CHESTERFIELD, an extensive market and Borough town, comprises within its parish six dependent townships, and is the head of an extensive Poor-law-union. It is pleasantly situated on an eminence, between the rivers Rother and Hipper. (which are at this place but inconsiderable streams), 25 miles N. by E. from Derby, 12 miles N.W. from Mansfield, 12 miles S.S.E. from Sheffield, 151 miles N.N.W. from London on the Sheffield and London road. The Midland Railway between Derby and Leeds passes near the town on its eastern side, where a handsome stone station, with convenient waiting room for passengers, has been built; at Masborough, the railway is connected with Sheffield by the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway, the Midland Railway Company being lessees of that line, and have a station at Sheffield. The parish includes the townships of Calow, Hasland, Newbold with Dunstan, Tapton, Temple Normanton, and Walton, and previous to the 3rd of September, 1844, had the chapelry of Brimington annexed, which at that period, by order in council, was made a distinct parish for all civil and ecclesiastical purposes. The parish contains 12,012 acres of land of the rateable value, including the buildings, of £37,810, and in 1851, had 2,671 houses, and 12,318 inhabitants, of whom 6090 were males and 6228 females.
CHESTERFIELD is the capital of the Hundred of Scarsdale, and of the deanery to which it gives name, and is a polling place for the north division of the county. The township is of the rateable value of £18,379 14s. 0d., but contains only 212A. 1R. 8P. of land, having in 1851, 1455 inhabited houses, 58 uninhabited, and 12 houses building, with a population of 7,101 souls, of whom 3473 were males, and 3628 females. From an actual survey, in 1778, Chesterfield contained 801 houses and 3,626 inhabitants. The Duke of Devonshire is lord of the manor and a considerable owner of property. The Parish Church, dedicated to All Saints, is an ancient cruciform structure, said to have been dedicated in the year 1232. Twelve years ago, the interior was restored at considerable expense, with open seats, defrayed by public subscription. The living is a vicarage, valued in the King’s book at £15 0s 2d., now £357, and was, in 1817, augmented with £400 parliamentary grant. The Bishop of Lichfield is the patron, and the Rev. George Butt, MA., the vicar. This spacious structure is in the Decorated style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower rising from the intersections, surmounted by a lofty
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spire 230 feet high, which, from the peculiar mode of putting on the lead with which it is covered, though perfectly upright, appears in every direction in which it is viewed, to incline considerably from the perpendicular. The east window in a fine composition in the latter style, and a beautiful screen and rood-loft ornaments the south transept; the chancel and nave contain some antique monuments in memory of the Foljambe’s and others, with several effigies in the attitude of prayer. There was anciently a guild at Chesterfield, dedicated to St. Mary and the Holy Cross, valued at £19 per annum. It was established in the time of King Henry II., who maintained two or three priests here; it also appears by an inscription, that before the year 1550, there was a chantry belonging the Church. In 1100 William Rufus gave the Church to the Dean of Lincoln. In the town were three chapels, St. Thomas’s was situate in Holywell Street, now in small dwellings, St. Helen’s on the site of the Grammar school, and St. James’s at Lord’s Mill bridge. At Old Spital there was a house for Leprous persons, founded in the 10th of Richard I.; these, with the Endowed chapel and chantry, were swept away at the dissolution of the monasteries, in the reign of Henry VIII.
By the death of the late Dean of Lincoln, the patronage of the church, agreeable to the plans of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, is now vested in the Bishop of Lichfield, the rectorial manor and tithes are in the hands of the Commissioners for ecclesiastical improvements. A memorandum in the parish register, dated 1586, notices “the great plague began in Chesterfield.” In the months of June and July of the following year, 106 persons were carried off by this awful scourge, which seems to have disappeared in the succeeding winter. In March, 1608, it again made its appearance, but after May is seems gradually to have subsided. The Church register notices that the assizes were held here 15th and 16th March, when five men and one woman suffered the extreme penalty of the law. The assizes were held here owing to the plague being at time prevalent in Derby. In 1662, the Rev. John Billingsley, M. A. and his curate, Rev, James Ford, were ejected for nonconformity. ln 1756, the church organ was installed at a cost of £500. In 1820, a new peal of ten bells was put up, which cost upwards of £500. A sum of £350 was expended in 1824, in sundry dwelling houses and gardens on the north side of the church, which were taken down and the space added to the church yard. The church clock was erected in, 1836, at a cost of £352, raised by a rate. On the 17th May, 1837, the first stone of Holy Trinity Church, was laid by his Grace the Duke of Devonshire, who give the land for the site. It is a neat Gothic structure with tower, surmounted with pinnacles, capable of accommodating 1,000 persons, and cost £3,300, of which sum £500 was obtained from the Diocesan Society. and the rest raised by voluntary subscriptions: a considerable surplus was applied towards the endowment. The patronage is vested in trustees, the vicar of Chesterfield being one. The Rev. Alexander Poole is the incumbent. It constitutes an ecclesiastical district, the parishes of Chesterfield, Newbold, and Tapton, surrounding the church.
The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Salter gate, was erected about the year 1795, and was considerably enlarged in 1822. The interior is neat, and well fitted up with galleries.
The Primitive Methodist Chapel, Beetwell street, is a neat brick building, erected in 1848.
The Independent Chapel, Soresby street, a handsome stone building, 60ft. by 42ft., erected in 1822, is surrounded by a burial ground, convenient school rooms, and vestry adjoins, and galleries were added in 1834, at an expense of £310. It will seat about 700 persons; the Rev. Robt. W Selbie, is the pastor. The Independants have also a chapel in South place, formerly possessed by the Baptists.
The General Baptist Chapel is situated in Soresby street.
The Friends’ Meeting House, Salter gate, a plain stone building, erected in 1770, and enlarged in 1800; a small burial ground is attached.
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The Unitarian Chapel, Salter gate, was built in 1694, by Cornelius Clarke, Esq., of Norton, at an expense of £229 10s., who vested it in trustees, to be used as a place of worship for Dissenting Protestants. He also bequeathed £80 towards purchasing a house for the minister, some addition to this sum was made by the congregation, and the whole laid out upon a house in St. Mary’s gate; the Rev. Alfred Turner Blythe is pastor.
The Wesleyan Free Church, Elder yard, erected in 1855, at a cost of about £700, is a neat Gothic stone building, capable of seating 420 persons, but galleries are about to be added to increase the accommodation to 500.
The Catholic Chapel, Spencer street, built in 1854, is a neat Gothic building, which will afford accommodation to about 1,400 persons. A house for the priest, and schools are to be added as soon as sufficient funds are raised.
Religious Institutions, which have for their object the promotion of Christian Knowledge, are liberally supported, the members of the Church and the Dissenting communities each subscribe to their respective Bible, Missionary, and Tract Societies. The depository of the Bible Society, and that of the Tract Society, is at Mr. Cornelius Gallimore’s, Irongate; and the depository of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, at Mr. John Bush’s, Market place.
Subscription Library, at Mr. John E. Roberts’s, High street, established 1791, is supported by an annual subscription of one guinea; the entrance money is two guineas and a half; the Library contains about 1,500 volumes: and in 1831, Mr. Roberts established a News Room in connection with the same.
The Free Grammar, or St. Helen’s School, situated on the Sheffield road, was founded by Queen Elizabeth. It was rebuilt in 1710, and again in 1845, at an estimated cost of £2,037 10s., exclusive of the outbuildings; it is a handsome stone structure, with a residence for the master. (See Charities for the Endowment.) This school formerly stood high as a classical seminary, and in common with the schools of Ashbourn and Wirksworth has the presentation to two Fellowships, and two Scholarships, founded by the Rev. Jas. Beresford, in St. John’s College, Cambridge. The Rev. Fredk. Calder, head master; Geo. Kirkland, second master; German Hirst, third master; and Mons. T. Borgognon, French and drawing master.
The National Schools, (Trinity) Soresby street, were erected by subscription, in 1814, at an expense of £811 5s. 6d.; about 85 boys and the same number of girls attend.
Girls School of Industry, situated in Holywell street, was built by subscription in 1819. It is conducted on the British plan, will accommodate 150; average attendance 120.
British School, (Boys)—Hollis lane, is a large neat brick building erected in 1844, will accommodate 200, about 150 attend.
Infant School, Holywell street, was erected 1830, about 80 attend.
Victoria School, Vicar lane, Was erected in commemoration of the visit of her Majesty Queen Victoria, in December, 1844; about 200 children attend. Here are Sunday schools belonging to the Churches, and all the principal places of worship.
Chesterfield and Brampton Mechanics Institute, Packer’s row, (but is about to be removed to the New Market Hall,) was established in 1841. The reading room is open every day, from eight in the morning until ten at night, and the library contains 1500 volumes. A discussion class has been established, and the institution is in a highly flourishing state, having upwards of 200 subscribers. Mr. Griffith Jeffrey, librarian.
Benevolent Institutions.-The Dispensary and Hospital, St. Mary’s gate, is supported by subscription, and was established in 1800, but no building has been erected for its use. Mr. Cornelius Black is the surgeon. A Vaccine Institution was opened in 1814 the funds of which were incorporated with the Dispensary; Mrs. Harding left the sum of £100 in
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aid of the joint institutions, which is secured on the tolls of the Chesterfield canal. The Benevolent Society, established 1826, affords pecuniary relief and religious instruction to the sick and poor. The District Visiting Society is supported wholly by members of the Established Church. The Wesleyan Dorcas Society has existed since 1822, and in connection with the Independent Chapel is a Lying-in-charity.
Alms Houses, in Salter gate and in the Church yard, are noticed with the charities.
Places of Amusement—The Theatre, a small brick building, situated in a yard at the bottom of the Market place, is the property of the Corporation.
The Alma Concert Hall is situated in Froggatts yard, Low Pavement and is open every Monday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday evenings. Mr. James Clayton Slack, proprietor.
The Races are held on Whittington Common, about a mile from the town. They are well supported by the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood, and are generally held about the end of September. A New Stand was erected in 1830.
Assemblies are occasionally held at the Angel Inn.
Baths, erected by the Corporation, in 1825-6, are situated ¼ mile from the town, and are conducted by Mr. Charles Kinder.
The North Derbyshire Agricultural Society, established 1819, hold their meetings alternately at Chesterfield and Bakewell. Mr. Paul Bright, Sheffield, secretary and treasurer.
County Court. —The New Small Debt Act, or County Courts. This important Act which superseded the Court of Requests, came into operation on the 15th March, 1847. Chesterfield County Court is held at the Town hall, Market place, monthly, and comprises the following district, viz.,—Barlow (Great,) Bolehill, Moor Hall, Wilday Green, Barlow (Little) Bolsover, Bolsover Woodhouse, Oxcroft, Stanfree, Whaley, Brampton, Ashgate, Brampton Moor, Cutthorpe, Eastmoor, Freebirch, Hen Park, Holymoorside, Loads, Loadshead, New Brampton, Overgreen, Pratt Hall, Riddings, Watshelf, Brimington Common, Wheeldon Mill, Calow, Chesterfield, Clay Lane, Clay Cross, Danesmoor, Holmgate, New Market. Coal Aston, Dronfield, CowIey, Hill Top, Mickley, Stubley, Summerwood, Woodhouse, Eckington, BolehilI, Ford, High Lane, Marsh Lane, Mosborough, Mosborough Moor, Renishaw, Ridgway, Spinkhill, Troway, White Lane, Hasland, Corbriggs, Grassmoor, Heath, Holmesfield, Cartledge, Lydgate, Millthorpe, Unthank, Killamarsh, Church Town, Forge, Gander Lane, Nethergreen, Netherthorpe, Thorpe (Upper,) Thorpe West, Newbold, Dunstan, Littlemoor, Newbold moor, Stonegravels, North Wingfield, Lings, Williamthorpe, Staveley, Devonshire Terrace, Hague Lane, Hollinwood Common, Inkersall, Marsden moor, Middle Handley, Thorpe (Nether,) Norbriggs, Railway Terrace, Speedwell Terrace, Woodthorpe, West Handley, Sutton-cum-Duckmanton, Far Duckmanton, Temple Normanton, Tapton, Tupton, Unstone, Apperknowle, Hundall, Walton, Slatepit Dale, Woodthorpe by Tupton, Wingerworth, Whittington, Sheepbridge, Whittington Moor. J. T. Cantrell, Esq., Judge; William Waller, Esq., New Square, Chesterfield, and Wm. Wake, Esq., Sheffield, Registrars; Mr. Charles North, High Bailiff; and Mr. Francis A. Hatton, Broker.
The Municipal Hall is situated in South street, and is a large neat stone building, erected 1849, by the Corporation. Petty Sessions for the borough are held every other Saturday.
The Town Hall, under which is the borough gaol, for debtors, is a large stone building in the Market place. It was built about 1790, by the late Duke of Devonshire. The summer Quarter Sessions, and a Petty Session every second and fourth Monday are held here.
Savings’ Bank, Burlington street, was established 1816, and in November, 1855, had deposits amounting to £56,655, with 2093 depositors, of whom the respective balances of
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1168 did not exceed £20, 560 not exceeding £50, 240 not exceeding £100; 69 not exceeding £150, and 34 that did not exceed £200; and one that exceeded £200. Of the number of depositors, 11 are Charitable and 10 Friendly Societies. Mr. Peter Redfern, actuary. The bank is open on Saturday, from 2 to 4 o’clock, and on Monday evenings, from 7 to 8 o’clock. The Penny Bank is open from 6 to 8 o’clock on Saturday evening. The Stamp Office is at Mrs. Ann Walton’s, Low Pavement.
The Water Works and Gas Light Company established in 1826, with a capital of £10,000, in £25 shares, which was increased in 1855 to £38,000, by the creation of 720 new shares. The Gas Works, situated in Port House lane, have been recently enlarged, and consists two gasometers, each capable of holding 120,000 cubic feet of gas, and 40 retorts. The Water Works consisted originally of one single small reservoir, at the top of Pot House lane; during the past year two additional reservoirs have been made, occupying together about 10½ acres of land. They are situated in the township of Newbold, one on the Holme brook, and the other in Newbold Back lane, on an elevation equal to the highest building in that town. Mr. Wm. Machin, managing clerk.
The Chesterfield Poor Laws Union. —A commodious Union House was erected in 1839, in a healthy situation on the Newbold road. It is built of brick, at a cost of £10,000, and will accommodate 300 paupers. The present number in the house is 122. The Guardians meet at the board room every Saturday, at 10.30 a.m. The Union compromises 34 parishes, and embraces an area of 141 square miles, with 94,825 acres of land, and a population of 45,795 souls; the places comprised in the Union are: Ashover, Barlow Great, Barlow Little, Bolsover, Brackenfield, Brampton, Brimington, Calow, Chesterfield, Clay Lane, Coal Aston, Dronfield, Eckington, Hasland, Heath, Holmesfield, Killamarsh, Morton, Newbold and Dunstan, North Wingfield, Pilsley, Shirland and Higham, Staveley, Stretton, Sutton, Tapton, Temple Normanton, Tupton, Unstone, Walton, Wessington, Whittington, Wingerworth. and Woodthorpe. There are 49 Guardians, 9 of which are ex officio, and 9 Medical Districts. John Lee, Esq.. is Chairman, Rev. Alexender Poole, Chaplain; Mr. George Haslehurst, Clerk and Superintendent Registrar; J. H. Ramsden, Master, and Ann Fawcett, Matron, Mr. Wheelhouse, Eckington, is the Relieving Officer for the North District, and Mr. Thomas Shaw, Chesterfield, for the South district. The Registrars for Births and Deaths, are Robert Shaw, Chesterfield; John J. Hayes, Eckington; John Bassett, Ashover; William Siddall, Dronfield, and Olinthus Stevenson, Bolsover. Robert Shaw and Charles North, Chesterfield, are Registrars of Marriages.
The Chesterfield Burial Board, formed under the Acts of Parliament of 15th and 16th Vict. cap. 85, and 16th and 17th Vict, cap. 134, have purchased a very suitable site of land for a CEMETERY, at Spital, consisting of 6A. 3R. 30P, of which 3A. 0R. 10P. will be reserved for future requirements. The grounds have been laid out under the superintendence of Mr. Wm. Husband; and the chapels of which there are two, are under one roof, but quite distinct from each other. They are also exactly the same in size, while without marring the harmony of the whole, an individual character is given to each, by adopting the earlier and later periods of the geometric style, the former being that in which the Dissenters chapel has been designed, and the latter that of the Church. The grouping of which with the Lodge has been carefully considered, so that with the prominent position it holds, it will be a pleasing object, either viewed from the grounds themselves or from a distance.. The Spire, forming the entrance to the Episcopal chapel, is furnished with a bell and the Lodge contains board room, with distinct entrance, as well as a door of communication with the registrar’s house.. The Reception, or Dead house, is a picturesque object, placed in a retired part of the ground, on the line between the consecrated and unconsecrated portions. The grounds are enclosed with a stone wall and iron railing towards the lane and main road, tressed piers flank the main approaches, and the roadways are closed by wrought-iron gates of corresponding design to the buildings. The total outlay is about £6,000, the repayment of which is spread over a term of
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twenty years. Robt. Waller, Esq., is clerk to the Burial Board, and Messrs. Coates and Burrowes were the contractors for the buildings.
Chesterfield Canal.—An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1770, for making this Canal, which was completed in 1777, the line having been surveyed by the celebrated James Brindley. By this act the committee were empowered to raise £100,000 in £100 shares, and to borrow £50,000 on mortgage of the tolls. The canal is 46 miles in length, and commences in the tideway of the river Trent, at West Stockhill, 4 miles N.N.W. from Gainsborough, and terminates near the N.E. extremity of Chesterfield, in Newbold township, where extensive wharf’s and warehouses have been erected. it runs N. by E. from Chesterfield, following the vale of the Rother, crossing the parishes of Staveley Barlborough and Killamarsh, and a small portion of Yorkshire, enters Nottinghamshire near Shireoaks. There are fly boats to Gainsborough, Stockwith, and all parts coastwise. Thos. Elliott, wharfinger, Canal wharf, Sheffield road.
At the Norman survey, Chesterfield was only a baliwie, belonging to the manor of Newbold, where it is named Cestrefield, but there seems to have been a castle here previous to this period. It is highly probable that the Roman road from Derby to York passed through this places and that there was a station or an encampment here. Though at the Norman conquest it was a place of small note and consequence, yet it must very soon afterwards have increased in size and importance. There was certainly a church here in the eleventh century, for William Rufus gave the Church of Chesterfield to the Cathedral Church of Lincoln. In the reign of King John, the town was incorporated in favour of William de Briwere or Bruere. He obtained from his sovereign, in the sixth year of his reign, a grant in fee farm of the manor of Chesterfield, with Brimington and Whittington, and of the soak and wapentake of Scarsdale, paying yearly seventy-nine pounds. By this grant the same liberties were obtained as were enjoyed by the inhabitants of Nottingham; likewise a fair during eight days, beginning at the Exhalation of the Cross, and two weekly markets, on Tuesday and Saturday. Baldwin Wake, by marrying the daughter of Briwere. obtained possession of the manor of Chesterfield. It afterwards became the property of the Plantagenets, Earls of Kent. In 1386 it was possessed by Sir Thomas Holland, and in 1443 belonged to William Neville. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury was lord of the manor. It afterwards, by purchase came into the possession of William, Earl of Newcastle, and descended in the same manner as Bolsover, to the Duke of Portland; the manor of Chesterfield and the hundred of Scarsdale were exchanged by him in 1792, with the late Duke of Devonshire, for some estates in Nottinghamshire. In one of the windows of the Church are the arms of Edward Plantagenet and Margaret Wake, impaled together, this shows that it was built as early as the close of the thirteenth century. In the reign Henry III. the Church was made use of as a place of refuge by Robert Ferrers, the last Earl of Derby. It is said that as soon as this nobleman arrived at man’s estates, he joined the rebellious barons against the King; with a view of quelling this insurrection, Henry the eldest son of the King of Almaine, marched against them with a powerful army, and at Chesterfield, after a sharp conflict, in which many were slain, routed all his forces. The Earl escaped, and was first concealed in the Church under some bags of wool, but by the treachery of a woman was ere long discovered and carried prisoner to London, where he was confined three years, and being unable to pay a large fine, levied upon him, was deprived of his estate and Earldom. It appears from the register of the church that the Earl of Newcastle was at Chesterfield with his forces, in May 1643 and again in December in the same year. It is not improbable that one of these times he engaged the forces of the Parliament. But it is certain that during the civil wars he obtained a victory over them at this place.
THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION of 1688 is said to have owed its origin to the meeting of a few friends to liberty and the Protestant religion on Whittington Moor, near Chesterfield, when King James II. was endeavouring to assume arbitrary power, and to re-establish
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Popery in this kingdom. In the early part of 1688, a few noblemen met by appointment on the moor, for the express purpose of devising means for rescuing their country from the double slavery with which it was threatened, amongst whom were the Duke of Devonshire, the Earl of Danby. Lord Delamere, and John Darcy, son of the Earl of Holderness. In consequence of a shower of rain they adjourned to the village of Whittington, and finished their consultations at a public house called the ‘‘ Cock and Magpie,” which acquired from this circumstance the name of Revolution House, and the small room in which these distinguished guests held their conference, the plotting parlour. This house is still standing, and the arm chair in which the Duke of Devonshire sat forms a part of the furniture. On November the 5th, 1788, the centenary of the revolution was celebrated at Chesterfield and Whittington with great magnificence.
King John granted to William de Briwere that Chesterfield should be a free borough, and enjoy the same liberties as the boroughs of Derby and Nottingham. This Charter was fully confirmed by Henry III. and enlarged by succeeding monarchs; but it does not appear that members of parliament were ever returned for the borough. The town, at an early period, was remarkable for trade, for with the charter granted by Edward I. was a guild of merchants, with all the privileges appertaining thereto. In 1594 Elizabeth granted a new charter to the town, under which the corporate body consisted of a Mayor, 6 Alderman, 6 Brethren, and 12 common Councilmen or capital Burgesses, with a town clerk and other officers. Since the Municipal Act, which passed 9th September, 1833, the borough has been governed by a Mayor, 4 Aldermen, and 12 Councillors. A town Clerk, two Auditors, and two Assessors are elected as appendages. It is not divided into wards.
Mayor,— William Drabble, Esq.
Magistrates,—William Drabble and William Hewitt, Esqs.
John Walker, Esq. ,
Johns Gregory Cottingham, Esq.,
William Drabble, Esq.,
William Hewitt, Esq.
John Short, William Edwin Dutton, Thomas Jones, James Ball White, James Wright, Clay Jackson, John Cutts, James Lingard, John Holland, Joseph Eyre, John Marsden, and Charles Stanhope Burke Busby.
Town Clerk and Clerk to the Magistrates,—William Waller, Esq.
Assessors, —William Claughton and Josiah Bradbury Robinson
Auditors,—John Wood and Richard Alsop
Head Constable and Billet Master,—John Lambert.
Keeper of Prison and inspector of Weights and Measures,—James Radford.
Town Crier,—Richard Kirk.
Trade.—The canal from Chesterfield to the river Trent, added much to the importance of the town, by opening a cheap transit to the coast for the lead, iron, and earthenware produced in the vicinity. The Midland railway has now placed it in a very favourable position, opening communication for its iron, coal, and lead, and it may now be considered as the centre of an extensive and flourishing trade. This district is particularly noted for the manufacture of brown earthenware and stoneware bottles, known all over the kingdom by the name of Chesterfield ware. The trade is principally carried on in Brampton, Newbold, Walton, and Whittington Moor all within 2 miles of Chesterfield, and gives employment to a considerable number of hands. In the town is a silk mill, several hat manufacturers, two extensive lace manufacturers, and one for ginghams and checks; frame-
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work-knitting is also carried on to some extent; and Mr. Joseph Johnson, of West Bars, has a large herring curing establishment, the only one in the county.
The Market, held on Saturday, is well supplied with corn, cattle, and provisions of every sort. The market place is spacious and situate on a declivity nearly in the centre of the town. It has several annual fairs, viz. January 27, February 28, first Saturday in April, May 4th, July 4th, (for cattle, wool &c.), September 25th, and November 25th, the last of which is a statute fair for hiring servants and is toll free.
The Chesterfield Market Company was formed in 1853 for the purpose of providing a suitable building for the accommodation of numerous merchants, factors and farmers who are in the usual habit of attending this market, and also to supply a deficiency which has long been felt, in the want of a suite of rooms applicable for all the requirements of this large and improving district, and commensurate with the importance and prosperity of this flourishing town. The Company was incorporated by Act of Parliament 17 and 18 Vict., Sessions 53 and 56, with a capital of £10,000 in £10 shares, and borrowing powers to the extent of one-third their capital, and commenced the present Market Hall, which stands about the centre of the market place, (an open area of about three acres,) in July, 1855; it is a noble brick building in the Roman Italian style, with stone cornice, quoins, and window dressings, 55 yards long, and 30 feet wide, including a Corn Exchange at the western end, occupying an area of 290 square feet, covered with glass; a covered Market in the centre, 25 feet high and occupying 450 square feet, which is surrounded on the north, south and east sides by shops, above which, on the south side are private offices, and on the north and east is the Public Room and Session Court, which is 70 feet long and 31 feet 9 inches wide, and 27 feet high. This noble room is lighted by five large windows, each 16 feet by 6 feet, and two smaller ones; the ceiling is coved, and so arranged as specially to adapt it for musical purposes, and in an evening will be lighted by three powerful sun-burner lights, containing each about 20 jets of gas. The other accommodation provided in this splendid building are rooms set apart respectively for a Town Library, Mechanics’ Institution, magistrates and billiards, each 22 feet 6 inches square and 14 feet high. The east front of the building is ornamented with a tower, 100 feet high, furnished with a clock and bell, and at the south-west angle of the building is a convenient residence for the keeper. The total cost of the building, including the requisite internal fittings, was about £8,000. Messrs. Davis and Tew, of Chesterfield, were the architects, on whom it reflects great credit. Messrs. Shipton and Hallewell, are the solicitors to the Company; and Mr. Geo. Wallis, secretary.
Rivers.—The river Ibber or Hipper is chiefly composed of the Somershall brook, which rises in the mountainous districts of Holy Moor side, and is increased by various rivulets which flow from the moorlands that enclose its spring through a part of Walton to Brampton, and after receiving the Holme or Linacre water, it assumes the name of Hipper, runs close by the south side of the town, and has its confluence with the Rother on the south-east. The river Rother is said to have had its name from Rud-whr (red water), probably from its being impregnated with iron in some parts of its channel; it rises from Rother spring, in the village of Pilsley, and then runs to Padley Wood, by North Wingfield church, and joins the Hipper at Chesterfield; it then takes a north-easterly direction, and enters Yorkshire between Killamarsh and Beighton, and passing Rotherham, has its confluence with the Don.
CHARITIES.—The Grammar School was established under the authority of a charter of Queen Elizabeth, and vested in the mayor, aldermen, brethren, and capital burgesses. A school-house, garden, and about five acres of land, are supposed to have been appropriated at the time of the foundation to the use of the master. These premises are of the estimated value of £45 per annum, subject to a chief rent of £2 10s. The school is also endowed with an annual sum of £13 6s. 8d., from the bequest of Godfrey Foljambe; Lingard’s gift, £8; Large’s gift, £7 7s. 11d.; Clarke’s gift, £15 to the head master, and £15 to the under master; and £1 7s. the gift of Leonard Gill, making a total of £100 per annum. There
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are also five pews on the organ loft of the parish church, appropriated to the use of the master and scholars, all of which are now let. The head master is appointed by the mayor and aldermen, subject of the approval of the Archbishop of York and the lord of the manor of Norton, in the latter of whom is vested the appointment of the under master. Instruction is confined to Latin and Greek, and it was formerly a school of some reputation; however, in 1794 the scholars were reduced to nine, and since that period have scarcely even exceeded seven, and for some time there was no boy in the school, which may in a great measure be attributed to the want of sufficient attention on the part of the master, whose, attendance seldom exceeded a hour and a half in the day. A suit in chancery was instituted in the year 1829 against the corporation, as trustees of time school; and in July, 1839, a decree of the court was obtained, by which the sum of £719 15s. 7d. was ordered to be paid to the school estate by the corporation into the Court of Chancery, with interest at 4 per cent. per annum, from 1815 to the time when the principal money should be paid into court. On application, the court allowed the principal to be paid by instalments, the last of which was paid in June, 1834, when the interest due from the corporation fund was nearly £700, and till that was paid, with the cost of the suit, no master could be appointed. The government of the school has been vested in certain trustees since the suit in chancery.
Godfrey Foljambe, by will, 1594, conveyed to trustees the rectory and tithes of Attenborough, in the county of Nottingham, and all his lands and tenements in Ashover, upon trust, and directed the sum of £40 to he given to a lecturer at Chesterfield Church, £13 6s. 8d. to a schoolmaster for teaching poor children, £20 to the master and fellows of Jesus’ College, Cambridge, £13 6s. 8d. to the masters and fellows of Magdalen College, Cambridge. and the residue for the relief of the poor of Chesterfield, Brampton, Wingerworth, or elsewhere within the parish of Chesterfield. The income derived from the above sources, after deducting £24 1s. 2d. for chief rents, land tax and fees, amounts to £401 15s. 10d., from which the fixed payments are made; of the residue it was settled in 1613, that the poor of Chesterfield should have one half, Brampton one-sixth, Wingerworth one-twelfth, and the other townships one quarter.
Theodosia Whinchester, in 1737, left £20 upon trust, for a distribution of bread amongst widows and others. In 1796, it was secured on the Chesterfield and Matlock Bridge road. The principal has increased to £31 15s., upon which interest is paid at the rate of 2½ per cent., and expended in bread for the poor.
Hannah Hooper, in 1755, bequeathed £3000, three per cent. consols, upon trust, and directed the dividends to be given towards the maintenance of six poor widows or maidens of the age of 50 years or upwards. The half yearly dividends, amounting to £30, are given according to the donor’s intention.
Elizabeth Bagshaw, in 1802, bequeathed £2,000 three per cent. consols, on trust, the dividends thereof to be paid to poor decayed housekeepers is Chesterfield, at the rate of 20s. each. The sum of £1,880 three per cent. consols, now stands in the names of the trustees, the residue was probably sold to pay the legacy duty. The dividends are distributed in accordance with the testator’s will.
Cornelius Clarke Esq., of Norton, conveyed to the corporation of Chesterfield, a messuage and lands at Staveley Hague, upon trust, out of the yearly profits thereof £15 to be given the head master of the Grammar School; £15 to an under master, and 20s. yearly to the poor. In 1797, part of the above estate was exchanged for land in Eckington, containing 9A. 1R. 22P.., and in 1804, the remainder was exchanged for 23A. in Hasland township, and 12A. at Brampton. A yearly sum of £3 2s. is received as compensation, from the Chesterfield Canal. Out of the annual income, £89 8s 7d, the stipends of the head master and usher of the Grammar School are paid, and £1 for providing bread in respect of Allwood’s charity, the residue is given with Bright’s charity.
John Bright, Esq, by will, left £80, John Bright, Esq., his heir, £20, and the corporation of Chesterfield £100. These sums in 1738, were invested in land at Ashover,
CHESTERFIELD PARISH. 713
containing eight acres, upon trust, to apply one moiety of the yearly rents to a master to instruct 10 children, the other moiety may also be applied for the benefit of such master, with the consent of the mayor and aldermen, who may at any time withdraw the same and apply it to any other use. From 1799, a part of the rents have been given to the schoolmaster, except ten years, when the whole was applied to that purpose. The residue forms a part of the funds of the corporation. The lands are let for £12 10s. per annum. From the accounts of the corporation, there has been a considerable surplus of Clarke’s and Bright’s charities, which have become blended with the funds of the corporation. The amount of balances from 1799 to 1815, appears to be £719 15s. 7d., but it is submitted by the corporation that they ought not to be called on at this distances of time, and that probably the appropriation was made under the impression that they were entitled to the surplus. £30 per annum is now paid to a schoolmistress, who finds books and instructs 20 poor children.
Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, by deed, 1591, granted a rent of £12 per annum, issuing out of the manor at Brackenfield, for the relief of the poor of Chesterfield. This rent charge is paid by 18 individuals, of which, only £11 0s. 0½d. appears at the utmost to be collected, the difference is supposed to arise from the deduction of the land tax. The amount is usually given in subscriptions to different institutions.
Francis Heathcote, in 1619, gave 40s. a year out of his lands, to the vicar of Chesterfield, for preaching two sermons in remembrance of him, on Michaelmas-day and Lady-day, he also gave 40s. a year to repair the church, especially the steeple. The land forms part of the property from which Taylor’s charity is paid.
William. Earl of Devonshire, by indenture, 1655, reciting that he had given £20 for the benefit of the poor, Anthony Glossop. £20, Mr. Walton, £20, St. Peter Fretchville, £20, Sir Roger Manners, £5, and several other persons £25 for the same purpose, then in the hands of the corporation, to be by them employed to the best advantage, the amount was invested in land at Brampton, out of which £5 per annum was given to the poor. At a meeting of the corporation in 1796, it appeared that part of the land had been sold, but it was ordered that the whole of the rents should be applied to the poor; but from 1824. the amount of the rent has been carried to the account of the corporation, out of the funds of which, £5 is given for a distribution of bread at Michaelmas.
Thomas Large, by will, 1664, gave to the corporation certain houses and lands in Chesterfield, Newbold, and Calow, on condition that the Mayor should purchase or erect in Chesterfield a convenient house for three poor men or women of the said town, and pay a sum of £5 yearly to each inmate, and a gown of blue cloth at Christmas. He also devised his messuage in Chesterfield, and various other property, upon condition that one moiety of the messuage should be given in bread to poor people monthly, and the other towards the repairs of the church. The rents of the close called Porter’s Pingle, and 20s. out of Brigg close to be paid to the master of the Free Grammar School, and the residue of the rents of Brigg close to the vicar, to preach a sermon on the feast of St. Peter, and the feast of St. Thomas. The rental of this property amounts to £86 10s., and is considered by the corporation as being held by them, subject only to the payments of £15 to the inmates of the alms-houses, a gown to each of the alms people, and a sum of £5 for such charitable purposes as they may think fit—usually given in bread; of the other premises devised, Brigg closes are let, at a rental of £12 per annum, of which the vicar receives £5 for preaching two sermons; 20s. and the rents of Porter’s Pingle are given to the master of the Grammar school.
Sarah Rose, by indenture, transferred to the mayor and aldermen two securities given to her of the sum of £100 upon trust, to pay the interest after her decease, half-yearly, amongst the poor women placed in her alms-houses; each inmate receives 1s. 6d weekly, and a new gown at Christmas, with the letters S. R., on the right sleeve.
John Allwood, in 1665, left a rent-charge of 20s. yearly, out of Dunstan land, which is distributed to poor persons in bread.
714 SCARSDALE HUNDRED.
George Taylor, by will, 1668, gave £120 to be lent from time to time to 12 young tradesmen on sufficient security, at 5 per cent.; of the interest £6, he gave £2 12s. for a distribution of bread—8s. a year for repairing the road from Durant Hall to the church—20s. to 40 poor housekeepers—20s. towards repairs of the church—and 20s. to the vicar for preaching a sermon on Good Friday. If any difficulty occurred in young tradesmen finding sufficient security, he directed the amount to be invested in land, and the profits given as above. He further directed his daughter to bestow £120 in building 6 alms-houses, which he endowed with £16 per annum, £2 a year to be given to each inmate—£3 to be expended in blue cloth gowns—and £1 to repair the said houses, situate in Salter gate. Various conveyances have taken place, and the £16 per annum is now secured upon premises in Newbold, each inmate receives 1s. a week, amounting to £15 12s. per annum, (£3 12s. being added from Moore’s Charity) a gown every alternate year, and 1s. each for coals.
Francis Moore, who died 1716 devised two closes in Newbold, containing 4 acres; of the rents thereof he gave 52s. as an additional maintenance to two of the inmates of Salter gate alms houses, the residue to be expended in shoes and stockings and given to the poor. The land is let for £10 15s. per annum, of which £3 12s. is carried to Taylor’s charity, and the remainder applied as directed.
Godfrey Wolstenholme, in 1682 gave the rents of a house to buy gowns or coats for poor persons. At the expiration of a lease, in 1819, the buildings consisted 5 small houses, 4 of which were repaired in 1820, at an expense of £68 16s. 3d. In 1825 the corporation took down the fifth house and erected 4 new ones, at a cost of £296 7s. 5d. to pay which, £257 19s. 10d. was borrowed from Clarke’s charity, and £29 10s. 8d. from Foljambe’s; for these sums, interest is paid at the rate of 2 per cent. The four old houses are let for £17 and the 4 built in 1825, for £21 5s. The debt of the old houses has been paid off, and the rents are now expended in gowns; the rents of the new houses are reserved for paying off the debt.
John Sleigh in 1624 left £200 to be invested in land, for the benefit of the poor. A further sum was left by Richard Taylor, and the whole, amounting to £260, was invested in land at Tapton, now producing a rental of £24 10s., which is usually distributed in sums of 5s. each to poor persons.
Richard Youle in 1699, gave 20s. yearly, to buy shoes for poor widows; 40s. for a distribution of bread; and 20s. yearly to the vicar for preaching a sermon on the 5th November. He also gave 17s. 4d. yearly, to be expended in bread, pursuant to the will of his uncle, George Youle. The corporation are possessed of a farm at Bolsover, probably surrendered to their use for the above purposes, now let for £14 per annum.
Nicholas Youle in 1702 gave £68 to be laid out in lands, the rents thereof to be expended in bread and stockings, and distributed to poor widows. Premises were purchased but afterwards sold, and the proceeds with some additions £140 10s. is now secured on the Three Tuns public house, in Chesterfield, at 4 per cent.
Heathcote Family Charities, for the purpose of placing out apprentices viz.: Ann Heathcote left £100; Josiah Heathcote, £200; John Heathcote £200, Sir Gilbert Heathcote £400, William Heathcote £200; and George Heathcote £200. These sums have been invested in lands in Barlborough, Snitterton, Darley, Matlock, and Walton, producing an income of £113 9s. which is expended in apprentice fees, with whom premiums varying from £5 to £10 are paid.
George Millward, gave £20, which was, with other sums belonging to the corporation, invested in lands, a proportionate share, £1 given in bread on St. George’s’ day. This charity is also entitled to the sum of £6 13s. 4d. for timber cut on the estate.
Jacob Brailsford left a rent-charge of £2 out of a house at the top of the Market place, £1 to be given to the vicar for a sermon on Easter Tuesday, and £1 to buy 120 twopenny loaves, to be distributed to the poor.
CHESTERFIELD PARISH 715
Sir Godfrey Webster, by will, left £1,100 on trust, to be laid out in lands, the rents to be distributed to 40 poor inhabitants, in sums of 20s. each. This legacy appears to have been invested in the purchase of £955 12s. South sea stock. The dividends amount to £28 13s. 4d., of which £27 is usually given to 20 poor persons about Christmas. The balance was never carried forward to the next year until 1824.
Church Lands—John Williamson, Richard Ashe, Benedicta Cams, John Caweson, and John Swede, bequeathed and enfeoffed lands and tenements for the repairs of All Hallows Church. The income now amounts to £27 16s. 6d., of this sum £26 11s. 6d. is carried to the churchwardens’ account, £1 5s. being deducted for keeping the accounts.
James Milnes, by will 1678, gave to the corporation of Chesterfield, £20, the interest to be paid to poor people. He also bequeathed 15s. yearly out of a house, to be paid to poor widows, in sums of 6d. each. The house is stated to be vested in the devisees in trust, of the will of the late Joseph Graham. Nothing is known of the £20.
Leonard Gill, in 1742, gave £30 to the town of Chesterfield. 30s. yearly is received as the interest thereof, and distributed to the poor.
Ralph Naylor gave £20, and his son, Ralph Naylor, £40. These sums were secured on the Chesterfield and Matlock road, in 1760. In 1774 the principal was increased to £72, and by the addition of interest, in 1783, to £95 8s.; upon this sum 2¾ per cent. interest is paid, and given in bread on Good Friday.
Godfrey Heathcote, who died in 1773, gave to the mayor and vicar £60 in trust, to be lent to inferior tradesmen giving security for the same, at 2½ per cent. interest; no tradesmen to have the money more than three years. The loans are made by the mayor and vicar as directed.
Anne Dean Uleyate, in 1802, left certain legacies to Chesterfield, and appointed Charles Kinder and Bernard Lucas and their heirs executors. We are informed by the surviving executor that the testatrix left no personal property, but that her real estates had been sold, and the produce invested in £6,000 three per cent. Consols. It appears no claim can be substantiated, the devise being void, under the statue of 9 Geo. II.
CALOW, is a small village and scattered township, pleasantly situated on the Clown road, at its junction with the Sutton road, 2 miles E. from Chesterfield, contains 1274A. 3R. 35P. of land, and in 1851 had 123 houses, and 571 inhabitants, of whom 279 were males, and 292 females; rateable value £1632 17s. Earl Manvers is lord of the manor and owner of about 900 acres of land. Mr. Wm. Clarke, of Chesterfield, is also an owner, besides which there are several small freeholders. The Independents have a neat brick chapel here, erected in 1837, which will seat about 250, in connection with which is a day school, erected in 1855, and taught on the British system. It is a small neat brick building and will accommodate about 100, average attendance 60; Mrs. Sarah Lofts is the mistress. The Primitive Methodist chapel erected in 1854, is a small neat brick building, which will hold about 100. A new day school was erected here in 1855, but is now discontinued. It is a small neat stone building, capable of holding about 80, it is occasionally used as a place of worship. It is in contemplation to erect a new cemetery for the township. This manor belonged successively to the families of Breton, Londham, and Foljambe.
2 Z 2
716 SCARSDALE HUNDRED.
CHARITY.—Elizabeth Wagstaffe left a rent charge of 30s. per annum, 20s. thereof to be applied in apprentice fees, and 10s. distributed to the poor.
HASLAND is a considerable and scattered village and township, 1 mile S.S.E. from Chesterfield, contains 1980A. 3R. 22P. of land, and in 1851, had 280 houses end 1176 inhabitants of inhabitants of whom, 595 were males and 581 females; rateable value £7466 9s. The Duke of Devonshire is now lord of the manor and principal owner, it having been included in an exchange with the Duke of Portland. The Executors of the late B Lucas, Esq., E. G. Maynard, Esq., Godfrey Heathcote, Esq., Exors. of the late Sir James Hunloke, Abel Smith, Esq., and J. G. Barnes, Esq., are also owners, besides several smaller owners. The Church, dedicated to St. Paul, was erected in 1850, at a cost of £900, raised by voluntary contributions, aided by grants from the Incorporated and Lichfield Church Building societies. It is a neat stone building consisting of nave, and cupola with two bells. The living is a perpetual curacy, value £40, with which the vicarial tithe of Chesterfield is charged. The vicar of Chesterfield is patron, the Ven. and Rev. Thos. Hill, B.D., Archdeacon of Derby. incumbent; and the Rev, H. J. R. Rathbone, curate, who resides at the Parsonage house, a large brick built residence, faced with stone, adjoining the Church, erected at the same time, at a cost of £600, aided by a grant from the Lichfield Diocesan society. A National school for boys and girls is now in course of erection, at Grassmoor; it is a neat stone building, and consists of two rooms, one of which is intended for a class rooms and also to be licensed for Divine service. The cost of the building, about £300, will be defrayed by voluntary contributions, and the school will be supported by subscriptions. The Primitive Methodist chapel, erected in 1842, is a neat stone building which will seat 150 persons, in connection with which is a day school where about 30 children attend. Hasland passed in marriage with one of the coheiresses of William Briwere, jun. to Ralph de Midleham. A younger branch of the Leakes were for many generations of Hasland Hall, of which John Linacre died seized in 1488.
Hasland Hall the seat of Archdeacon Hill, is a handsome stone mansion, about 1¼ miles S.E. of Chesterfield, about the middle of the seventeenth century, it belonged to Col. Roger Molineux, from whom it passed by purchase to Captain John Lowe, of the Aldewasley family. It is now the property of the Exors. of the late B. Lucas, Esq., the Lucas family having purchased it of the Lowes in 1727. Hasland House, 1 mile S.E. of Chesterfield, is a commodious and handsome mansion, the seat and property of the Misses Claughton. Bank close is a large handsome mansion, the seat of W. Drabble, Esq., and is situated about half a mile S.E. from Chesterfield. The manor of Boythorpe in the reign of Henry VI. was in severalties, belonging to Longford and others. It is deemed parcel of the manor of Hasland, and Mr. Nathaniel Bacon, who purchased part of it from Vincent Eyre, Esq., is principal owner.
NEWBOLD and DUNSTAN or DUNSTAN, form a joint township, which contains 2915A. 2R. 22P. of land, 452 houses and 2035 inhabitants, of whom 1031 were males and 1004 females; rateable value £6112 18s. The Duke of Devonshire is lord of the manor and principal owner. The trustees of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Milnes Smith, Rev. A. C. Broomhead, B. M. Lucas, and J. H. Barker, Esqrs., are also owners. The manor of Newbold, at Domesday survey, was parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown, and contained six berwicks, Whittington, Brimington, Tapton, Chesterfield, Boythorpe and Eckington; it afterwards belonged to the abbot and convent of Welbeck. At the dissolution of monasteries, it was parcel of the estate of Beauchief Abbey, and appears to have been granted to Sir William West, whose son, Edmund West, Esq. sold it in the year 1570 to Anthony and Gervase Eyre. Thomas Eyre, of Newbold, a zealous royalist, was governor of Welbeck, under the Earl of Newcastle; it is said that being captain of a troop, he was three times in one action personally engaged with Cromwell, and obliged him to retreat. This manor was included in the exchange before mentioned with the Duke of Portland.
NEWBOLD is a pleasant village 1¼ mile N.W. from Chesterfield, on a considerable elevation, commanding extensive views over a well-wooded and highly cultivated country. At
CHESTERFIELD PARISH 717
Little Moor, a Methodist chapel was erected in 1842; the township has extensive coal and iron mines and several manufactories of brown earthenware and stoneware bottles; and contains many scattered hamlets, with wharfs on the canal adjoining Chesterfield. A school was erected by the freeholders, with a residence for the master, on Newbold Green, in 1805. In a field near the village is an ancient building formerly used as a catholic chapel but now only as a place of interment to the Eyre family, who were for many years lords of this manor, and by whom it was originally built. Highfield, a neat mansion embowered with trees, 1 mile N.W. from Chesterfield, is the seat and property of Bernard Maynard Lucvas, Esq. Reservoir House, ¾ of a mile N.W. from Chesterfield, is a handsome residence the seat and property of Godfrey Heathcote, Esq. Newbold Field, a pleasant mansion, 3 miles N.W. from Chesterfield, is the seat and property of Edward Ward Fox, Esq., and Mrs. Lucy Fox.
DUNSTAN is a scattered hamlet, with Dunstan Hall, a neat stone mansion, 2½ miles N.W. from Chesterfield, the property of the trustees of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Milnes Smith.
CHARITIES.—George Milnes, Esq, in 1784, devised 2A. 3R. of land, to which the lord of the manor and others added 7A. 2R. of waste, on a portion of which a school and residence for the master was erected. The land produces about £30 per annum, which is paid the schoolmaster, and for which he instructs 20 children; small sums are occasionally laid out in books for the scholars.
Elizabeth Tomlinson, in 1779, devised three dwelling houses and a croft, to be used as habitations for three poor women, and bequeathed a sum of £400, to be laid out at interest, for the reparation of the houses and maintenance of the inmates. The amount is in the hands of the Rev. A.C. Broomhead, at 4½ per cent., out of which each of the alms women receive 2s. a week for nine months in the year, and 2s. 6d. a week for the remaining three months.
TAPTON, a small but straggling township, l½ miles N.E. by E. from Chesterfield, contains 652A. of land, and in 1851 had 37 houses and 214 inhabitants, of whom 99 were males and 115 females ; rateable value £2171 17s. The Rev John William Thomas, is lord of the manor, and he with G. Y. R. Wilkinson, Esq. and the Exors. of the late John Meynell, Esq., are the principal owners. Tapton was held under the Briweres by the family of Brimington, from whom it passed in the reign of Edward III. to the Stuffins, of Sherbrooke; it was afterwards for some generations in the family of Durant, whose heiress married Alsop. In 1673, Durant Alsop and Thomas Alsop sold the manor to Geo. Taylor, Esq. In 1842 John Stephenson, Esq. sunk a colliery here, 600 feet deep, from which good coal for the converting of steel or for locomotive coke is obtained. Tapton Hall, now a farm house, is the residence of Mr. John Wheatcroft, and property of the Rev. John William Thomas. Tapton House is a handsome brick mansion, pleasantly situated in parklike grounds about l½ miles N.N.E. from Chesterfield, is the property of G. Y. R. Wilkinson, Esq., and occupied by Misses Pocock and Walker, as a boarding school; it was formerly the residence of George Stephenson, Esq., civil engineer, of railway celebrity, who rose by self cultivation to great eminence. When a boy he was employed in a pit, and then as a banksman’s boy. He observed the pumping engines were out of order, and offered to repair them; he was first disregarded, but, when tried, he effected the work, and was put in charge of the engines. He afterwards suggested and effected improvements in the tramroads. He was next employed on the Stockton and Darlington railroad, the first that carried passengers as well as minerals. This established his character; and when the Liverpool and Manchester railway was undertaken he was employed; and was the first person who introduced a locomotive capable of travelling at anything like the present rate.
718 SCARSDALE HUNDRED.
Charities.—Tapton township partakes of the charities of George Taylor, noticed with the borough of Chesterfield, as well as some that extend over the whole parish; and of Elizabeth Brailsford and Joshua Jebb, noticed at Brimington.
TEMPLE OR NORTH NORMANTON, is a small compact village and township, situate on the Mansfield road, about 2¾ miles S. E. by S. from Chesterfield, and contains 498A. 0R 27P. of land, and in 1851 had 27 houses and 107 inhabitants, of whom 58 were males and 49 females; rateable value £614 1s. Robt. Arkwright, Esq. is lord of the manor and principal owner; Frederick Packman, Esq., of Tupton, is also an owner. This manor, which belonged. to the Knights Templars, and afterwards to the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, was granted in 1563, to George, Earl of Shrewsbury; it was afterwards in the Leake family. Godfrey Clarke purchased the manor of Normanton, with that of Sutton, of the trustees of the late Earl of Scarsdale. A small chapel of ease was erected here in 1623; it is a low stone building with wooden turret. The living is a perpetual curacy, certified at £7 12s., now £55, Frederick Packman, Esq., is patron; the Rev. Francis William Sharp, of Tibshelf, is incumbent. The churchyard is beautifully surrounded with trees, adjoining to which is an house formerly used as a day school, but now disused.
CHARITIES,—Temple Normanton School was erected by subscription, and John Clarke left £100 for purchasing a rent charge for teaching poor children; £4 10s. in respect of it is issuing out of Well Close Plot, which is given to a schoolmaster, who teaches four children.
Rev. Francis Gisborne’s Charity.—(See Bradley.)—The annual sum of £5 10s. received by the incumbent, is laid out in warm clothing and given to the poor.
WALTON is a long scattered township and district of houses, extending from 1 to about 5 miles from Chesterfield, in a S.W. direction, on the Matlock road, contains 2325A. 3R. 35P, of fertile and well cultivated land, and in 1851 had 227 houses and 1114 inhabitants, of whom 555 were males and 559 females; rateable value £4170 2s. The Exors. of the late Sir James Hunloke, Bart., are lords of the manor and principal owners. Rev. H. Goodwin, E. G. Maynard, Esq., J. Walker, Esq., Exors. of J. Clayton, Esq., Messrs. Hewitt, Bunting, & Co., F. Packman, Esq., Rev. John B. Jebb, Samuel Johnson, Esq., Miss Graham, G. Heathcote, Esq., with several others are also owners. In 1831 a chapel of ease was erected for New Brampton and Walton, Holly Moor Side, with part of Newbold; it is a small neat structure, dedicated to St. Thomas, and consists of a handsome pinnacled square tower with one bell; it contains 700 sittings, half of which are free. The cost, £2930, was raised by subscription. The living is a perpetual curacy and the income is derivable from yearly payments by the occupyers of pews, with an augmentation grant from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, making a total of £150 per annum, exclusive of surplice fees which averages about £10 per annum. The Bishop of Lichfield, patron and the Rev. J. B. Jebb, of Walton Lodge, incumbent. This place was for many generations the seat of the ancient and respectable family of Foljambe, to whom it hereditarily descended by Loudham from the Bretons. Sir Francis Foljambe, who had been created a baronet in 1622, sold it to Sir Arthur Ingram. The Ingrams sold it about 1636 to Mr. Paul Fletcher, who bequeathed it to his nephew, Richard Jenkinson, whose son Paul was created a baronet in 1685. On the death of Sir Jonathan, 1741, the title became extinct. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Paul, inherited this estate, and gave it to her mother, who bestowed it on her second husband, William Woodyeare, of Crookhill, near Conisbrough, who in 1813 sold it. There was an ancient chapel in Walton and Sir Robt. Breton is said to have had a license for a chantry in his chapel at Walton, in the reign of Henry III. Park Hall is a large handsome mansion 2 miles S.W. from Chesterfield. Walton Lodge, a handsome stone mansion, in an extensive and well-wooded park, 3 miles S.W. from Chesterfield, is the seat and property of the Rev. John B. Jebb. Here is an extensive candlewick manufactory, and also one for spinning and doubling Persian sewing thread.