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TIMELINE OF
THE CIVIL WAR IN NEWTON COUNTY, MISSOURI

 

Except as noted, the following timeline is based on The War of the Rebellion:  a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, commonly referred to as the “OR”.  Dates shown as links lead to original sources describing the events.  For anyone who wants to dig deeper, the entire OR is now online in a full-text, searchable form: The OR Online.

1861

April 12, 1861.  The Civil War began with an attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

June 11, 1861.  Under Union pressure, Missouri's pro-Southern government fled Jefferson City and moved to Southwest Missouri.  There Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson and the Missouri State Guard, commanded by General Sterling Price, planned to join forces with the Arkansas troops of Confederate General Ben McCulloch.

July 5, 1861.  Moving north to meet Governor Jackson, Confederate troops from Arkansas captured a company of Union troops at Neosho.  The page includes Goodspeed's account of these events.

July 5, 1861.  Battle of Carthage, Jasper County.  Overmatched Union forces retreated to Mt. Vernon in Lawrence County during the night.  For detailed accounts of the Battle of Carthage, see the OR, Series I, Volume 3, beginning at page 14.

August 10, 1861.  Battle of Wilson's Creek near Springfield, Greene County.  Defeated Union forces retreated to Rolla in mid-Missouri, essentially abandoning Southwest Missouri to the Confederates for the next several months.  For detailed accounts of the Battle of Wilson's Creek and retreat to Rolla, see the OR, Series I, Volume 3, beginning at page 53.

September 2, 1861.  Troops from the Third Louisiana Infantry were greeted by Confederate flags as they marched through Granby.

October 21-28, 1861.  The Missouri General Assembly convened in the Masonic Hall at Neosho and, on October 28, passed an ordinance of secession taking Missouri out of the Union.  This act had little practical meaning since the Union controlled Missouri for most of the war and established its own provisional government.

Fall, 1861.  The Confederates sought to exploit the lead mines at Granby, planning to move south as much as 200,000 pounds of lead per month.

Fall, 1861.  With the Confederates in control, many Union loyalists fled Southwest Missouri.

1862

Late February, 1862.  As the Union army moved back into Southwest Missouri and Northwest Arkansas, troops from the 36th Illinois and Union home guard seized 30 tons of Confederate supplies at Newtonia and moved them to Cassville.

March 7-8, 1862.  Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas.  The Union victory established formal Union control of Southwest Missouri and ended Confederate hopes of taking the state, but years of raids and guerrilla warfare followed.  For detailed accounts of the Battle of Pea Ridge, see the OR, Series I, Volume 8, beginning at page 189.

April 9, 1862.  Union scout by the 6th Missouri Cavalry through Gadfly in Barry County and Granby, Newtonia and Neosho in Newton County.  "There is a horrible state of affairs in that corner of the state."  The name of Gadfly was changed to Corsicana after the war.

April 26, 1862.  Skirmish at Neosho between the First Missouri Cavalry (Union) and Confederate Indian regiments.  Both sides claim they won.  The page includes Goodspeed's commentary on the veracity of the differing reports. 

May 7, 1862.  Union scout from Mt. Vernon to Neosho through Jollification, Newtonia and Granby by the 14th Missouri State Militia Cavalry (Union).

May 31, 1862.  Skirmish at Neosho.  The 14th Missouri State Militia Cavalry (Union) was routed by the Second Mounted Cherokee Rifles (Confederate).  The page includes Goodspeed's account of the killing of Thomas Hunter near Neosho the preceding day.

Late June or Early July 1862.  Skirmishes at Gadfly in Barry County and Jollification in Newton County involving the 4th Missouri State Militia Cavalry (Union).

July 8, 1862.  The 4th Missouri State Militia stationed a company of troops at Granby as the Union made its first effort since the Battle of Wilson's Creek to reoccupy Newton County on a permanent basis.  This letter from F. M. Ridgely in Granby to Henry Blow and Ferdinand Kennett in St. Louis describes conditions in Granby, especially the need for a wartime postmaster.

July 1862.  In occupying Granby, the 4th Missouri State Militia Cavalry (Union) captured almost 1200 pigs of lead and killed 21 guerrillas in the area.

August 5-11, 1862.  Operations in Newton County and skirmish at Newtonia (August 8) involving the First Missouri Cavalry (Union) and unidentified Confederate units.

August 6, 1862.  Confederate forces under Livingston and Jackman were welcomed to Neosho by local secessionists.

August 21, 1862.  Skirminsh at Neosho between the Sixth Missouri Cavalry (Union) and unidentified Confederate units.

September 1, 1862.  Skirmishes at Neosho and Spring River.  The OR lists these skirmishes in its chronology, but does not include a report.

September 3, 1862.  Skirmish at Neosho.  The Third Indian Home Guard (Union) drove Confederate scouts out of Neosho.

September 5, 1862.  Skirmish at Neosho.  No report, but see the preceding entry for the situation in Neosho at this time.

September 13, 1862.  Skirmish at Newtonia.  No report.

September 23 or 24, 1862.  Two wildly different accounts of a skirmish at Granby.  Either the Confederates inflicted 70 casualties on Union forces there, OR a scout from the Second Brigade, Department of Kansas (Union), had a minor clash with Confederate pickets.

September 30, 1862.  Battle of Newtonia.  A Confederate victory, but the Confederates fell back from Newtonia within a few days.  Union ReportsConfederate Reports.

October 3, 1862.  Skirmish at Jollification.

October 4, 1862.  Affair at Granby.  Confederate account of their withdrawal from Granby and Newtonia.

October 4, 1862.  Skirmish at Newtonia.  Union account of the Confederate withdrawal from Newtonia.

October 7, 1862.  Skirmish at Newtonia.  No report.

Winter 1862-1863.  Indian refugees loyal to the Union were quartered in Neosho and the town was garrisoned by the 3rd Indian Regiment (Union).  Many of the refugees died from disease.  When they left Neosho for the Indian Territory in the spring of 1863, the wagon train was a mile long.  The page includes Goodspeed's account of killings committed by the Indian Regiment in Newton County.

December, 1862.  James M. Ritchey enrolled a company of Union militia at Newtonia, Company I of the 76th Regiment of Enrolled Missouri Militia ("EMM").  Ritchey later organized Company K of the 7th Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia ("PEMM") and Company K of the 15th Missouri Cavalry.  Roster, Company I, 76th EMMRoster, Company K, 7th PEMMRoster, Company K, 15th MO Cavalry.

December 7, 1862.  Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas.  Another Union victory in Arkansas that quashed any lingering Confederate hopes of taking Missouri.  For detailed accounts of the Battle of Prairie Grove, see the OR, Series I, Volume 22 (Part I), beginning at page 67.

December 15, 1862.  Skirmish at Neosho.  No report.

December 23-31, 1862.  Operations in the Sugar Creek Hills by the 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry (Union).  Construction of a fort at Newtonia.

1863

December 31, 1862 to January 25, 1863.  Marmaduke's Missouri expedition.   Confederates led by General Marmaduke make a swift strike out of Arkansas and tried to capture the Federal supply base at Springfield.  They were repulsed in a sharp fight there on January 8, then retreated into Arkansas.  For detailed accounts of Mamaduke's expedition, see the OR, Series I, Volume 22 (Part I), beginning at page 178.

January, 1863.  Richard A. Hening enrolled a company of Union militia at Neosho, Company K of the 76th Regiment EMM.  Roster, Company K, 76th EMM.

February 1, 1863.  The 3rd Indian Regiment (Union) skirmished with guerrillas on Burkhart prairie northwest of Neosho.

March 2, 1863.  Skirmish at Neosho.  No report.

March 3, 1863.  Raid on Neosho and Granby by the Confederate guerrilla Livingston.  Several Negroes were taken at Neosho.

March 5-13, 1863.  Operations in Newton & Jasper Counties by the Sixth Kansas Cavalry (Union).

April, 1863.  Neosho was partially burned.

April 19-20, 1863.  Union scout near Neosho by the 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry.

May 6-19, 1863.  Confederate scout by guerrilla T. R. Livingston from the Creek Agency, Indian Territory, to Jasper County, Missouri, including skirmishes at Martinís House, Centre Creek, and near Sherwood.  Sherwood burned.

May 13-18, 1863.  Union Scout from Newtonia to French Point and Center Creek, and Skirmishes.  A "desperate, bushwhacking fight" between the 7th and 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalries and Livingston's Confederate guerrillas.

May 21-30, 1863.  Union scout from Cassville, through Northwestern Arkansas, into Newton and Jasper Counties, Missouri, including skirmishes at Bentonville and near Carthage.  Report by an officer of the 2nd Kansas Cavalry.

July 28-30, 1863.  Scout from Newtonia to Oliver's Prairie.  No report.

August 9, 1863.  Skirmish at Garden Hollow, near Pineville, McDonald County, involving Union troops from Neosho.

September 6, 1863.  Confederate attack on a Union supply train from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Carthage, Missouri.  Although it occurred in Jasper County, this attack involved Union troops frequently found in Newton County (the 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry) and illustrates the problem of supplying Missouri's western border from Fort Scott.

September 22 to October 26, 1863.  Shelby's Raid.  In the fall of 1863, Joseph Shelby led a month-long raid which passed through Neosho and reached as far north as Marshall, Missouri. For detailed accounts of Shelby's Raid, see the OR, Series I, Volume 22 (Part I), beginning at page 621.

October 2-4, 1863.  Shelby's Raid.  As the raid developed, Union troops rushed to defend Cassville, then immediately countermarched toward Newton County. This march-and-countermarch confusion among Union forces was typical of every Confederate raid into Missouri.

October 4, 1863.  Shelby's Raid.  While Union troops, their artillery and ammunition train were rushing to Cassville, the Confederates burned the courthouse at Neosho and captured the Union garrison there.

October 4, 1863.  Shelby's Raid.  Skirmish near Widow Wheeler's, southwest of Neosho.

November 4-6, 1863.  Skirmishes at or near Neosho.

November, 1863.  Union scout from Neosho to Shoal and Turkey Creeks.

1864

January 23, 1864.  Union Scout into the Seneca Nation by the 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry and affair at Cowskin Bottom.

April, 1864.  Company I, 76th EMM underwent a second enrollment under Captain Henry Lowe.  Roster, Captain Lowe's Company I 1864, 76th EMM.  Company K, 76th EMM underwent a second enrollment under Captain Thomas Burgess.  Roster, Captain Burgess' Company K 1864, 76th EMM.

May 13, 1864.  Union scout from Neosho to Spavinaw, Arkansas, and skirmish.

May 18-23, 1864.  Union scouts near Neosho and Carthage and related skirmishes at Newtonia and Lamar.

May 30-31, 1864.  Skirmishes on Mill and Honey Creeks. Union troops under Captain John Kelso attended a Confederate dance.  "We arrived too late to dance any ourselves, but we made Lieutenant McGee and his men dance. . . ."

June 3, 1864.  Skirmish near Neosho.

June 17, 1864.  The Enrolled Missouri Militia was activated in Newton County to help control Confederate guerrillas.

June 21-24, 1864.  The 7th Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia made a scout from Newtonia to Carthage and Lamar.

August 1-28, 1864.  Operations in Southwest Missouri, with skirmishes at Diamond Grove, at Rutledge, near Enterprise and on Butler Creek.  "William Haycock" acted as guide for the August 4th scout, possibly a reference to Wild Bill Hickock, who is known to have been in Cassville a few months later.

September 22, 1864.  Burning of Carthage in Jasper County.

September 27 to October 31, 1864.  Price's Raid.  General Sterling Price led a sweeping cavalry raid through Missouri, entering the eastern part of the state from Arkansas, moving north to the Missouri River, then west to Kansas City, then back south to Arkansas along the Missouri-Kansas border.  Defeated in several battles, what was left of Price's army retreated through Newton County on October 28, 1864.  For detailed accounts of Price's Raid, see the OR, Series I, Volume 41 (Part I), beginning at page 304.

October 9, 1864.  Scout near Neosho by the Seventh Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia.

October 28, 1864.  Price's Raid.  Second battle of Newtonia.

November 10, 1864.  Skirmish near Neosho.  No report.

1865

March 8, 1865.  The State of Missouri ordered a volunteer militia company to be organized for Newton County.

August 7, 1865.  According to contemporary newspapers, the County Court of Newton County convened for the first time since the war. The last troops were expected to leave Granby shortly.
 

Timeline of the Civil War in Barry County, Missouri.

Home:  Historical Items from Barry & Newton Counties, Missouri.

This site created by Bob Banks.  Comments, corrections and suggestions are welcome.

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