This Foldout looks at some aspects of coal mining in the district
In the 13th & 14th centuries, coal mining was recorded in the North-East of England, the Midlands and South Wales.
Early mines were
Coal had long been used as a fuel for heating, and also for industrial uses such as lime burning and bleaching cloth.
Some was open-cast mining. In 1608, the manorial court required that coal pits along Wakefield Road be filled in because they presented a danger to man and horse.
In 1615, cheap coal became a popular fuel as firewood became scarce and expensive. Much of the woodland had been reduced by assarting.
The advent of stone and brick chimney flues encouraged the used of coal as fuel.
With the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of steam power, there came a huge demand for coal to drive the engines of the mills.
There are several coal measures, mines and quarries in the district – mainly east of the Hebble in a narrow strip of land running from Ainley Top to Queensbury, where the geology is that of the Lower Coal Measures or the Westphalian series.
In general, the coal seams in the district were thin and did not produce large-scale quantities. The Calder & Hebble Navigation brought cheaper coal from outside the district.
At one time there were 33 local collieries, including
Ambler Thorn – one of the last places in the Halifax area to have a coal mine – until 1942
Shelf – with the thickest seams up to 3 ft wide
but there is no longer any local coal production.
Names such as Coal Pit Lane and Sough Lane suggest places where coal was mined in the past.
In 1947, a coal seam was discovered during roadworks on the Halifax-Queensbury road, and the coal was given to local residents.
The local Coal Measures stretch from Penistone, through Huddersfield and Halifax, to Denholme and Shipley. But these were less productive than the collieries in the thicker seams around Wakefield and Doncaster.
|Local coal mining|
36 yard band coal Adit Ainley Main Colliery Ainley Top Bank Bottom Colliery, Halifax Bankwell Colliery, Cornholme Richard Batte Beggarington Pit, Hartshead Bell Pit Binns Bottom Mine, Southowram Black lung Blackburn & Sugden Colliery, Shelf Boothtown Colliery Boyes Bank Pit, Northowram Bradley Woods Bradshaw Lane Mine Breast 'ees Brow Pit, Ambler Thorn Cinder Hills Colliery, Southowram Joseph Clarke Clifton: Coal Mining Clough Head Mine, Todmorden Cloughfoot Coal Mine, Todmorden Coal Dike, Midgley Coates Pit, Hartshead Cockhill Farm Colliery, Shelf Cold Arbour Coal Pit, Boothtown Cold Harbour Mine, Boothtown Coolham Drift Mine, Todmorden Copperas shale Copy Pit Colliery, Todmorden Croft Pit, Hartshead Dam Head Colliery, Northowram Day hole pit Dearden Coal Mine, Todmorden Demain Coal Mine, Todmorden Dove House, Shibden Drift mine Dual economy Fenny Farm, Hipperholme Flat Field, Shibden Ford Hill Colliery, Queensbury Foul Clough Coal Mine, Todmorden Four Lane End Colliery, Shibden The Haigh family of Inchfield Hanging Hey, Shibden Hard Bed Pit, Siddal Hard coal Hartshead Colliery Hartshead Moor Pit Highfield Coal Pit, Southowram Holmes & Holt Holmes & Stocks Holt & Hebblethwaite Inchfield coal mines Judy Woods: Coal Mining Jumble Pit, Norwood Green
Kidnapper Coal Mine, Todmorden Knowl Top, Lightcliffe Light hole pit Limed House Soft Bed Colliery, Northowram Listerwick Colliery, Shibden Maiden Cross Colliery, Todmorden Mineral line Mines Act  Mountain End Colliery, Northowram Mytholm, Shibden Nab End Mine, Boothtown Richard Naillour Norwood Green Coal Company Limited Norwood Green Colliery Norwood Green Pit Open-cast mining Pheasant Pit, Hartshead Quarry House, Northowram Rattan Clough Pit, Cornholme Red Gin Mine, Boothtown Richard the Nailer Rookes Colliery, Hipperholme Royds Hall, Low Moor Saunders Clough Colliery, Todmorden Seventeens Pit, Hartshead Shibden Hall Colliery Shoot Pit, Boothtown Simm Carr coal mine, Shibden Soft Bed Pit, Siddal Soft coal Soil Hill Sough South Grain Coal Mine, Todmorden Stone quarrying Swales Moor Pit, Northowram Swan Bank Coal & Brick Company Limited Swan Bank Colliery Temperley & Son Limited Thornhills Pit, Brighouse Three Nuns Pit, Hartshead Todmorden Moor Coal Mine Todmorden Moor Colliery Company Trough Edge, Walsden Trough-a-Bolland wood Tunnel End Coal Mine, Todmorden Turner's Pit, Boothtown Upper Coal Bed, Halifax Viewer Walker pit Walterclough Pit, Hipperholme Waterloo, Elland
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Malcolm Bull 2015 /
Revised 19:01 on 17th July 2015 / mmc141 / 16