek of December 26. It was also apparent that not more than 1,000 had gone off immediately after that fight. Prisoners of intelligence put the number at 500 warriors.
This report has been long delayed, but the apparent neglect will, it is hoped, be justified when it is
considered by the Department that we have been constantly in the field on active service since the events reported until within the past two weeks, during which the placing of the troops in winter quarters has engaged my time and attention.
I have the honor, sir, to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, DOUGLAS H. COOPER,
Colonel, C. S. Army, Commanding Indian Department.
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN,
Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.
Report of Capt. M. J. Brinson, Ninth Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Round Mountain.
Creek Nation, November 25, 1861.
SIR: I hereby transmit to you an account of the battle fought on the 19th instant:
The attack was brought on by the second squadron about sunset, composed of about 70 men. I was promptly aided on my right by Captain Berry and on my left by Captain McCool, who formed in my own, or second squadron. After firing from three to five rounds I perceived the enemy in strong position and force, numbering some 1,500 Indians, and flanking my small force upon the right and left, I had necessarily to fall back to the main command, some 2 miles, under a heavy retreating fire. The whole command in which I fought my own squadron,
Captain Berry's company, a part of McCool's, and a part of Captain Williams company I am confident did not amount to exceeding 150 men.
In my own company I regret to have to report the loss of John H. Crow, a private, killed. None wounded. One horse, 1 gun, and 5 powder-flasks lost.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
M. J. BRINSON,
Lieut. Col. WILLIAM QUAYLE.
Reports of Capt. R. A. Young, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Round Mountain.
Cherokee Nation, November 30, 1861.
COLONEL: On the 19th instant, a little after night-fall, we were ordered to saddle up and mount our
horses, and the order was given to march. After marching about 200 or so yards we were ordered to
halt and form, which we did, and then advanced to within about 150 yards of the enemy and dismounted.
While dismounting we were fired on and 2 of our horses shot. My men dismounted in good order, and I
ordered them to advance and fire. We advanced 8 or 10 paces from our horses and fired, the enemy
keeping up a constant fire on us. We loaded and fired the third time and silenced the enemy's guns.
The prairie was on fire on my right, and as we advanced to the attack I could see very distinctly the
enemy passing the fire, and I supposed a large body of men (200 or 300), but they were about 300 yards
from me and the prairie was burning very rapidly, and I may have taken the motion of the grass for
I lost 6 horses in the fight; those that were not mortally wounded stampeded, and we could not find
them next morning. I suppose the engagement lasted fifteen minutes.
I am, colonel, respectfully, yours,
R, A. YOUNG,
Capt.j Comdg. Co. K, 1st Regt. C. and C. Mounted Rifles
Col. D. H. COOPER,
Commanding Indian Department.
COLONEL : On the morning of November 19, I was ordered to bring up the rear with my squadron, and about 6 miles from camp the rear guard sent me a message that they were attacked by the enemy.
I immediately wheeled the squadron and went back to their assistance and got about half a mile, when I
discovered the enemy retreating towards the creek. 1 formed, and Colonel Cooper rode up and ordered
ine to charge. After pursuing about 2 miles we came to the creek and I dismounted my men and advanced into the swamp, but not finding the enemy, I ordered the men to return to their horses and mount. My squadron was on the right of our command, and after I had mounted the squadron I received orders from Colonel Cooper to form on the left of the Texas regiment, and in order to get to the left of the Texas regiment I had to pass down the creek, and discovered the regiment coming up to my right, and about the same time discovered the enemy to my right in a bend of the creek, formed around a house. I formed and charged. We routed them from this position and followed them into the swamp 200 yards. They flanked us, and fell back to the house in order to prevent them from surrounding us. We advanced on them a second time, and were compelled to fall back to the house in consequence of their flanking around. We had only 80 men in the squadron, while the enemy had 400 or 500, fighting us with all the advantages of the creek on us and a complete natural ambuscade to protect them.
I have to report the death of Private F. T. Rhodes and others wounded in the squadron. We fought them
between three and five hours.
I am, colonel, respectfully yours,
E. A. YOUNG,
Captain, Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, C. S. Army.
Col. D. H. COOPER,
Commanding Indian Department.
Report of Col. D. N. McIntosh, First Creek Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
Cherokee Nation, December 16, 1861.
SIR: According to your request I will hereby give you a brief account of the battle at High Shoal,
Cherokee Nation, on the 9th instant:
The engagement took place about 2 p. m., and continued for the space of three and a half or four
hours. Without any doubt our enemies had the following advantages over us:
1st. From all appearances it was a premeditated affair by them.They had placed their forces in a large
creek, knowing by marching across the prairie that we would be likely to pass in reach of the place.
2d. The grounds they had selected were extremely difficult to pass, and in fact most of the banks on
the creek were bluli and deep waters, so that no forces could pass across only at some particular
points, which were only known to them.
3d. This place was fortified also with large timber on the side they occupied, and on our side the
prairie extended to the creek, where the enemies were bedded, lying in wait for our approach.
Having completed the above plan, they sent out to us a small portion of their forces to make the
attack, in order to draw us down to their desired and selected place, which was done on our rear
guard, and immediately we marched on to our enemies, taking the left division, while your command on
the right and Texas regiment occupied the middle division. Thus the engagement was generally
commenced. Our men, without any exception, fought bravely, and finally the Creek regiment, under my
command, charged upon the enemy and chased them out from their strong fortified place and took the
creek from them, after which I ordered my regiment to march out upon the prairie, and about that
time a rumor came to me that you were still engaged in lighting on the right, and I ordered my
regiment to your relief.
Our loss in the battle was 2, and from best information I have heard the Choctaw regiment lost 3 on
the battle-field and 2 died since from wounds; and the Texas regiment 2 and 1 from the Cherokee
regiment, making our total loss killed 10 and about 21 wounded.
The enemy's loss, from the best information I can gather, was 27 killed as seen on the battle-field,
and from the signs a great many dead were concealed or carried off during the night, and the wounded
could not have been less than 200 or 300.
D. N. McINTOSH,
Col. D. H. COOPER,
Commanding Indian Brigade.
Report of Col. John Drew, First Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
Cherokee Nation, December 18, 1861.
SIR: I have the honor to report to you that the First Regiment Cherokee Mounted Riflemen, under my
command, reached Bird Creek in the forenoon of Saturday, the 7th instant. It consisted the evening of
that day of about 480 men, rank and file. The hostile Creeks were encamped from 6 to 8 miles distant.
The day following, under your instructions and with the concurrence of Colonel Mcliitosh, commanding
the Creek regiment, I authorized Major Pegg to assure Hopoeithleyohola and party of your desire for a
peaceable settlement of the difficulty with the Creeks, and that you had no wish to prosecute a war
against them. Major Pegg was accompanied to the Creek camps by Capts. George W. Scraper and J. P.
Davis and Rev. Lewis Downing. Before they returned and late that evening I found that there were only
about 60 men in camp, and that a report was circulating that we were to be attacked by an overwhelming
force then at hand. I ordered my horse to be saddled, and while in the act of throwing a blanket on my
saddle Captain Benge came up and said we had better be off, as the enemy were upon us. After
proceeding a part of the way to your camp the party returned to secure the ammunition. Major Pegg was
then in camp, and reported that he had seen a large number of warriors painted for battle, who would
be down upon us that night, and that he had been allowed to return only on the plea of removing some
women and children from danger. This renewed the excitement, and as it [was] now quite dark, the party dispersed in squads. Information had been conveyed to you of the dispersion of the regiment, and while myself, Captain Fields, and a few others were making our way to your camp the squadron of Texas cavalry, which had been instructed to secure the public property in our camp, was fallen in with. This prompt movement saved my train, tents, etc.
Major Pegg, Adjt. James S. Vann, Capts. Davis and J. D. Hicks, Lieuts. S. H. Smith, Jesse Henry,
Anderson Benge, Trotting Wolf, and several privates pursued their way to Fort Gibson. Captains Vann,
Pike, and Scraper, and Lieutenants White-Catcher, Eli Smith, Foster, Bearmeat, and N. Fish, with parts
of their companies, were missing, and doubtless were in the camp of Hopoeithleyohola or made their way there. Capt. James McDaniel and Lieuts. Wat Stop, D. Bear, and Skieyaltooka were absent, but were
almost certainly at the same place. The unarmed portion of the regiment which consisted in the
aggregate of ab@ut 1,200 in number were left at this place in camp, with the following officers:
Lieut. Col. William P. Ross, commanding; Capt. N. B. Sanders and Lieutenants Sanders, Hawkins, Ahmer-cher-ner, Crab-grass Smith, Fogg, Little Bird, Young, Webber, Downing, Drew, Ulteesky, and Deer-in-Water, and a surgeon Corden. The following-named officers and privates were with me in your camp and present at the battle of Bird Creek on the 9th instant: Company F, Capt. Richard Fields, whose
horse was shot; Lieut. Broom Baldridge, killed; Sergt. Dempsey Handle, and Privates Creek McCoy,
Situwakee, and Tracker. Company D : Capt. J. N. Hildebrand and Lieuts. George Springston and Ezekiel
Russell, Private Nelson Hogshooter. Company H: Capt. E. R. Hicks, Lieut. George W. Ross, Sergts.
William Hewbanks, Allan Ross, and Peter; Privates Henry Meigs, Richard Robinson, Carter Oo-yor-lor-
cha-he, and Coming Deer. Company K: Capt. Pickens M. Benge, Lieut. George Benge, Privates Oliver Ross, Thomas Ross, Broad Christy, Thomas Yah-hoo-lar, and Adam (a Creek); Surg. James P. Evans, and Expressman William S. Coodey.
The deportment of these few officers and men, under the peculiar circumstances of their situation, was
highly honorable to them. The teamsters present also deported themselves in a creditable manner
throughout. The causes which led to the dispersion of the regiment arose from a misconception of the
character of the conflict between the Creeks, from an indisposition on their part to engage in strife
with their immediate neighbors, and from the panic gotten up by the threatened attack upon us. The
regiment will be promptly filled and ready for service. For the very kind manner in which you were
pleased to speak of myself and those who adhered to their obligations in your note calling for this report I beg you to accept my grateful acknowledgments.
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Col., Comdg. First Regiment Cherokee Mounted Riflemen.
Col. D. H. COOPER,
Commanding Indian Department.
Report of Col. William B. Sims, Ninth Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
Fort Gibson, Ind. T., December 15, 1861.
SIR: At the commencement of the engagement on the 9th instant with Hopoeithleyohola s forces on Bird
Creek, Cherokee Nation, in obedience to your commands I proceeded to divide the detachment of my regiment, amounting to about 260 men, into two divisions, sending Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, with about 50 of Captain Berry s company, commanded by himself, and small detachments from the following companies: Captain McCool's, under Lieutenant Brown ; Captain Hart's, under Lieutenant Black; Captain Williams, under Lieutenant Bowen; and Captain Brinson's, under Lieutenant Utley; amounting in all to about 100 men. He advanced with his command on to the creek, to the left of the Choctaw regiment. Not finding the enemy there, he returned and charged a ravine on the right of the Choctaws, which he succeeded in taking, under a heavy fire from the enemy. Driving them from their position, he marched on and charged another ravine still farther on the right, but when he got into the ravine the Indians, who had possession of its mouth, opened a raking fire upon his men. He ordered them to charge down the ravine, which they did, and put the enemy to rout. A party of Indians still kept up a heavy fire upon them from the right, who were at first supposed to be Choctaws, as they were wearing our badges, but they were deserted Cherokees and Creeks. In the last charge with Colonel Quayle there were about 20 Choctaws, who acted with the greatest bravery.
With the men under my command, to wit, parts of four companies, under command of Captains Duncan,
English, Wright, and Smith, after having dismounted I charged to the right of Colonel Macintosh's
command and put the Indians to flight without firing a gun. I then ordered my men to mount their
horses and moved down, with the Creeks still remaining on their right, about half a mile, where we
dismounted, charged into the creek bottom, and put the Indians to flight. We then mounted our horses;
it was then reported that the enemy was again advancing. We again dismounted and charged down the
creek, putting the Indians completely to rout. We then mounted our horses and advanced up the creek
about 1 mile, dismounted, and joined the remainder of my command on the right, who were then fight
ing on foot in a ravine. We there withstood a heavy fire from the enemy for some time, which finally
abated. The Creeks then withdrew, followed by the Choctaws. I ordered my men to fall back and
mount their horses, after which we made a charge, and succeeded in getting our wounded men off the
field. I then formed a line to your left on the prairie.
The following is a list of the killed and wounded of my command. The forces of the enemy, I think,
would have amounted to about 2,500 or 3,000 men. From the best information I can get I would suppose
their loss to be about 150 men. The number wounded on their side not ascertained, as they were borne
from the field.
All the officers and soldiers under my command conducted themselves during the engagement with great
decision and bravery.
W. B. SIMS,
Col., Comdg. Fourth Regiment Texas Cavalry, C. S. Army.
Col. D. H. COOPER,
Commanding Indian Department.
Report of Capt. Joseph R. Hall, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-Talasah.
It being requested of me to make a report of the incidents of December 9, 1861, on which day we were
attacked by the Hopoeithleyohola band, on Bird Creek, Cherokee Nation, I do respectfully submit the
following, as it came to my observation during the engagement :
My attention was first directed to the advance of the enemy by some Creeks, who, upon the discovery of the enemy, wheeled their horses and with a whoop charged in direction of the enemy. This attracted
the attention of all and gave us a view of a good body of men advancing on our rear. Each commander
immediately engaged himself, forming his company into a line facing the enemy, no sooner than which
was done we were ordered to march on the enemy, when they began to fall back into a creek bottom and waited our approach. The great hurry in which they marched made it impossible to keep the companies together, on account of the great difference in their horses and ponies; some were not able to keep up and those on the best horses would not halt. The distance being near 2 miles from where they started to the place of engagement, my company being in rear of Captain Reynolds, I dismounted with him on the prairie a half mile above the house in the bend. At this time I do not think I had over 25 men. We marched in the brush on the creek as far as the creek banks. Not finding anything there we fell back to our horses and hurried down to the house, where there was at that time very heavy firing. On moving down I noticed more of my men who had dismounted above the house and were watching their chance for a shot. I dismounted my men a little below the house, about a field, and there I found it impossible to hold some back, for others had not yet secured their horses.
They had not been there a great while before the firing ceased for a while from the enemy's side, when
it was again renewed, but not so heavy. I remained about the house about an hour, when I walked out
to where I could see my horse. I met Colonel Cooper, who ordered me to get my men together and cross the creek below the house. Some of my men were then with Lieutenants Thompson and Krebs, on the creek above the house, mingled with men of different companies, while others were scattered around and below the house in the same manner with Lieutenant Tobly. Having secured me a good rifle and six-shooter from one of Captain Welch's wounded men, I mounted my horse and got a few of my men together, which enabled me in getting together more of my men. Some of them were without caps and bullets. It being then quite late, I ordered the balance with me to save what ammunition they had until it was necessary for them to use it.
By this time I had 3 men wounded. The companies were then all forming on the prairie, and the enemy
commenced showing themselves about the house and field below it, when the Creeks gave them a round. Orders being given to march, we left behind 2 ponies which had fallen into the hands of the enemy. I had about 45 men under my command, 40 of whom were engaged in the fight; the rest were with the train.
JOS. E. HALL,
Commanding Company D.
Col. D. H. COOPER.
Report of Capt. Jackson McCurtain, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-
Cherokee Nation, January 18, 1862.
Being your guest, I will try to give you a full report of High Shoal battle, on December 9, A. D. 1861:
On our marching, the alarm apprehended being given from the rear guard that they were attacked by the
enemy, the regiment was immediately ordered to turn to the right and form into line instantly.
Then the enemy was falling back to the creek. Then order was given again to march by twos. Thence we
were on rapid inarch in following the enemy for a mile and a half; crossed a prairie. Then I halted my
men about 100 paces from bank of creek on the left of Captain Jones, dismounted from our horses, then
ran down to the bank of creek and commenced firing on the enemy. I did not occupy the position but
a short time, and was about crossing the creek, when I was ordered to go down farther, left of my
first position. I then took my men and went down near where a house was. When we came to near a house the front of the house was crowded by the enemy. Then we commenced firing on them. We took possession of the house soon after we commenced. Then my men were fighting all along on the creek. I have no idea of what length of time we were engaged in fighting at that place. I was ordered to take my men out of that place; I did so. Then I was ordered again to go down to assist Captain Jones company.
I went where Captain Jones company was in the ravine. While I was down there assisting Captain Jones
the sun set, and an order was given to fall back to the regiment. My men and everybody else heard
an order and left the place ; but Lieutenant Riley and I, not hearing an order, remained until Lieutenant Riley told me we were left alone and was to be surrounded by the enemy. We were the very last men to come] out of the ravine. Lieutenant James Riley was the only lieutenant that came along with me, and in fighting he encouraged our men along and he stood and fought manfully with them through the whole fight. I venture to say that all my men have bravely fought through during the whole battle; also I am confident the battle lasted fully four hours from the commencement to the end.
It was late in the evening when we left the battle-field.
Report of Capt. William B. Pitchtynn, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, of engagement at Chusto-
Cherokee Nation, January 18, 1862.
SIR : I have the honor to submit a brief report of the engagement in which the company of which I am
honored to be captain fought so successfully on Bird Creek, Cherokee Nation, December 9, 1861:
When orders were given to make a charge our point of attack was made a distance near half a mile above the old cabin, at the mouth of a certain ravine, and there we remained and fought desperately nearly an hour, when the firing of the enemy partially ceased. At this time we had orders to move and attack in the direction of the old cabin, where we remained the balance of the day.
The mode of warfare adopted by the enemy compelled us, as you are aware, to abandon strict military
discipline and make use of somewhat similar movements in order to be successful. At the close of the
battle we took our proper place in the regiment, according to orders, and found one of my company
fatally wounded, who expired on the second night after the battle. Two horses and equipments were lost
in the engagement.
I will merely state that my men fought bravely and gallantly.
I have the honor to be. vour obedient servant, WM. B. PITCHLYNN,
Capt. Co. A, Chocktaw and Chickasaw Regt. Mounted Rifles.
Col. D. H. COOPER, Commanding.
Report of Col. James McIntosh, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, commanding division, of engagement at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation, with letters found in Hopoeitlileyohola s camp.
Van Buren, Ark., January 1, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the battle of Chustenahlah, which took
place in the Cherokee Nation on the 26th of December, 1861:
Before entering upon the details of the battle it is necessary for me to state that I entered the
Cherokee Nation with a portion of my division upon the representation of Colonel Cooper, commanding
the Indian Department, calling upon me for additional force. This call was based upon the hostile
stand taken by the Creek chief Hopoeithleyohola and the disaffection which has sprung up in one of the
Cherokee regiments. I hastened to Fort Gibson, with 1,600 men, and had an interview with Colonel
Cooper, and entered into arrangements for mutual co-operation. The plan proposed was that Colonel
Cooper, with his force strength ened by Major Whitfield s battalion, should move up the Arkansas
River and endeavor to get in the rear of Hopoeithleyohola s position on one of the tributaries of the
Verdigris River, near the Big Bend of the Arkansas, while my force should march up the Verdigris River
opposite the position held by the enemy, and then move directly upon him. On account of the scarcity
of forage it was mutually determined that either force should attack the enemy on sight.
I left Fort Gibson at 12 m. on the 22d ultimo with the following force: Five companies of the South
Kansas-Texas Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Lane; the available strength of the Sixth
Regiment of Texas Cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Griffith; seven companies of the Third [Eleventh]
Regiment of Texas Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Young; four companies of my own regiment, Second Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, under Captain Gipson; and Captain Bennett's company of Texans attached to the headquarters of the division. This force amounted to 1,380 men. On the evening of the 25th ultimo a part of the enemy's force appeared in sight immediately after our arrival in camp. A regiment was sent to observe them. I soon became satisfied that this party was endeavoring to lead us on a fruitless chase. I therefore restrained my impatient men and ordered them back to camp. During the
evening an express reached me from Colonel Cooper, with the intelligence that it would probably be two or three days before he could make the preconcerted movement, on account of the desertion of his
teamsters, and generously stated that if I found it necessary to advance he would give me all the
assistance in his power. From this point, knowing it was impossible to move my train farther, I
ordered it to remain in charge of Captain Elstner, acting brigade quartermaster, with a guard of 100
With four days cooked rations I left camp early on the morning of the 26th, and moved cautiously
toward the stronghold of the enemy among the mountains running back into the Big Bend of the Arkansas. Lieutenant-Colonel Lane, with his regiment, moved in advance. A company of his regiment, under Captain Short, was thrown forward as an advance guard, with orders to throw out flankers well to the right and left. Toward 12 m. we approached Shoal Creek, a tributary of the Verdigris.
As soon as Captain Short had crossed the stream a heavy and continuous firing was opened upon him. The company gallantly main tained its position. I immediately ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Griffith, with
his regiment, to move up on the right, and Colonel Young on the left. The center, composed of
Lieutenant-Colonel Lane s regiment, Captain Bennett s company, and the detachment of the Second
Regiment of Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, then moved forward and crossed the stream in the face of the
enemy in large numbers posted to the right on a high and rugged hill, with its side covered with oak
trees. The enemy continued their fire upon us. Colonel Young promptly crossed the stream and formed
upon the left of the center, which was already in line of battle. Lieutenant-Colonel Griffith, with
his regiment, was ordered to march up the stream, which flowed at the base of the hill on which the
enemy was posted, and, after coming opposite their left flank to dismount, cross the stream, and
attack him in the flank. All these orders were promptly and efficiently executed, and the whole force
ready for action.
The enemy was in a very strongposition, and from it observed our actions, in happy innocence of the
gallant resolve which animated the hearts of those in the valley below them. The Seminoles, under the
celebrated chief Halek Tustenuggee, were in front on foot, posted behind the trees and rocks, while
others were in line near the summit of the hill. Hopoeithleyohola s Creeks were beyond, on horseback.
A few representatives of other tribes were also in the battle. The whole force was estimated at 1,700.
Between the rough and rugged side of the hill a space of 200 or 300 yards intervened of open ground.
Each tree on the hill-side screened a stalwart warrior. It seemed a desperate under taking to charge a
position which appeared almost inaccessible, but the order to charge to the top of the hill met a
responsive feeling from each gallant heart in the line, and at 12 in. the charge was sounded, one wild
yell from a thousand throats burst upon the air, and the living mass hurled itself upon the foe. The
sharp report of the rifle came from every tree and rock, but on our brave men rushed, nor stopped
until the summit of the hill was gained and we were mingled with the enemy. The South Kansas-Texas
regiment, led by those gallant officers Colonel Lane and Major Chilton, breasted itself for the highest point of the hill, and rushed over its rugged side with the irresistible force of a tornado, and swept everything before it. The brave Major Chilton, while approaching the summit of the hill, received a severe wound in the head, but with unabated vigor continued in the fight.
Captain Bennett, with his company and the detachment of the Second Regiment Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, under Captain Gipson, gallantly charged side by side. Captain Gipson was ordered to dismount his command and move into a thicket into which he had driven a portion of the enemy, which he did promptly and with great execution. After charging some distance on the extreme left, the gallant Colonel Young, observing that the enemy were moving to the more rugged part of the field of battle on the right, with ready foresight rapidly moved his regiment to that portion of the field, and succeeded in
cutting off many of the enemy. Lieutenant-Colonel Griffith, having obeyed the first order given him,
observing the enemy flying from the hill, rapidly mounted his command, and moved forward up the
stream, crossed it some distance above, and gallantly encountered the enemy, who had made a stand near their imncipal encampment. The enemy by this time were much scattered and had retreated to the rocky gorges amid the deep recesses of the mountains, where they were pursued by our victorious troops and routed in every instance with great loss. They endeavored to make a stand at their encampment, but their efforts were ineffectual, and we were soon in the midst of it. Property of every description was scattered around. The battle lasted until 4 o'clock, when the firing gradually ceased, and we remained victors in the center of Hopoeithleyohola's camp. The loss sustained by the enemy was very severe.
Their killed amounted to upwards of 250. Our loss was 8 killed and 32 wounded. The brave and gallant
Lieutenant Fitzhue was shot in the head, and fell while gallantly leading his company. Capt. J. D. Young, of Young's regiment, and Lieutenant Durham, of the South Kansas-Texas Regiment, were both wounded Avhile in the thick of the battle. We captured 160 women and children, 20 negroes, 30 wagons, 70 yoke of oxen, about 500 Indian horses, several hundred head of cattle, 100 sheep, and a great quantity of property of much value to the enemy. The strong hold of Hopoeithleyohola was completely broken up, and his force scattered in every direction, destitute of the simplest elements of subsistence.
At 4 o clock the rally was sounded, and the different commands went into camp on the battle-field. The
dead and wounded were collected and cared for. The officers of the medical department of the different
regiments deserve much credit for their promptness in attending to the wounded. A party of Stand Watie
s regiment of Cherokees, numbering 300, under the command of the colonel, although under my orders,
came up just as the battle terminated. This regiment had been ordered to join me from its station on
Grand River. It was no fault of its commander that it did not reach us sooner. Every effort on his part was made in order to reach us in time. At early dawn on the day after the battle I again left camp in pursuit of the flying enemy. After a hot pursuit of 25 miles we overtook 2 wagons, which were captured and burned. At this moment sharp firing was heard upon the left, and a messenger came from Col. Stand Watie with the report that he was engaged with the enemy. I immediately moved in the direction, and upon our arrival I ascertained that Colonel Watie had overtaken a number of the enemy and had gallantly charged them. Major Boudinot, commanding the left flank of the regiment, had rushed into a deep ravine and driven the enemy from it. In the skirmish 15 men of the enemy were killed and a number of women and children taken.
Throughout our rapid march sometimes on ground covered with snow and at others facing the chilly
blasts from the north the greatest enthusiasm prevailed in anticipation of the coming struggle, and at
all times during the march and on the battle field every officer and soldier of the brigade nobly did
his duty, and it is with heartfelt pride that I bring them to the notice of the Department. The charge
at the commencement of the battle was splendid; none more gallant was ever made. Individual acts of
daring and hand-to-hand encounters were of frequent occurrence daring the day, but it would be
impossible to enumerate them. I therefore refer the Department to the reports of regimental and
detachment commanders, herewith transmitted. To Captain Elstner, of the Second Regiment Arkansas
Mounted Rifle men, who acted as brigade quartermaster and commissary, my thanks are due for the
efficient and able manner in which he conducted the affairs of his department. To my personal staff I
am indebted for much valuable service. Both Mr. Frank C. Armstrong and Mr. James S. Vann, my volunteer aides-de-camp, went gallantly into the fight, and bore themselves with great coolness and courage. Lieut. G. A. Thornton, the acting assistant adjutant-general, was also active and efficient in
carrying various orders, and deserves great credit for his coolness during the battle.
Casualties: Killed, 9, wounded, 40.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Commanding Division.
Letter of Col. James Mclntosh, transmitting reports of subordinate commanders of the battle of
Chustenahlah December 20, 1861.
Fort Smith Ark.) January 4, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit the inclosed reports of regimental and detachment commanders of the battle of Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation, fought on the 20th ultimo; also copies of letters from
Kansas to the Indians. These letters were found in Hopoeithleyohola's camp.
I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,
General S. COOPER,
Adjutant-General C. S. Army, Richmond Va.
Copies of letters taken in Hopoeithleyohola's camp.
BARNSVILLE, September 10, 1861.
BROTHER: Your letter by Micco Hutka is received. You will send a delegation of your best men to meet
the commissioner of the United States Government in Kansas. I am authorized to inform you that the
President will not forget you. Our Army will soon go South, and those of your people who are true and
loyal to the Government will be treated as friends. Your rights to property will be respected. The
commissioners from the Confederate States have deceived you. They have two tongues. They wanted to get the Indians to fight, and they would rob and plunder you if they can get you into trouble. But the
President is still alive. His soldiers will soon drive these men who have violated your homes from the
land they have treacherously entered. When your delegates return to you they will be able to inform
you when and where your moneys will be paid. Those who stole your orphan funds will be punished, and you will learn that the people who are true to the Government which so long protected you are your
Your friend and brother,
E. H. CARRUTH,
Commissioner of U. S. Government.
BARNSVILLE, KANS., September 11, 1861.
The CHICKASAWS AND CHOCTAWS
Who are loyal to the U. 8. Government:
FRIENDS AND BROTHERS: The commissioners of the United States \vonld like to meet delegations from your nations at the headquarters of the Kansas brigade, where they will confer with you. The Indians who are true to the Government will always and everywhere be treated as friends by her armies. Your rights will be held sacred ; you will be protected in person and property. It is only over the enemies of
government and law that an avenging hand will be raised.
Very respectfully, yours, etc.,
E. H. CARRUTH,
Commissioner of U. 8. Government.
HEADQUARTERS KANSAS BRIGADE,
Barnsville, September 11, 1861.
TUSAQUACH, Chief of the Wichitas:
FRIEND AND BROTHER: It is the wish of the commissioner of the United States Government that you either come to Kansas with your friends the Seminoles or send two or three of your best braves. We also want the Keechies, lonies, Cadoes, and the Comanches to send some of their men to meet and have a talk writh the commissioners of your Great Father at Washington. His soldiers are as swift as the antelope and brave as the mountain bear, and they are your friends and brothers. They will give you powder and lead. They will fight by your sides. Your friend Black Beaver will meet you here, and we will drive away the bad men who entered your company last spring. The Texans have killed the Wichitas; we will punish the Texans.
Come with your friends the Seminoles.
E. H. CARRUTH,
Commissioner for the U. S. Government.
Report of Col. W. C. Young Eleventh Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
SIR: I have the honor to report the action of my regiment in the engagement of the 26th December. I
took up my position on the left, according to your instructions, at the commencement of the action. 1
remained there until the woods were on fire, and being satisfied that the enemy did not intend an
attack on our left, I moved my regiment in the direction of the mountains, on the right. On moving up
the first mountain I passed Major Chilton, of Colonel Greer's regiment, who was wounded in the head,
and learning from him the direction the enemy had taken, I moved my regiment in an oblique direction
through the mountains, where, after going some 2 miles, we came up with the enemy., strongly posted
among the rocks and timber. We immediately charged them, carrying everything before us. After this the enemy, being completely routed, ran in different directions. My regiment then pursued them in
detachment of companies, keeping up a running fight until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The regiment was
then rallied, and we proceeded to gather up the killed and wounded, which we succeeded in doing, and
reached camp a little after dark.
My regiment killed 211, viz: By the staff, 3; a detachment of 36 men from the companies of Captains
Twitty, Reeves, and Young, commanded by Capt. J. D. Young, killed 34 ; Captain Harman's company
killed 16; Captain Burk's company killed 30; Captain Nicholson's company killed 16; Captain Bound's
company killed 26 ; Captain Featherston's company killed 10; Captain Hill's company killed 26; Captain
Wallace's company, 50. Total killed, 211 .
Our loss killed on the field was 1 private, William Franklin, Captain Harman's company ; mortally
wounded, Sergt. W. H. H. Alding ton, of Captain Young s detachment, and W. S. Proctor, of Captain
Wallis company; and J. N. Robinson, of Captain Wallis company, severely wounded, left arm broken;
slightly wounded, Capt. J. D. Young, in the thigh, and Benjamin Clark, private in Captain Feather
ston s company, wounded in the leg. Total killed and wounded, 6. In Captain Nicholson's company 3
horses shot, and in Captain Harman's company 3 horses shot. Captain Featherston's company lost;
Captain Hill's, 1 killed. In Captain Wallis company 1 horse killed and 1 disabled. In Captain Burk's
company 1 horse lost.
We took a great many women, children, and negroes prisoners; also a number of horses and cattle, which were turned over, by your order, to Captain Gipson, of the Arkansas regiment.
In conclusion, I am proud to say that both officers and men of my regiment behaved throughout the
engagement as became soldiers and Texans.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. C. YOUNG,
Colonel, Commanding Texas Cavalry
Report of Lieut. Col. John S. Griffith, Sixth Regiment Texas Cavalry, of engagement at Chustenahlah,
HEADQUARTERS SIXTH TEXAS REGIMENT,
Camp Hominy Creek, Cherokee Nation, December 27, 1861.
COLONEL: On the 26th instant, at 12 m., I was ordered by you to move my command up on the right of and parallel with Colonel Lane's command. This executed brought me to Hominy Creek, when I was further ordered to dismount my men and form a line. When Colonel Lane made his gallant charge on the enemy I ordered my men to their horses, formed, and rapidly advanced in a flanking movement you intended for me to make up the valley for half a mile, crossed over to the west, or battle side of the creek, proceeded a short distance up, and discovered the enemy upon the opposite bank. I charged across the creek, put the enemy to rout, continued up the valley something like a half mile farther, cutting off all the straggling and then flying Indians in that direction. I then turned to the left in a
northwestward direction over the rocky hills and gorges that made into the larger gorge that was
then in between Colonel Lane's command and mine. Continuing this course, 1 crossed over five or six
rocky hills, on three of which, behind the rocks, the enenry were in position in considerable numbers.
My men gallantly charged in succession, putting them completely to rout. It was during these charges
that the brave and gallant Lieutenant Fitzhue and Thomas Arnold fell among the foremost in the light.
After going about 3 miles in this direction I caine to the Cross Hollows. There the enemy were
collected in large numbers. Dismounting my men, we poured a galling fire on them at about 125 yards
distance, which finally dislodged them. From thence I proceeded in a westward direction, cutting off
occasionally straggling Indians, until 3.30 o'clock p. m. The loss of the enemy by my command, as near
as can be estimated by myself and officers, is 70 killed; that of my own men, 15 killed and wounded,
as follows, to wit: Company C, Lieutenant Smith commanding, E. V. Howell, mortally wounded in the
head; John R. West, wounded in the wrist. Company D, Lieutenant Kelly commanding, Bugler J. B. Harris, killed ; G. W. Coffman, wounded in breast. Company E, Captain Wharton commanding, William Spencer, wounded in breast; W. P. Wright, wounded in breast and arm. Company F, Sergeant Young commanding, James Green, mortally wounded, shoulder and wrist; Henry Ellis, wounded in leg; George W. Wilson, wounded in chest and arm ; Leonard Sheffield, wounded in breast. Company G, Captain Ross commanding, Thomas T. Arnold, killed ; J. H. Whittiugton, wounded in groin. Company H, Lieutenant Whittington commanding. First Sergt. R. H. Baker, wounded slightly in shoulder; A. M. Keller, wounded slightly in hand. Company K, Captain Throckmorton commanding, First Lieut. G. S. Fitzhue, killed.
At 3.30 o clock I started back to where the battle commenced, where I arrived at dark, bringing in 75
women and children as prisoners and 3 negroes and 80 horses, which are herewith turned over to you. To the brave and gallant Captains Ross, Hardin, Wharton, and Throckmorton, and Lieutenants Scott,
Cummings, Kelley, Smith, and Whittington, and Sergeant Young I am much indebted for the success we
had by their fearless charges in the front of their respective commands, which so signally routed the
enemy from every point. I am indebted to Adjutant Gurley and Sergeant-Major Porter for their
efficiency in transmitting orders, as well as for good fighting. Lieutenants Truitt, Vance, and Cannon, and every non-commissioned officer and private, for so nobly sustaining their officers, not only deserve my thanks, but the applause of their countrymen. Assistant Surgeon Bradford did good duty as a soldier in the ranks until his presence was required with the wounded, whom he has since constantly and skillfully attended. Before closing I must return my sincere thanks to Captains Ross, Wharton, and Throckmorton, and Adjutant Gurley for timely assistance when I was in imminent personal peril, and my gratitude to
Providence for crowning our arms with victory.
With respect, I am, your obedient servant,
JOHN S. GRIFFITH,
Lieut. Col. Comdg. Sixth Regiment Texas Cavalry.
Col. JAMES MCINTOSH, Commanding.
Report of Lieut. Col. Walter P. Lane, Third Texas (South Kansas-Texas) Cavalry, of engagement at
Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
South Kansas-Texas Cavalry, December 26, 1861.
SIR : I have the honor to submit the following report of my command in the battle of Chustenahlah, on
the 26th instant, I had with me the greater portion of five companies, to wit, Companies A, B, E, F,
and G. To these were attached a few from other companies in the regiment, in all about 350 men.
Company A was commanded by Sergt. R. B. Gause, Company B by Lieut. M. D. Ector, Company E by Capt. D. M. Short, Company F by Capt. Isham Chisum, and Company G by Lieut. O. A. Durrum. Our advance guard, in command of Captain Short, being fired upon by the enemy, stood firm until our force came up. It was at once evident that the enemy were in force and had taken a very strong position, protected and sheltered to a great extent by trees and rocks, with an open prairie in front of them. I was ordered to charge the strongest point of the enemy. When the regiments had taken the different positions assigned them the bugle sounded the charge. As we approached the foot of the hill the enemy opened a heavy fire upon us. No confusion was created by it in our advancing columns. Many of the enemy made for their stronghold on the top of the hill, where there was a natural breastwork of rocks, and fired over the rocks at us.
Many of my men, without making any halt, gained the heights by the few narrow entrances on the side
where it was alone accessible, while others dismounted and scaled the rock, and here for a short time
a desperate struggle ensued. Many shots were fired when the contending parties were only in a few
steps of each other, and in some instances they were engaged in a hand-to-hand struggle. Soon the
point was cleared by us, and the enemy retreated in great confusion, some of them making a stand for a
short time in the deep gorges and rocky defiles of the mountains. When we had completely scattered and routed those who had made a stand against us, hearing a heavy firing northeast, I obliqued with my
command in that direction, and joined Colonel Stone s regiment, with which I co-operated during the
remainder of the battle, going where, from the firing, we would be most likely to come up with the
largest bodies of the enemy.
We continued in the pursuit until one hour by sun in the evening. It is due to all those in command of
companies to say that they deserve great credit for the manner they led their companies into the
charge and for their conduct throughout the battle. The truth is, every officer and private in my
command acted gallantly and to my entire satisfaction during the engagement. I am proud indeed that at
such a time it was my fortune to command such men. When I consider the position occupied by the enemy, I deem it nothing but due to you to state that the battle was admirably planned, and was executed by the different commands in a manner calculated to reflect great credit on our arms.
Yours, very respectfully,
W. P. LANE,
Lieut. Col., Comdg. South Kansas- Texas Cavalry.
Colonel, Commanding, and Acting Brigadier- General.
Report of Capt. William Gipson, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, of engagement at Chustenahlah,
DECEMBER 28, 1861.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken in the battle of Chustenalilah
by the battalion of your regiment under my command, composed of the following companies: My own,
commanded by Lieutenant Scott; Captain Parker's, commanded by Lieutenant Caldwell; Captain King's,
commanded in person; and Captain Flannagan's, commanded by Lieutenant Callaway. In consequence of the companies being reduced by sickness and leave of absence, the whole number under my command amounted to only 130 men.
On the morning of the 26th December, after marching 10 miles, we came in sight of the encampment of
the enemy, between whom and our advance guard an animated fire soon ensued. In obedience to your
order I took position in the center, Colonels Greer and Stone s regiment on my right and Colonel
Young's regiment and Captain Bennett's company on my left. At the command wre charged the enemy, who were positioned at a distance of 200 yards in the timber, and firing upon us from the points of the
hills and valleys between. After our first fire they fell back among cliffs of rocks. We then dismounted, again attacked them, and again routed them. Finding that we could not overtake them on foot, we returned to our horses and followed up the retreat for 2 miles. Coming in sight of them, we again charged and routed them. We followed up the retreat for 3 miles, shooting and cutting the enemy
down all along the route. I estimate that we killed from 80 to 100. I had none killed.
The following is a list of the wounded, viz:
My own company: Private J. G. Humphrey, dangerously; Private W. C. Eppler, dangerously; Private M. G. Blaylock, wounded in the arm; Private Riley Nicholson, slightly. Captain Parker's company: William
McCartney, wounded in the head. Captain King's company: Joseph H. Bradford, wounded slightly; Robert D. Bolton, wounded slightly.
Officers and men under my command fought bravely and did their whole duty.
Senior Capt., Comdg. Bat. Second Ark. Mounted Riflemen.
Colonel MCINTOSH, Commanding.
Report of Capt. H. S. Bennett, Lamar Cavalry Company, of engagement
at Chustenahlah, Cherokee Nation.
I beg leave to state that on the day of the battle I had in my command 40 men, and that we formed in
line for battle about 12 noon, and in a very short time made a charge on the enemy, then stationed
about 300 yards distant, who instantly upon the charge being made fell back upon the opposite side of
a ravine, covered with bush and vine, and on our approach to that point we received orders to
dismount; but finding the enemy at such a distance, retreating and firing, I immediately ordered my
company to remount and charge; but before reaching the base of the mountain the enemy had ascended its top and made a stand, and as we charged to the top of a steep and rocky mountain we encountered a very heavy fire from the enemy, about 100 strong. We ascended the mountain in good order, and made a desperate charge and at once put the enemy to flight. The enemy retreated in disorder. Occasionally from ambush or the cover of trees and rocks we received their deadly shots, and in this manner the conflict continued until we had completely routed them from the mountain, and then the first struggle ended, the company killing some 20 of the enemy and wounding some 9 or 10. The number killed in my company was 2, Privates F. Lane and H. E. Wilson. One slightly wounded.
A portion of my command, under Lieut. I. H. Wright whose gallantry on the occasion deserves praise
continued the pursuit some 7 or 8 miles, killing and wounding several more. It gives me pleasure to
state that my small command did battle with a courage and heroism scarcely equaled. The engagement on the 26th continued some three or four hours.
For such a signal and glorious victory the highest praise is due our gallant commander.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. S. BENNETT,
Captain, Lamar Cavalry.
Colonel MclNTOSH, Commanding Forces.
Report of Col. James Mclntosh, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, commanding division, of skirmish with
Creeks and Seminoles.
Fort Smith, Ark., January 10, 1862.
GENERAL : In my report to you in regard to the captured property taken at Chustenahlah I should have
stated that 190 sheep were turned over to the commissary, Captain Lanigan, at Fort Gibson.
Since writing that communication I have received a report from Colonel Watie, commanding Cherokee
regiment (who I left behind to collect the stock taken from the Indians), stating that he brought back
with him between 800 and 900 head of cattle and 250 Indian ponies.
Colonel Cooper, who marched with his command of Indians over the ground two or three days after the
battle, also found a number of cattle, which were secured. All this property is in addition to what I have hitherto reported.
Colonel Watie also reports that on his return to Grand River from the battle-field, he having ascertained that a company of Cherokees numbering 50 or 60 were near his camp, making their way northward, with arms in their hands, sent two companies to arrest them. In endeavoring to accomplish this 1 Cherokee was killed and 7 made prisoners. Their wagons and some of their arms fell into the hands of Colonel Watie. From an officer just in from Colonel Cooper's command I ascertain that Hopoeithleyohola has gone to Kansas, and has not more than 400 or 500 Creeks with him. Many of the Indians who espoused his cause have left him since the battle, and are now anxious to come in and make a treaty. As we have made them entirely destitute, I think all but Hopoeithleyohola's immediate followers will come in.
I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,
General S. COOPER,
Adjutant- General C. S. Forces, Richmond, Va.
Report of Col. Stand Watie, Second Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of skirmish with Creeks and Seminoles.
On Shoal Creek, December 28, 1861.
COLONEL: In the march upon the enemy yesterday the force under my command had proceeded some 20 or 25 miles when my scouts, under Captain Goody, reported the enemy in considerable force on the hills to my left. I immediately left the route you were pursuing and took my command to the place where the enemy had been seen. They had discovered my approach and retreated to strong positions among the hills and mountain gorges. I placed about half of the command under Major Boudinot, directing him to go to the left, while I took command of the rest to the right. The enemy was scattered over a large scope of country, much of it inaccessible to horses, but my men attacked the enemy wherever found, never failing to route them from their strongholds. The fight continued with intervals for two hours or
What is quite remarkable, none of my men were either killed or wounded. According to the best
estimates I can make of the loss of the enemy, it could not be less that 9 or 10 killed. I cannot tell
the number of wounded, but I have reason to think it quite small. This estimate does not include the
killed of the enemy by the force under Major Boudinot, whose report of the doings of his command is
here with respectfully submitted. Captain Jumen and Capt. Joe Thompson commanded the part of the force which I took charge of. The officers and men of their companies behaved with signal gallantry.
I have the honor to be, colonel, your obedient servant,
Commanding Cherokee Regiment.
Colonel McINTOSH, Commanding.
Report of Maj. E. C. Boudinot, Second Cherokee Mounted Rifles, of skirmish with Creeks and Seminoles.
Shoal Creek, December 28, 1861.
COLONEL: In obedience to your order I took charge of the left division of the force under your command
in the attack made upon the enemy yesterday. The enemy were seen upon every hill and in every valley, and according to the best estimate we could make of their strength they must have numbered from 500 to 600 warriors. They made no determined stand, but were driven by our soldiers from point to point.
Every man seemed anxious to be foremost, and the charges made upon the enemy over rocks, mountains, and valleys the roughest country I ever saw were made with the utmost enthusiasm, and with irresistible impetuosity. Although the firing was brisk and rapid for an hour and a half, with
intervals of following the enemy from one position to another, none of the men in my division were
killed or wounded. The killed of the enemy it is impossible to estimate accurately, as the skirmishing
was over so much ground, so I give only the number which I am sure were counted, which is 11 killed;
the wounded unknown.
The companies in the left division were commanded by Captains Bell, Mayes, Parks, and Goody, who all
distinguished themselves by their daring and gallantry, as did also every officer and soldier in the
command. You yourself had charge of the remainder of the force. We took some 75 prisoners, together
with 25 or 30 pack horses, which afterwards were released by your order. It is due Colonel Taylor to
state that when you gave me the command of the left division he was thought to be in your division,
and after I discovered him in mine I yielded to his superior rank, and gave no orders but what were
concurred in or first given by him,
E. 0. BOUDINOT,
Major, Cherokee Regiment.
Col. STAND WATIE, Cherokee Regiment.
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