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Aliens of the Tweed and Brunswick

REFERENCES

Indians - 2

 

 Tweed Times and Brunswick Advocate

4Sep1897 (SMH): Hindoo Boohoo dies on farm 'at the North Arm', Murbah. Countrymen fail to get approval for cremation and buried at State expense.
12Apr1899: Abdullah Scype, Assyrian, granted Hawker's License.
9Jan1904: Delph Singh sued ‘Boxsell’. Claim of £10 for work and labour done and goods sold. Plaintiff non-suited.
13Feb04: M.A. Riley sues Ettie Maxwell for slander. Maxwell said Riley lived with a Hindoo. Verdict for Riley.
21Feb04: Singh v. Connelly in Byron Bay Court. Cross charges for assault. dismissed.
2Mar04: A gang of 15 Hindoos passed through the South Arm of the Clarence last week. With them was a white woman, who marched boldly along with the coloured gentlemen. The black man ‘wants but little here below’ ??
1Apr04: ‘White Australia’ may be seen in Brisbane driving a couple of chows in his cab. Also we have seen ‘White Australia’ in a barber’s shop in Lismore shaving a Hindoo, and a feminine sample of whiteness living with Kanakas in a tent on the Tweed. White Australia badly wants a moral wash.
7May04: Sergon Hindu v. H.A. Kendrick in Murbah court claiming £2 for wages. Won verdict for amount claimed + 6/8d. court costs, £1/1/- professional costs, and 8/5d. witnesses expenses.

6May05: Chen Yen Singh, Hindoo, charged with being of unsound mind and sentenced to Gladesville Asylum for the Insane. Murbah court. (Chen Yen Sing, Chinese?)
17May05: At the local Police Court on Monday a Hindoo for indulging in an ornamental debauch on Saturday night was fined 5/- or 24hrs. First offender.
27May05: On 2Aug04…. Chapman sued an Indian Doctor named Delph Singh for wages and on the strength of his evidence supported by Luke Gudge a verdict was obtained against Singh. Subsequently it was found that the claim was bogus. Chapman never located but Gudge committed for trial Lismore for perjury. All white male jury found Gudge not guilty.
At the Police Court yesterday (Murbah), Alice Watson and Visant Singh were fined 10s or 48 hours and 5s and 24 hours respectively for errors of judgement in connection with their capacity for carrying beer.
At the local Crown Lands Office (Murbah) on Thursday …… Jussar (an Indian) applied for a ‘conditional purchase’ of lot 05.52, 100 acres in the parish of Brunswick. There were no other applicants and therefore no ballot. Presumably he got it. [Jussa Singh was enrolled at Woodlawn near Lismore 1903 and 06.]
3Jun05: Mr Bruce Smith. Or as the Bulletin knows him, Mr Spruce Smith, suggests that
Australia’s motto should be, ‘Australia for the Empire’ and not ‘Australia for Australians’….India with its hords of dusky millions
17Jun05: Norco Meeting. Coloured Labour on Farms. Mr Hicks said that six months ago the shareholders, by a majority vote, decided that all suppliers to the company were not to employ coloured labour – Hindoos – on their dairies… The difficulty in the way, he believed, was that the directors could not find out who were employing coloured labour. The employment of these aliens was not conducive to the making of good butter. He could name farmers who employed Hindoos, and they made a boast of it. Surely, when this Coy has grown to the magnitude that it has, its suppliers can afford to employ white labour – (loud applause) – as they do in the factory.
The Chairman stated that they were endeavouring to get co-operation of the other companies… The other companies had fallen in with the suggestion, and an agreement has been signed not to accept the cream of a supplier employing coloured labour…
Mr J. McGregor thought they should all do what the Myocum farmers did – pledge themselves not to employ Hindoos…
Mr James said if this coy decides not to employ coloured labour, will it also see that diseased white people are not allowed to be employed (hoots and great disorder)…
Mr Cook asked Mr James, do you employ coloured labour?
Mr James said Yes (disorder), and I find that they give good results and I appeal to Mr Brandon, the manager, to certify to the quality of my cream… Mr Brandon said Mr James certainly supplies good cream….
  But all voted to reject James’ cream
Meeting also reported by Lismore Chronicle 20Jun05. Slightly different wording
21Jun05: Heard on the Rivers.. That those dairymen who are intent on having the employment of black labour on dairy farms put down are hall-marked ‘white to the core.’
That as Tom Ewing once told the electors, the whites themselves were responsible for the influx of Asiatics – give them no encouragement and they will not come.
That there are altogether too many dark ‘uns on the Tweed electoral roll


12Jul05: Large numbers of Hindoos have passed through Murwillumbah during the past few days, apparently on their way to
Queensland. The exodus of these coloured gentry from New South Wales is no doubt due to the fact that they are being expelled from the farms on the Rivers as a result of that motion that was carried at the North Coast Co-operative Company’s half-yearly meeting. Queensland is welcome to them all.
19Jul05: At the Byron Bay Court. Nabob Bash, a Mahometan, sued D. Wood for £5/8/- for wages.
22Jul05: Martin Manning to stand trial Lismore on a charge of assaulting and robbing Bassanto, a Hindoo. Mr A. Neisman, late of the Condong Hotel, was one of the witnesses in the case.
(7Oct05 Northern Star: Manning acquitted of assaulting Besanta near post office Molesworth St Lismore. Manning lied and his lawyer confused jury. Judge said He regretted that the learned advocate for the accused had raised the question of colour, and he (the Judge) said the jury had to remember that Hindoos were fellow British subjects and had as much right to have their persons and property protected as did Australians or Englishmen. Personally he did not think that he could assist the jury very much, as the case was one which would have to be decided on a question of credibility. There were also chances of errors creeping in when evidence was given through an interpreter, evidence thus given being of a very unsatisfactory character………. Deleepa, Atta, Sahail Singh, Ramkishan and Nudga Khan mentioned + Syrian Secyndell Bouchallil)
26Jul05: Ram Sukh, a Hindoo, was charged (Murbah court) with having attempted to commit an unnatural offence on William Groves….. He is a typical sample – as far as appearances go – of the average Hindoo. Committed for trial Grafton. Bail of £100 and two securities of £50 each and one of £100…. accused’s countrymen would go bond for him.  Large lynch mob at the court house. William Groves may be connected to Joseph Groves who attempted to rob
Jimmy Williams, a native of Ceylon, living on Macpherson Range 9Jun05.
26Aug05: Joseph Aboud seeking confirmation of cp0534 from land board (9Sep05 – disallowed)
2Sep05: The Quinbarien (Qld) correspondent of the Courier states that the Hindoos and Afghans from Northern Rivers of NSW are arriving at that place.
9Sep05: Hindoos and Afghans still making over the border. On Wednesday a large batch of them caught the Mibbin and made for the Heads, thence taking train to North Queensland, where they have gone to join the heathen Chinese and the all-conquering Jap.
9Sep05: Hillday v. De Vout Mullum Court.  (Hillway, Syrian hawker)

4Oct05: Under ‘South Coast Items’: Delph Singh, formerly of Murbah, has been charged with illegally practicing as a doctor at Cooma. Case Dismissed, as Delph practices as an Indian Doctor, not as Dr Delph Singh.
8Oct05: Jak Singh of Byron Bay on a charge of being insane and wandering at large. Ordered to Hospital for Insane at Gladesville. Partly on evidence of Senior-constable Belson who said Jak insisted on paying a penny for each meal supplied to him !
11Oct05: ‘Alleged Abominable Offence’: Ram Suk, a Hindoo, was indicted on a charge of having at Murwillumbah, on July23, assaulted one William Groves with intent to commit an abominable offence. The accused, who pleaded not guilty, was defended by Mr Sheridan, instructed by Mr Mason. The evidence in this case is unfit for publication. The jury returned a verdict of not guilty and the accused was discharged.
11Oct05: Names of some dusky Hindoos or Afghans or other foreign undesirables who figured at Lismore police court recently: Milki Ram, Muddy Ram and Ram Kisham; and then there is our very own Ram Sukh. A surfeit of black Rams.
That the Salvation Army appears to have ‘Christianised’ many heathens on the North Coast, and
That several Kanakas here testified to being saved; and
That an effort should be made to entice Ram Sukh and others within the fold.
(11Oct05 Northern Star more balanced Ram Suk case Lismore. Interpreter and witness Ata M. Singh. Ram Suk said he was attacked by 4 boys and asked for money at Murdering Creek. Boys said You black------, if you don’t give us  £50 we’ll knock you brains out. If you don’t give us £50 we’ll send you up. On advice of witnesses Sukh went to Murbah police to report incident but no one there. Police later came to arrest him and not given any reason. Seems boys went to the police with the story of ‘a certain crime’ after they saw Sukh go to the station. Jury found him not guilty after 10minute deliberation.)
13Oct05: Dr Kesteven of Mullum Progress Association
14Oct05: Ram Sukh’s fellow countrymen stuck to him like the proverbial leech and raised the necessary to engage Barrister
Sheridan in his defence….
A Hindoo was on the wine on Thursday celebrating Brer Ram Sukh’s escape from the clutches of the law. He reckoned that Mr Justice Walker was a particularly good sort of fellow.
14Oct05: Ballot system for land introduced in lieu of first in best dressed
18Oct05: It must indeed be far from edifying to exponents of a ‘White Australia’ policy to note the whole-souled support accorded by residents of this town to the Celestial and Mahometan population, in preference to business people of their own colour.
The Labour Party rather tersely says, Let us find work for our unemployed and land for our unsettled before we look at immigrants…
21Oct05: Joseph Aboud of Murbah requests permission to build house Bray St. (26Aug and 9Sep Aboud conditional purchase of crown land disallowed) [Joseph Abood (Italian) [sic] charged with cruelly ill treating a horse at Tumbulgum 13Jan06. Joseph Abood charged Jack Saddeik with assault 14Feb06.]
28Oct05: Jak Singh of unsound mind.

4Nov05: A Mullumbimby man who had two Hindoos in his employ asserts that they lived on eighteen pence per week. No wonder the white man cannot compete with the ‘cullud pusson’.
15Nov05: Jimmei Khan sues H.R. Jones for £4/5/- in Small Debts Court
. Verdict for amount and costs. Charles Hussan charged for insulting words.
22Nov05: Ram Sukh sues ‘Nasty Niklin’, editor of Tweed Herald and Brunswick Chronicle, for Libel. Wins £1 damages. Both papers ungracious and neither apologised.
The gaudy head-dress and grinning faces of Hindoos were prominent in town yesterday. Ram Sukh’s libel action was the magnet that had attracted them. +Delph Singh, Indian Doctor, is returning to the Tweed.
25Nov05: ‘Hindoo Blue’ was a prominent colour in town during the week.
The recent libel case is probably unparalleled in the history of journalism.
In the case of Ram Sukh v. Niklin, for libel, no costs were allowed
……(because Jury’s award fell below proscribed figure)…. His honour stated by the way that Asiatics were entitled to all the provisions of the law, and that no newspaper had a right to treat them any different to anyone else; also the fact of defendant commenting on a case when sub judice showed very great indiscretion.
(30Nov05 Ballina newspaper. (The Richmond River Times and Northern Districts Advertiser). Full coverage of Nicklin libel case. Plus comments. The
Tweed Times has several pungent paragraphs…
The Asiatics and other aliens held the palm for wilful and corrupt perjury… ‘Orion’ rejoices to know that costs were not given against Friend Nicklin… and deserves well of everyone who has the welfare of a white Australia at heart…)
29Nov05: Article ‘From Grafton to Murbah’: ……..The colour line is not finely drawn at Tweed, and anti-alien legislation in the shape of sugar bounty has not led to the deportation of the Hindoo or Kanaka. Tommy Tanna is still much in evidence and it will require more than bounty on white labour-grown cane to cause his exit from a district where he has flourished so long on the sugar plantations.
6Dec05: Ballina. A Lismore correspondent of the R.R. Times thought it was impossible to select a jury who would side in favour of a Hindoo against a white man
29Nov05 and 2Dec05: Hanarm Singh, alias Variam Singh, found dead on James Fisher’s property at ‘Upper Mullumbimby’. Age 48. £80 in bank. Munchee hal Singh (sic) witness at inquest. The Magisterial finding was to the effect that ‘deceased, at Upper Mullumbimby, in the district of Mullumbimby, on or about 23rd November 1905, was found dead with two wounds on his body, but how or by what means he came to his death there is not sufficient evidence to enable me to say.
29Nov05: Hernam Singh (a Hindoo) charged with being drunk and disorderly in a public place at the rear of the Murbah police station. Gleve Singh (a Hindoo) ditto.
4Dec05 Northern Star: Harman Singh disappears Mullumbimby Creek. Inquest
6Dec05: The Hindoos on the
Brunswick hold regular religious services, and almond roasting and eating forms part of the service.
6Dec05: A Lismore correspondent of the ‘R.R. Times’ (Ballina) thought it was impossible to select a jury who would side in favour of a Hindoo against a white man. What a beautiful conception of the white man’s (the Britisher in particular) love of equity and justice, whether it be in relation to white or black, must this self-same correspondent have. The jurymen who were empanelled for the recent Ram Sukh v. Nicklin case are genuine Britishers, and not men who would be guided in giving their verdict by racial hatred in preference to a sense of what is morally right. This statement we make without prejudice, in fairness to the average ‘white man’ who believes in justice being properly administered, whether it be to black or white, and only a small minded person would suggest the impossibility of finding a white jury to give a verdict in favour of a Hindoo against a white man. We are happy to be able to say that Britishers do not make a practice of cutting their justice according to the colour of their cloth.
[What the Time’s correspondent, ‘Orion’ alias Ossian Perry, actually said was “Orion” rejoices to know that costs were not given against Friend Niklin in connection with that alleged libelling of a Hindoo. Your illustrious correspondent thought it was impossible to select a jury who would decide in favour of a Hindoo against a white man, especially one who has made himself famous in connection with his advocacy of the ‘White
Australia” movement. If Horatio’s “crime” was assessed at a pound, then “Orion” should be hung, drawn and quartered and the remains thrown to the dogs. However, “Horatio” has secured a big advert., he has triumphed over his Hindoo enemies, and deserves well of everyone who has the welfare of a white Australia at heart. Bravo Horatio! Article just above that on Asiatic perjury.]
The Ram Sukh case and the libel case heavily reported in all north coast papers.
20Dec05: Mr Norman McKinnon formerly a worker of the old ‘Tweed Advocate’ staff, now occupies a good position on the ‘Transvaal Leader’ Johannesburg.

6Jan06: Syrian named Malouf to be deported. Arrived 2yrs ago and put all his capital into a drapery at Forbes. Naturalized American whose mother been Aust 6yrs
10Jan06: Heard on the Rivers: That a ‘White Australia’ is an impossibility whilst India and Australia hang to one flag. Electoral roll figures
13Jan06: Editorial: If there is one thing more than another which
makes the new Liquor Act ridiculous in the eyes of the public, it is the provision which prohibits the supply or sale of liquor to Kanakas, while it allows Hindoos to swill until they become a perfect menace to the community. Instance the recent disgraceful scenes in Lismore, where a Bacchanalian horde of Hindoos almost took possession of the streets. The disposition of an inebriated Kanaka is just about as far removed from that of the Hindoo in the same state as eternal rest is from everlasting perdition. When the average Kanaka becomes intoxicated he is of a quiet and retiring disposition, and generally he prefers to go away and fall to sleep. Not so with the Hindoo. He gets a band of his fellow-countrymen together and parades the town in an aggressive manner, to the disgust and annoyance of all with whom he comes in contact. If anyone interferes with a Hindoo, or tries to keep him in his place, the first thing he thinks of is his national weapon of defence, the bowie knife, and many a friend of law and order, who has had the courage to resent the gross insults hurled at him, has fallen a victim to the treachery of the Hindoo. Our legislators know that as well as anyone else. They don’t need to be told at all; and why the law should make fish of one and flesh of the other is hard to understand. Probably it is better for the moral and social condition of the South Sea Islander population in this State that they have been prohibited the use of liquor, but why not also prohibit the Hindoo? Truly, the law is an ass, and fate seems to have decreed that no improvement will take place in our statutes for generations to come.
13Jan06: At Lismore court on Wednesday two Hindoos, Attah Singh and Meeher Singh, were committed for trial on a charge of assaulting and robbing Sheer Singh and Punjaub Singh of the sum of £11, while Jimmy and George Singh were fined £1 each and costs for furious riding in Dawson Street on Boxing day. Quite a chorus of inharmonious “Singhs”.
13Jan06: Thus the Lismore Chronicle. At the Police Court on Wednesday over three score Hindoos put in an appearance, and the atmosphere became impregnated with an awful odour in consequence. The P. M. very wisely issued an order (after the Hindoos were lined up) to have the windows opened in order that fresh air might be admitted. The pestiferous individuals filled the body of the Court, and some found their way into the gallery, whilst a quartette occupied the dock.
[Case reported in detail Lismore Chronicle 27Feb06. Assault and robbery of £4 occurred 30Dec05 at Tuntable Creek. Attah Mahomed Shar was interpreter and Delph Singh acted as a ‘checker’ for Meehar Singh. Mudee Singh gave evidence. Meehar acquitted but Attah got six months hard labour Grafton gaol.]
13Jan06: Romahan Khan granted a Hawkers Licence.
13Jan06: Jimmy Williams (Cingalese) indecent language. Joseph Abood (Italian – sic) horse case Tumbulgum
24Jan06: Ex Alderman Fenwick, on being told Hindoos were seen bathing in the Ballina Water Supply Dam, said he thought there was something wrong with the water.  He tried to make some soda water out of it – but the darned stuff wouldn’t fizz.

2Feb06 Lismore Chronicle: Black Labour in Dairies. … We have a very vivid recollection of the Tweed Herald having published a paragraph, two or three months back, to the effect that the Hindoos were being employed in milkyards…
3Feb06: Lismore Chronicle, in a stirring article, deprecates the use of Hindoo labour on dairy farms.
7Feb06: The ‘Bulletin’ pats the
North Coast Co-op Coy. on the back for putting a foot down severely upon the employment of Hindoo labour on dairy farms.
That if the Hindoos could only be deported with the Kanakas the Northern Rivers would be a White mans paradise.
10Feb06: A batch of Hindoos arrived in town from Queensland yesterday. The first place they made for was the P.O. Savings Bank. These dusky sons of India always carry a banking account.
Joseph Abood assaulted by Jack Saddeik. .. Jimmy Williams Bell’s farm Garden of Eden
14Feb06: Heard on the Rivers: That according to “The Bulletin” NSW has exchanged Hindoos to Queensland for Kanakas; and
That the deal is one that NSW would gladly make every day in the week.
21Feb06: The ‘Mackay Pioneer’ alleges that a Hindoo bought the daughter of white people for £100 and found a parson who was willing to marry them.
24Feb06: Delph Singh v Dr. Kesterven is a case that is to come off at the Lismore District Court. Delph is fond of law, seemingly.
Ballina (NSW North Coast) doesn’t take water with its whisky now. The town has, or thought it had, a fine water supply from springs in the ranges; but a local resident who visited the spot the other day found three Hindoos bathing just above the dam. Then he wrote to the local paper, and the consumption of water from the mains slumped nearly to zero. Yet the North Coast still, to a great extent, loves its nigger – “Bulletin”.
It has been forced upon us rather frequently of late
…complaint about Post Office service… and the annoyance of this is somewhat accentuated when a mob of over-ripe Hindoos are crowded into the ‘hatch’ on a sultry day.
Khan v. Ives. Small Debts Court.
28Feb06: A Hindoo, evidently with an eye to the picturesque, paraded the streets one day last week with his shirt very much out of bounds, a red and black football guernsey, a woman’s tie spread across his chest and a hankerchief twisted round his neck. His get-up was sufficient to make the observer smile, but he wore ‘em with becoming dignity. Possibly he was trying to set a fashion for his dusky brethren.

3Mar06: Mr W.A. Holman MLA, who appeared for Delph Singh at Lismore District Court on Tuesday, came around via Brisbane, and no doubt used his railway pass in the glorious cause of Delph Singh, Indian Doctor. (Holman later Labour Premier NSW)
The White Medico Wins: The action brought by Delph Singh, Indian Doctor, against Dr Kesteven, of Mullumbimby, was heard at the Lismore District Court on Tuesday, before Acting Justice Hamilton. The claim was for £44 rent of house, paddock, and sale of some furniture and effects. Mr Holman, instructed by Mr Champion, appeared for plaintiff, and Mr Browning, instructed by Mr Weigall, for defendant. Verdict for defendant with costs. During the hearing of the case, a man named Basil Simonsen was committed to goal for 21 days for contempt of court. Simonsen, it appears, took notes during the hearing of the case and passed them out to a female witness on the case. He was severely reprimanded by Acting Judge Hamilton.
[Case reported in great detail in the Lismore Chronicle and Northern Star 2 & 6Mar06: Simonsen was Delph’s private secretary and passed notes to Delph’s wife (married Edith Tanko in Sydney 1899). He mainly looked after Delph’s George Street, Sydney, office. Prior to Kesteven case, on 26Feb06, B. Marshall of Byron Bay successfully sued Delph for £8/15/- for various items associated with taking his trap to Delph’s Murbah farm in early 1905 to act as Delph’s coachman. Wife Louisa Marshall had a fruit shop at the Bay next door to Delph and also acted as Delph’s midwife. She successfully sued Delph for £24/19/10 on the same day for midwifery services and other stuff. Witness for Kesteven was W.R. Baker.
Seems Delph was a man of means. He apparently left his Sydney practice sometime after his marriage in 1899 and arrived Mullum 1901. Bought a property Main Arm and a couple of blocks in town. Later bought a farm outside Murbah. Seems to have practiced Mullum but did regular commuting to Sydney to look after business interests. Tenant on Mullum farm, where he had horses, appears to be Willie Young, and at Murbah, where he had cattle, was a bloke called Turner. In 1905 seems to have based himself at Murbah but moved to Cooma 1905. Returned to Murbah 1906. Bankrupt at some stage]
3Mar06: Paspalum grass + Holman MLA …used his railway pass in the glorious cause of Delph Singh..
(3Mar06 Northern Star: Delph Singh and Robert Marshall case.)
(3Mar06 Mullum Star: Delph Singh and Kesteven case)
7Mar06: Contempt of Court. Simonsen Sentenced. Half page.
7Mar06: The smellful Hindoo hasn’t got a monopoly of the art of perjury. This was strikingly demonstrated in some of the cases heard at the District Court – ‘Lismore Chronicle’.
W. Baker and Norman J. Mackinnon newspaper Johannesburg
(7Mar06 Ballina Advertiser: Delph Singh v. Dr Kesteven. Mr N.C. Hewitt a well-known writer of short-hand… says Delph Singh’s secretary Simonsen not a short-hand writer)
21Mar06: Joseph Abood land board for ocp0581 Murbah (and 7Jul06)
21Mar06 and subsequent: series on ‘Architectual Wonders of
India’.
21Mar06: Mooball correspondent: A dairyman not far from here has the rather doubtful distinction of being the employer of Hindoos in his milking yards. I understand this practice was prohibited by the various butter factories, and although I do not wish to go as far as disclosing the name of the person indicated, still I think it is the duty of every man, in the interests of his brother white man, to taboo the employment of the Hindoo in the milking yard for more reasons than one. We want a White Australia if possible. The dairying industry here is a more profitable one than cane growing, and yet we have a fixed wage for the white labourer in the cane field, while there is no provision made for the employee on a dairy farm. He has to be at it from 4am till 7pm and often 8pm. This dairyman who is milking over 60 cows, told an employee, so I am informed, that he did not wish the milking to interfere with the day’s work. Sixty odd cows mean at least £50 a month, and yet such a dairyman imagines himself as only able to offer from 15s to 18s wages per week. Is it reasonable to expect a man to work 14 or 15 hours a day, and keep himself (and probably a wife) on such a wage? – and the ‘boss’ getting £50 a month. If those dark-skinned individuals don’t trek in mighty quick order, I don’t see what’s to stop me from letting you, in the interests of white labour alone, have the name of their employer for your next issue!
23Mar07: Editorial. The ‘Bulletin’ is eternally pen-pricking the dairy farmers of the North Coast for employing Asiatic labour on their farms. We do not take exception to this practice on ethic grounds, but we do think that, as a matter of justice, the ‘Bulletin’ should give the North Coast farmers - the generality of them - credit for having steadfastly opposed the employment of Hindoo labour on dairy farms. The various creamery and butter companies of the North Coast some time ago decided on unity of action in regard to stamping out the employment of these coloured people in dairies, and the fact must have been known to the ‘Bulletin’, which never gave these factories – controlled by the farmers themselves – credit for stamping out this evil, without any compulsion being brought to bear on them from outside sources. If there is any such quantity as justice about the ‘Bulletin’, it would give credit as well as a pen-thrashing where it is due. And the credit of wiping the Hindoo horror off the North Coast dairy slate certainly belongs to the farmers themselves – not to the ‘Bulletin’ or any other extrinsic force.
24Mar06: Dr Kesteven establishes a private hospital.

7Apr06: Big attendance at court yesterday, with the usual Hindoo odour in more than ordinary prominence.
One has only to attend the local Police Court to realise how the Hindoo can swear all sorts of things apparently with impunity. Yesterday one of two dusky witnesses perjured himself, as one swore emphatically that that he planted sweet potatoes and another just as emphatically swore that he didn’t. It is a hard matter to get at the root of their perjury, as it is difficult to understand their ways. Anyway, they don’t appear to have much regard for the sanctity of the bible.
Salgum v. John E. Burke. Assault. Burke pleaded guilty but stated that no assault was intended as he merely knocked the complainant’s turban off for a joke.
Lashman Singh v. Jimmy Khan. £1/4/- claim for work and labour done and claim for detention of 2½ bags of paspalum seed.
Mr Street asked a chocolate-coloured witness…
11Apr06: It is not generally known that ‘mullumbimby’ is the name of the couch grass indigenous to these parts.
14Apr06: White Australia/South Africa. Indian coolies.
18Apr06: At Taree Police Court an Indian Hawker sued Messrs Ward and Everingham for £10 damages for sooling a dog on him, and allowing the animal to bite him.
14Apr06:
Natal and White Australia: 12 natives executed for murder during rioting in crusade for ‘Ethiopia for the Ethiopians’. ……In Natal the Black population outnumbers the white by ten to one. The colour problem is also variegated by the number of Indian coolies……These court-martial executions, these floggings, this government by sheer force appear to be justifiable in Natal if Natal is to exist for the white population. As long as we remain steadfast in our policy of a White Australia……..
21Apr06: Hindoos and Land: Quite a number of people have been up looking over the Tyalgum lands of late, and the wily Hindoo, who is poking his nose into pretty well everything he can on the North Coast, was also among the seekers. Tyalgum is a new country and it ‘may’ be the intention of the parsimonious Hindoo to establish a colony there! At the Land Court on Thursday forty applications for land in this locality were received.
25Apr06: The Alien Hawker: The Clarence ‘Examiner’ has something to say re the resolution recently passed by the Council of Progress Associations in Lismore, with regard to the Alien Hawker as follows: ‘Anathemas are hurled broadest at the Hindoo hawkers for vending their wares to waybacks and others, but the fair skinned purchasers, who are just as responsible for perpetrating the alleged nuisance, escape scatheless. The Asiatic trader would soon abandon his itinerant calling if he found no one to purchase his stock.’ Only one delegate to the meeting spoke in sympathetic terms of the alien, but still there is a heap of truth in the ‘Examiner’s’ remarks.
26Apr06: The rush for land at Tyalgum, Burrell and Mooball parishes has brought over 100 applicants…… Rotary v. George Singh. Claim for £9/10/-. Verdict by consent.

2May06: The Infamous Hindoo Again – At the District Court, Croydon, Q., before Judge Rutledge, Ramjh Singh, a Hindoo, was convicted of larceny from a dwelling, and was sentenced to 18 months gaol. Singh’s defence was on that on the night he was accused of stealing he had an appointment with the landlady of the hotel where the crime was committed, and where the cash box was kept. Judge Rutledge described the defence as the most shameful and horrible he had ever heard. The Indian not only attempted to steal the woman’s money, but when caught tried to steal her good name. The verdict of the jury had saved the woman from a frightful stigma.
5May06: Official opening of Murbah branch of Norco. W.R. Baker given standing ovation.
9May06: The Difference Between Black and White - Rangi Singh, on whom Judge Rutletge poured scorn at Croydon (Q) …….. then quotes the Bulletin on how a white man in the same circumstances would have behaved differently.
12May06: Unfortunately, Hindoos are not getting ‘beautifully less’ on the
Tweed.
More Crown Lands. …following success of 26 blocks Mooball and Tyalgum… Dunbible..
16May06: Mooball correspondent for the Advocate: ……The Crabbes Creek correspondent of the ‘Herald’ says that ‘things are looking very bright in every respect, and that the Creek can boast of only having one black skinned joker on it.’ Reckon he’s out some, as I know of one gang alone of five or six felling scrub. I am told these same fell and brush for 18s per acre. If he calls that bright what does he call black? How is a man to get his crust on such a wage as this? No reasonable man would expect a white man to undertake this class of work under 26s or 27s 6d per acre. No one can wonder at the Small Debts Court being resorted to occasionally when this sort of competition is met with. It is to be hoped that white men will not be thus prevented from getting a sufficient wage for their labour to allow them to pay their way and live honestly.
19May06: Lismore people are beginning to think they have a nigger colony in their midst – it’s the only way they can account for the continuous disappearance of their poultry.
Assyrian Aboud’s horse played up in town yesterday, and smashed his hawker’s cart and harness, and also injured itself by its wild capers. Excitement ran high while the high kicking lasted.
Billinudgel Correspondent: …….Your correspondent regrets that a Pocket resident has black labour under the control and whip of a white man.
+ Provisional Shire Councillors gazetted for Byron Shire… William Robert Baker of Mullum and others.
+ Public meeting Mullum in favour of municipality. Baker, Cameron, Davidson, Weigall and Simpson.
+ Provisional Shire Councillors for Tweed Shire.
26May06: Delph Singh, Indian Doctor, is now practicing in the Bega District. He hasn’t got into any law troubles down there yet.
At Tweed. ……South Coaster unimpressed with wages. ….17/6 a week is the best obtainable in the dairies. …..The unemployed from all parts are flocking here… Land is very dear.
30May06:
Definition of a Prohibited Immigrant: Chief Justice jokes that the dictation test is not fair during a court case. Assyrian Hawker Aboud South Murbah.

2Jun06: Mooball Correspondent: I notice by the Herald’s correspondent that parties of Kanakas and Hindoos are engaged on the Creek (Crabbes?) in clearing land, &c., and that white labour is not available. I must contradict him. I know where white men have been discharged on more than one occasion, and Hindoos put on to fill their places. I know a man who discharged two smart looking young fellows and employed Hindoos at a shilling per day less, his only reason being, so he said, that he had promised the job to the Hindoos some six months previously. Another man sacked a man from his milking yards because he had a Hindoo to take on the job for 1s per day less. No reasonable white man would expect another to do scrub-felling at the wage paid to Hindoos, and the excuse that white men are not available is a paltry one. There are plenty only too willing to work for a fair wage. I can mention a few farmers who are paying their men 6s per day of about nine hours, and others would not experience any difficulty in securing white labour if they paid a white man’s wage. While the Hindoo is to be competed with, none need wonder at men putting up bluey in preference to working for a paltry 3s or 4s per day.
2Jun06: Henry Tyler’s will and instructions for his cremation at Mullum…N.B. – I have no objection to Hindoos being employed at my cremation if white men object to doing it.
6Jun06: …Afghan named Zarut Khan was charged with the murder of Rock Mattilla, another Afghan, about May 1902 at Woodlawn. …Afgan named Jarra, who is resident of the district went to
Sydney a little while back. Some fellow-countrymen and Hindoos inquired of him as to the whereabouts of Rock Mattilla…Hindoos and Afghans then began to investigate……Police went out to Woodlawn, and as a result of something they were told… exhumed skeleton…of an Asiatic… Zarut Khan arrested two miles from Coraki… missing man and the man arrested were about four or five years ago partners in a farm, and ate together and slept at a house of another Afghan…remains in a paddock 150 yards from an abandoned house at a depth of 18 inches…….
13/27Jun06: Zurat Khan, an Afghan, remanded……
30Jun06: W.R. Baker, Chairman of BB Council. Motion passed that Mullum be chief polling place.
+181 applications for 41 blocks Crown Land Tweed. Apps closed for 40 blocks Dunbible, Chillingham and Mooball
7Jul06: Wirths Circus in town. Elephants trained by Afghans.
11Jul06: Selling a Wife. Indians in Natal.
14Jul06: A Hindoo witness commenced to moralise when asked a question regarding his weekly wage at the Police Court yesterday. ‘The Hindoos’ he said, ‘go in for the cut-throat business – some of them would work for nothing.’ And this is what the white man has to compete against! To talk of
Australia being ‘white’ because the Kanaka is about to be deported is farcical in the extreme whilst the lowly Hindoos, Afghans, and Cingalese are allowed to exploit the wage-earning fields of this fair country. It is one of the penalties we have to pay for the glorious privilege of Empire.
The usual array of multi-coloured turbans was in evidence at the Police Court Yesterday.
A Hindoo witness at the Police Court yesterday swore that he couldn’t speak English, and then proceeded to speak pretty fair English.
Zurat Khan, the Afghan who is under arrest for the alleged murder of a countryman at Woodlawn, threatens to rival McNair and Hoskins in the matter of being ‘much remanded’.
Said a dusky witness at the Police Court yesterday: ‘Dere’s nothin’ like tellin’ de trute – I’m tellin’ de trute’ but the Bench wore an unsophisticated look of incredulity, all the same.
21Jul06: The Hindoos were again in evidence in court yesterday.
As usual, there was some hard-swearing amongst the Hindoos at the Police Court yesterday.
Pala v. Juss & Hira. Assault Tumbulgum.
Jack Brown murder case ……the whole thing is the result of a secret society to keep up a white
Australia. The plan was to have a revolution against the blacks and Chinese, and kill them off. There are a number in the society, but we have kept it very quiet until we got some money to buy arms. We have had some drills and practice at bayonet work. He gave the names of a couple of Ballina boys, who, he said, were members of the Society.
Alleged Murder of an Indian: ….adjourned inquest… Zarut Khan, an Afghan,... Lal Ameer, and Indian, gave evidence through an interpreter. He deposed that deceased was named Rahmtulla. Zarut Khan and witness occupied the same hut on Quigley’s farm… adjourned till the 24th inst

1Aug06: Zurat Khan in Grafton Gaol pending trial…….
4Aug06: William Baker (son of WR) late of this office has joined the
Brisbane Hansard.
Brown case…….murdered to get money to start a revolution in order to have a ‘White Australia’
15Aug06: Dr Delph Singh, Indian Doctor, is travelling the South Coast in a motor car.
18Aug06: Strike in the Canefields: …….there is no likelihood of Young Bros flooding the country with cheap Hindoo labour, as we are reliably informed such rumour is pure fabrication.
29Aug06: …….Coroner found that about July 1901 at Woodlawn, Zarut Khan…murdered Rahmtulla. ...committed for trial Circuit Court 3 Oct….
Murders by Chinamen and Hindoos are becoming monotonous.
Black Labour in Dairies: At the recent meeting of the Council of Progress Associations, at Lismore, a letter was read from the Under-Secretary of Finance and Trade relative to the question of black labour in dairies in this State, and stating that, providing the dairy premises were in a sanitary state, there was no power under the Dairies Supervision Act to refuse registration in such cases. Seeing that the dairy regulations provide for the greatest cleanliness, it seems an anomaly to permit such dirty creatures as Hindoos to be employed in milking – ‘RR Express’
8Sep06: Editor Plowright of Mullum called a ‘white man’ for not tendering for Murbah business.
12Sep06: A Canecutters’ Challenge. The following letter appears in the Southport paper:- Sir, We see in the columns of your paper of 18th August an extract out of the Mossman Champion containing a challenge from the Hindoos to the Whites to cut and load cane for a wager. We have waited for a fortnight to see if the Whites of the Mossman were willing to accept their challenge, but have seen no more on their part so far, so have determined to cut them man to man with ten men in a gang.
From what we can make of it the reason the Hindoos have put out the challenge is because the whites and the blacks cannot work in the same field or the farmer will lose his bonus. We will meet them in any field of stripped cane where whites and blacks can cut in one paddock, between Nerang Creek and Bundaberg, provided we can get permission from Mr A. Cran, Manager Nerang Mill, to leave work. If we can decide the wager on Nerang Creek it would suit us better, as we are engaged to cut here for the season.
We think the Whites of the Mossman are a very chicken hearted lot of men if they are frightened to meet a gang of Hindoos on their own ground. We would only like the chance to meet them here.
Signed R. Bashford’s Gang, Nerang Central Sugar Mill.
The situation in India is ugly. The Hindoos seem to be ripe for another mutiny.
29Sep06: Dleep Singh v. Hinda. Small Debts Court. Neither turned up.
The cane-cutting match between the Whites and Hindoos at Mossman has fallen through… As many of our readers are soliloquising why a cane-cutting contest did not eventuate after the challenges, we are informed that the mill manager intervened, as he considers a contest would disorganise the workings of the gangs, and further, that the Hindoos would take a defeat badly.

6Oct06:Zarut Khan (an Afghan), was arraigned… murdered one Rha Matilla…….
Accused was gaudily attired……..
Something like 30 witnesses were subpoenaed in connection with the trial of Zurat Khan.
During the hearing of the charge of murder against Zarut Khan, at Lismore Circuit Court on Thursday, the Court was simply thronged with Hindoos, who manifested great interest in the proceedings.
10Oct06: Zarut Khan remanded for retrial at next Circuit Court. Jury couldn’t agree on verdict.
13Oct06: John Raymond Brown sentenced to Death.
3Nov06: William Baker, previously ‘Tweed Times’ has secured editorship of a paper at Geralton near Cairns.
10Nov06: Land Court
. Sunday (Hindoo) seeks confirmation or otherwise of selection cp 06 25. Adolph Henschell for cp 06 10. Jussa (Hindoo) requests conditions of residence for cp 05 51.
10Nov06: Even candidates exhibited a lamentable lack of interest in the Shire Council nominations on Wednesday
24Nov06:Trial of Zarut Khan for murder of Rhamtalla on 6Aug01. Lal Meer a witness. Khan guilty and sentenced to death. Jack Brown to be hanged Grafton.
28Nov06: The Hon T. T. Ewing MHR comes to Murbah for some electioneering……. The gathering was by no means a large one when proceedings commenced, but at a later stage it increased to probably 200 people….. The objective of a White
Australia was to do away with that condition of affairs which forced the white labourer into competition with the coloured man. The Federal Government had done and is still doing its best to remedy things. Where were white men to breathe and live?
There was no room in India with its teeming millions. Therefore they should strive to keep Australia white ( Applause.)…
A report is current that a petition will be prepared asking for a commutation of the death sentence on Zarut Khan.

8Dec06: Sunda, a Hindoo, was charged with using indecent language….
North Lismore: …Syrian men and women…all spoke at once and spoke with extraordinary rapidity in their broken engliush… A Cingalese,… Jimmy Williams… but proper name Goolooka… stealing mail bag St Helena… 6mths Grafton and released Thursday and now living shed Nth Lis attached to store of William (Secunda) Boukalill… fed by several other asiatics… then went to hut of Goa-Portugese named Juan Salvatore Pinto, well known poultry dealer about town… and stabbed him… Young Syrian named Grank Gabaly.. . number of Hindoos, Europeans and aborigines
Hawkers licenses granted William Hughes, Alex Solomons, Joseph Cohen, J.J. Doherty, Mary Asher, Joseph Aboud, Catherine Josephs
12Dec06: The Abyssinian peasant is bathed but thrice in his life – cleanliness and godliness are evidently not neighbours
Williams, Pinto, Boukalil and Gavaly – all foreigners
15Dec06:
Rhmata Khan granted a hawkers licence for the Tweed District in Lismore Court.

5Jan07: Bobadeen, a Hindoo, and Sahib Deen, another Hindoo,….both witnesses in a Kanaka assault charge.
Bobadeen, a witness, was more frequently alluded to as ‘Sardice’ by the ‘boys’….. He swore he was on lemonade and raspberry on Boxing Day.
Sahib Deen frequently asked Mr Bruton to listen during his cross examination.
Distances are apparently no object to coloured gents – at least in Police Court cases
9Jan07: Zarut Khan, the Afghan murderer, is to dodge the hangman’s rope after all.
Delph Singh has leased a farm on the Richmond River to Mr. J. Jaggers of Bega.
12Jan07: Rhamat Khan charged with indecent language at Bungalora. The PM admonished the accused very harshly for his beastly disgusting language and said he wished he could send him to gaol for twelve months……
23Jan07: Hindoos in Nth QLD are expert fowl stealers. They burn sulphur in the fowl house and almost suffocate the fowls, then taking them away noiselessly.
26Jan07: Another of our old dusky identities, in the person of Ching, died at Kynnumboon on Tuesday. He was about 80yrs of age.
Small Debts Court: Garnishee case of Hassall v. Khan.
Court-ettes. The everlasting ‘Deen’ case in prominence in the Hindoo cases (Dheens).
With the Hindoos at the court the ‘Innocents Abroad’ is very forcibly illustrated.
A hawker witness said everybody who bought his goods were his friends. No doubt!
The Hindoo’s counsel, in the indecent language case, blamed the larrikin element for the responsibility of the Hindoos using the filthy expressions they frequently do.
Tommy Takkera, a Hindoo, pleaded guilty to indecent language at Marks’ wharf.
This was a case in which some of the most disgusting language we have yet heard was used in the presence of passengers on the river boat….. A Hindoo was fined
£5 some time ago, and this man was one of the parties then on that occasion, whom the PM said he wished could be brought before him. £5 fine and £7 costs.
A southern exchange hints that the Hindoo recently heavily fined by the Murbah Bench for bad language, would easily pass the education test.
Dr Delph Singh has become an active member of the Bega Good Templars’ Lodge.
Building trade still booming Murbah.
30Jan07:
1200 new names added to Rous electoral roll in the last fortnight.
Sister Stanislaus of Catholic Convent cancels subscription to paper due anti-Catholic comments.

9Feb07: Deda Singh sued E.C.J. Marks for £32/15/- for work and labour done on 9Aug05. Marks kicked him at one stage. Witness here gave a rambling statement, of which the only words audible were ‘no savee’! Lost case and had to pay costs.
Court-isms: Two or three of the defendants at yesterdays Court made their debut before the bench.
Counsel (in Hindoo Case): I will do my best to prevent people being both employer and storekeeper.
The PM (in asking witness if he knew a down river storekeeper): Perhaps he thinks we mean a shirt!
A defendant in Court yesterday had absolutely the longest moustache we have ever seen on any man.
Yesterday’s Court cases were mostly confined to whites. The black element must be turning over a new leaf.
13Feb07: Fifteen shillings is all a local solicitor charged a Hindoo for four lawyers letters and twelve personal attendances. Wonder what would his charges for similar services against a moneyed white man be?
20Feb07: People living in Solomon’s Row complain that some eleven or a dozen Hindoos are living in the one small cottage. If their complaint be true, we can well understand the objection neighbours have to a black aggregation in their midst.
2Mar07: Malla Bucks (Nubby Bux? Mullah?), a coloured man, applied for a hawker’s license. Refused after Police objection.
9Mar07: 100 Hindoo labourers in the frontier towns of British Columbia have been discovered to be women dressed in men’s clothing……..
57646 immigrants admitted to the Commonwealth last year without being subject to a test, an increase of 9706 on 1905. Not a single person against whom a test was levelled passed it. 53 persons failed to pass the test, all being coloured aliens.
11Mar07: The Dubious Variety of Immigration. In Northern Australia, where a much better brown man than the Abyssinian may happen along any day, the Dago appears a dubious reed to depend upon… Just at present the Dago is the prospective standby of the Queensland sugar industry
20Mar07: Bloke named Schrieber fined £2 for interfering with a ‘coloured gent’.
23Mar07: Jussa v. Joseph Han.
The black ‘horror’ was in strong evidence at the Bangalow show. Some of them subsequently contributed revenue to the Treasury per medium of the Police Court.
An Assyrian asserts Paddy McMahon is the Shire Council
Editorial Notes. The Bulletin is eternally pen-pricking the dairy farmers of the North Coast for employing Asiatic labor on their farms…And the credit of whipping the Hindoo horror off the North Coast dairy slate certainly belongs to the farmers themselves – not to the Bulletin or any other extrinsic force
.

6Apr07: Assault Case: This was a case in which Emily Deen, a dusky lady, proceeded against Charlie Null, a Hindoo, for assaulting her on Easter Monday Night at South Murwillumbah.
From the evidence, it appears that the defendant, who had been employed selling fruit for the plaintiff (who with her husband keeps a fruit shop and boarding house for the ‘boys’ at South Murwillumbah), made a complaint to Mrs Deen about some money matters. He says she hit him with a boot, whereupon he caught hold of her by the hand and threw her down, breaking one of her fingers. She suffered great pain and been under the doctor. The defendant admitted that the only excuse he had for assaulting the plaintiff was because she hit him on the hand with a boot, which drew from the PM some very strong remarks. Null was characterised by the Bench as a ‘low scoundrel and a coward’ for assaulting a defenceless woman. While the decision of the Bench was being recorded Charlie was moved to tears, but the availed him nothing……
The Bulletin’s Easter article was headed ‘How Pontius Pilate, the Dago, washed his hands’.
13Apr07: Four Hindoos are under remand at Lismore on a charge of being on licensed premises at Bexhill on Sunday.
Aliens monopolised the greater part of the time of the Police Court yesterday.
The installation of cricketer Ranjitsinghi as Jam of Jamngar was carried out with great pomp.
It takes a Hindoo witness to hide behind a subterfuge – and the subterfuge generally hidden behind is the hackneyed ‘me no understand.’
The Hindoo states the oath by drinking water. The Hindoo may hold the water, but we haven’t much faith in his oath holding water.
Jessa v. Hanna. Jack Jessa deposed that he was a labourer, residing at North Arm.
On 25Sep05 lent money to ‘Hanna’. …..Billy Santo, who was sworn on water, gave evidence, assisted by an interpreter. This witness was very difficult to obtain information from.
17Apr07: North Coast Farmers and Hindoo Labour: Apropos the North Coast creameries refusing to receive the cream from dairy farmers who employ Asiatics in the cow yards, a Tweedite contributes the following to the Sydney ‘Bulletin’:
A fly in the ‘Bulletin’s’ cream-can was for long the fact that the Hindoo finds occasional employment in the North Coast cow-yards. The ‘Bulletin’ has long warred against the pernicious habit, and its diatribes about the matter have been sufficient to purge the Northern Rivers – where everything reeks of the cow – of that evil. And, now that the evil has been purged by the farmers themselves – aided and abetted by the ‘Bulletin’ – why in the name of justice doesn’t the Bulletin give the dairy-farmers credit for having accomplished what they have, minus any other extraneous force than a moral obligation to themselves and to White Australia! If the Northern farmers had been forced by law to deny themselves the pleasure of cheap Asiatic labor, then there would be no need to pat them on the back; but when they, solely on their own initiative, come to a unanimous decision to eschew the colored horror as a human milking machine, they are certainly entitled to some acknowledgement.
1May07: A Hindoo – christianised and well educated – has been looking for a job in Murwillumbah as a tutor. [R.B.Fernandez was running an advert at the time. 38yrs in Sydney and teaching at the Jesuit school.]
15May07: The Lismore Bench has sent Khar Deen, a Hindoo, of Bangalow, to Gladesville asylum for the reconstruction of his mental appartus.
Deda Singh v. E.C.J. Marks. Another go by Deda to claim £32. Lost again.
18May07: At the last meeting of the Council of Progress Associations, Mr Robert Campbell (Bangalow) mentioned that aliens were settling in the district. He knew of a Syrian on the Tweed who held 640 acres of land.
The trouble in India is beginning to assume an ugly aspect: perhaps it will terminate in another Indian mutiny.
(Catholic Campbell is the 'father of Bangalow'. Selected 640 acres Byron Creek 1881 where town developed. Donated land for schools, churches.)
18May07:Murbah Cafes. Emily (and Prose?) Deen probably sold pies and the range of other café food/confectionery from boarding house. Alien competition at this time was the restaurant of Andronico & Samio, plus Fruiterers Chow Kum

1Jun07: Jimmy Williams, Cingalese, false pretences.
19Jun07: A woman at
Lismore Police Court on Monday was fined 10s for fighting with smellful Hindoos.
26Jun07: A Lismore court sentenced an ‘immigrant’ to 2mths for stealing. We don’t want this sort of desirable (?) immigrant. Assyrian in South Murbah writes to Lismore Council.
3Jul07: A Hindoo was to be seen in town on Saturday garbed in a raiment of many colours – Jacob’s coat was a fool to it.
An Afghan named Chumpter went mad in Queensland on Saturday night. He shot four persons before he was secured, one of whom died and the other three are in a precarious condition.
680 on Mullum roll of State electors. 1413 on Murbah roll.
10Jul07: The Hindoo threatens to outdo the unctuous Jew in the matter of politeness. Recently a dusky son of India made his way into a local shop and addressed the man behind the counter thusly: ‘Good day, please.’ The retailer replied ‘good day’, and the Hindoo, bent on reaching the acme of politeness said ‘thank you.’
10Jul07: The Hindoo threatens to outdo the unctious Jew in the matter of politeness. Recently a dusky son of India… good day, thank you..
17Jul07: Editorial. Blames Afgan camels for importation of Surra livestock disease.
Mr. Keir Hardie, the English Labour Leader, is now advocating home rule for India.
7Aug07: The Hindoo a Born Perjurer. ‘
Tweed Times’ has frequently commented upon the capacity of Hindoos for perjuring themselves. The following, as related by a magistrate, Mr Jarbo, would seem to bear out the idea that the Hindoo revels in false oaths:- ‘One of the first cases I tried at Chittagong (Eastern Bengal), 33 years ago, will illustrate the point. Plaintiff alleged that defendant’s cattle were grazing on his land, and that whilst he was impounding them defendant and a host of others attacked and maltreated him, rescuing the cattle. Defendant denied that his cattle were trespassing on plaintiff’s land – they invariably grazed elsewhere. It was defendant who had been subjected to the most cruel ill-treatment. There were many witnesses on each side’, added Mr. Jarbo, ‘and I took considerable time to go into the case, in which there was much extraordinary conflict of testimony. As a result, I ascertained that defendant owned no cattle at all, and the plaintiff had no land. That was my first experience on the Indian bench, but it is only illustrative of scores of others.’
A Casino resident who bought a block of Murbah land for £80 recently resold for £450…and another he purchased for £75 …refused an offer of £20/foot.
In his Lismore address Mr Hindmarsh (Lib MLA Rous) made a bitter attack on the Chronicle which he described as a pie bald production between ‘The Worker’ and ‘The Truth.’
17Aug07: Says the ‘Northern Star’: The alien trouble is very rapidly putting in an appearance in Casino. Nearly every hotel has a Chinese cook, and soon a Japanese Laundry will be started. Added to a large store shortly to be opened by Hindoos this looks as if the white man will have to consider the alien question very seriously.
10Aug07: At the
Lismore Police Court. Walter T. Gray proceed against Henry Ram…. Alleged sold tubercular cow.
17Aug07:
Lismore Court: Lallah Ditteran charged with forging a receipt for 23 bags of grass seed; property of Atta Singh. Not guilty.
21Aug07: A German is under arrest at
Brisbane on suspicion of having murdered a Hindoo in the Nanango (QLD) district.
28Aug07:
Condong Range. As a result of an advertisement that appeared in a local paper, all the Kanakas on the Range have got the sack. It is to be hoped their places will not be filled by a worse curse – the Hindoo.
31Aug07: North Coast lands at boom levels.

11Sep07: 10,039 on Rous Roll. Two Murbah booths where 524 men and 326 women voted – a record for the town.
Sina Singh donates 10/- to Tweed Parish appeal for funds for St Carthages Cathedral Lismore. Joseph Abood donated £5. (Whilst Joe Abood, an Assyrian, was riding past the ‘Times’ election board last night his horse played up, and eventually got rid of Joe to the great delight of the crowd.)
18Sep07: Murbah Fire. Worst fire in history of any country town in NSW. 65 Buildings destroyed. ……We have all read of the looting by Australians in Johannesburg and Ladysmith subsequent to the South African war, and when we saw the behaviour of the mob on Sunday night we pictured the conduct of the Australian rabble in South Africa. Truly, Australia possesses some of the scum of humanity…..
5Oct07: A little excitement was caused in town on Tuesday evening by a drunken Hindoo and a ditto white man…
13Oct07: Small Debts Court. Buddah Khan v. Murley. Claim £10, balance due for goods sold and delivered, in the shape of 20 tons of cane. Verdict returned for only £5.’
7Dec07: Hindus in America. Unknown to the people in the States to the east of the Sierra Nevada range, quite a notable immigration of East Indians has set in upon the Pacific Slope, and has resulted, as must have been foreseen, in bitter racial feeling, culminating in an ugly riot, and possibly an international controversy with Great Britain. The Asiatics seem to have underbid all native labour, and it became merely a question as to whether Sikhs or Americans should occupy the whole deal (?). In the fight many coolies were badly hurt; 400 of them were given shelter and protection at the police station; and 750 more took to the railroad and trudged along it due north into Canada. Even in Canada however,…………
11Dec07: Mr Norman McKinnon of Johannesburg and formerly of Tweed is on holiday from S.A. He is staying with his brother-in-law, Mr. E. Prewett of Tumbulgum.
14Dec07: Article:
India as a Food Producer. George Silva, Cingalese, supplying booze to aborigines
25Dec07: There is room in
Australia for all the Anglo-Indians who can be induced to come.

Last existing edition.
Phil Tarlington of the Tweed Times and Brunswick Advocate took over the Tweed Herald and Brunswick Chronicle in 1913.  Combined the two into one to become The Tweed Daily in 1914.

27Jun08: Byron Record. Wsham Singh – disorderly Bangalow.

  Top of Page

Random Tweed Herald and Brunswick Chronicle:

9Sep1898: Tommy Khan, aka Khan Bussard, steals from Chedar/Chadu Khan. Lardu/Leriad Khan goes bail. Nabob Khan perjury.
29Jul1898: Influx of Aliens. Hindoos
31May01: 'The Black Agony'. Hindoos sleep 6 to 8 in tents measuring 6ft by 8ft....
10Jun01: Coloured Labor. - sugar industry.

18Jun01: Catholic Irishman cane grower P. McMahon candidate for election only employs black labour to 'trash' his cane like all other growers.
19Feb04: The white labourer is not slow to condemn the employer of coloured races, but the above shows how that principle is ignored by the workers themselves, when they can substitute black labour for their own at a profit to themselves. It would be interesting to know how the political representatives of labour regard this proceeding. (After the Hindoos were locked out of the cane fields and most employers refused to hire them directly, the white contractors who had won their fencing, harvesting, clearing, whatever, contracts, to then subcontract to the Hindoos at a lesser rate. The white contractor had tended for and got the job at the higher rate for white labour, thus doubling his profit.)
13Aug07: Jussar (Hindoo), cpo5-51, inquiry as to fulfilment of conditions postponed for applicant’s attendance. J. Aboud, cp 05-84, residence complied with.
5Jul09:
‘A Hindoo Horror’: Large article on murder by Indian student London. Article ‘Indian Seditious Writings. Article ‘Widespread Sorrow in India.
27Aug09: Long letter to editor by W.N. Gillies of Tintenbar on Tyalgum land ballot Those of your readers who are patriots and genuine White Australians – and I trust there are no exceptions – must………..Here are the charges made by the Tyalgum settlers, and they can be proved to the hilt: 1. We consider them an undesirable class. 2. They always lower the moral tone of any community where they reside. 3. Being selectors, and away from police protection, our wives and children are not safe, if Hindoos are allowed to make homes among us…..
17Sep09: Jimmy Hamey, Cingalese, drunk
24Sep09: Nicklin sent copy of letter to Mr Ewing MHR who passed it on to Mr Littleton E. Groom, Minister of External Affairs. Reply published and Gillies writes another letter disputing figures. Plus dictation test. (Gillies stood for Labour 1910 Fed Election)
18Sep09: Article ‘The Smellful Hindoo. Long article on Land selection, particularly on protest meeting Casino over successful Hindoo in Land ballot.
24Sep09: White
Australia. The Hindoo Problem. Why it has become acute. Long article on the success of a Hindoo at Tyalgum land ballot. …….The degrading effect morally of the presence of these gentry in a district……..In one part of this northern district for months a white woman was living in a one-roomed humpy with four or five Hindoos, and this humpy was passed daily by children going to and from school. Was there a word of protest? Never a one, for these particular Hindoos were not then competing for land. Two of these Hindoos were cattle dealers, and a splendid spirit of camaraderie seemed to exist between them and their white neighbours. The whites and the niggers could be met at any time on the roads going to and from the sales helping each other cheerfully along, and seemingly enjoying on another’s company. ……… On the occasion in a prominent town in the district when Hindoos fought openly for the possession of a white girl not a word was said – the affair was regarded as distinctly humorous – nor was any protest heard when another Hindoo led the daughter of a renegade white man to the altar in quite conventional style. …….. At a school in this district the children of a Hindoo are in attendance and associating freely with the white children without any protest being made, even though in most centres the line is drawn as far as our own aboriginals are concerned……..The insanitary habit of living pursued by these natives of India is notorious, yet this did not deter certain prominent dairymen from employing them as milkers………… During the past couple of years the status of the more prosperous of the Hindoos……has increased greatly. They are no longer the servile creatures who whined so piteously for a job a few years ago. It is not uncommon to see a white man cleaning the boots of the coloured gentleman, who – this operation concluded to his satisfaction – retires to the hair-dressing saloon to be sartorially attended to by the white barber……..

12Jan10: Hindoos on the Land. On Friday afternoon last, the Land Board……..considered the applications of the Indians Gunga and Bishan Singh for land at Nimbin at the ballot for which they had been successful. Mr. J.A. Barrie appeared for the two applicants. Gunga, who didn’t appear as if he were worth twopence, said that he was worth  £200, and alleged that he was a money-lender, among his clientele being several Europeans, whom he mentioned. By a remarkable coincidence Bishan Singh was also worth £200, which amount he had lent to one Hyjarrah Singh, who testified that he owed the money. Bishan Singh with an oily smile said that the other Singh would pay him at the indefinite period known as ‘some day’. The board was satisfied. But outrage by paper and citizens. …… In view of the fact that some 77 European applicants had to go without land at the last ballot, it appears against the principles of justice and the desire of a white Australia that members of an inferior race should be granted a foothold aggregating 666 acres in our midst. It is time that the people in this district rose up and protested in unmistakable terms against any more land being given to the members of a race which is inferior morally and physically to that with which is desired to people Australia. Six of these men were successful in the ballot at Nimbin.
12Jan1910: Nicklin sold Tweed Herald and Bruns Chronicle to A.L. Strumm. Later public farewell at which his antipathy to Hindoos was highlighted and greeted with humour.
26Jan10: Hindoos and the Land. Report on Lismore Municipal Council’s motion to make representations to the Government preventing Hindoos and other undesirables taking up Crown Lands for selection. …….not one-half percent of the Hindoos were decent people. Ald. Latcham said every alderman in the room would be pleased to wipe out the stain on Lismore of these aliens snatching up the land. They were men who should not be allowed to walk on the footpath, the road was the place for them (Hear, hear)………..
26Jan10: Hindoos and Liquor. Cut and paste article from Boswell of the Bulletin. …….. Recently I was witness to a brawl in a pub yard on the
Tweed River between five inked-up Hindus……… The yells and shrieks of the turbaned gentry were as blood-curdling as those of a Highland regiment on the charge………
W.R. Baker elected Chairman of Norco
Feb1910: Political Rally. ……Mr Dunn asked would Mr Nathan carry the White
Australia policy far enough to advocate the prohibition of marriages between white women and Hindoos. Mr Nathan: Certainly. I think it horrible that our race should be polluted in such a manner.
4Feb1910: The Asiatic Peril. Long letter to Editor from Boswell of the Bulletin. White Australia received a vicious blow between the eyes at Lismore a few weeks ago………. The State Government is so fossilised, so anti-Australian, so opposed to the White Australian policy, so strong an advocate of a piebald, mongrelised brindle Commomwealth, so inept and spineless and absurd that it pleads guilty to its shocking inability to make any better use of its land powers than the handing over of the pick of its available blocks to a crowd of Hindoos. And its latest outrage on white settlers who want land for their sons was perpetuated last month at Lismore………. It is alleged that already there is a milk vendor of the species plying his calling in a certain centre not 100 miles from Murwillumbah. And, as yet, I have not touched on the worst phase of all. It is the intermarriage question. So soon as a Hindoo becomes the possessor of a farm, he rapidly becomes the possessor of a white ‘missus’…….. Where a white family does chance to be successful, there is a danger of the homestead being bounded on all sides by Hindoo landlords, with their doorsteps worn by the patter of piebald feet. The white woman who marries a Negro in the United States gets two years’ imprisonment, and is deported at the end of the term…… Our liquor laws allow any number of Hindoos to enter a hotel bar and absorb any given quantity of alcohol, to pick rows with the white customers, to brandish knives, to emit blood-curdling yells, to execute Pagan war dances, and to carry on top ropes generally………
7Feb10: White Australia v. Hindooman. Poem by Allan Faifax of Tumbulgum.
9Feb10: The Half-Caste.
21Feb10: An Indian hawker, Jarcka Singh, died Shepparton, Vic, during a wrestling match.
23Feb10: Hindoos as Settlers.
23Feb10: Mr Peter Street, Independent Liberal candidate for election, related to W.R. Baker, and solicitor Murbah who represented Hindoos. ……An active and thorough system of immigration of the white and desirable classes to
Australia is a pressing need.
G.F. Nicklin farewelled from Dainer’s Rooms
28Feb10: Editorial The Hindoo Scourge. 2 columns. Premier Wade in town.

2Mar10: Shajawal Khan donates £16/15/- to Lismore hospital on behalf of ‘Mahomedans’. …… As there are a number of Hindoos in the district, a similar move on their part would not be altogether unacceptable to the local institutions.
Mr Street stands down as an Independent Liberal.
2Mar10: Strange Hindoo Beliefs.
2Mar10. Mr Street influenced to stand down.
4Mar10: Mr Nicklin Farewelled. … After further humor and reference to his editorial work, and his antipathy to Hindoos….
9Mar1910 and preceding and succeeding editions on utterances of candidates for Federal election. Mr W.N. Gillies, selected Labour candidate for Richmond and probably letter writer of Tintenbar: …..He not only supported a White
Australia, but he had consistently acted it all his life. Since the passing of the Sugar Bounty Act, he was afraid there had been no consistent effort on the Northern Rivers to check the influx of Hindoos. Since the passing of the Immigration Restriction Act no less than 999 Hindoos had landed……In his opinion it was even worse to allow them to marry white women than to hold land…..  He referred to the fact of there recently being 1,579 applications for land in this district, there being no less than twelve Hindoos allowed as bona fide applicants, while a Hindoo had also won the ballot against 94 applicants in the Casino district. He dwelt on the injustice………
Prem Singh’s mate Neil Neilson spoke in support….

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Tweed Daily:

15Jan14: First edition of combined papers.
10Mar14: ‘Hindoo Jimm’ an entrant in the Hibernian Handicap held St Patrick’s Day Murbah.
4Apr14: Sundi Mahomet of Tyalgum v. C&F Power
9May14: The Brutal Black – Cowardly Assault in
Main Street. The vicious savagery and uncontrollable temper of the black man was amply demonstrated in Main Street at noon yesterday, when a well-known Hindoo of burly size made an attack on a young, half-drunken man, much smaller and lighter than his brutal antagonist…………
11May14: Palo, a Hindoo, charged with assault….of O’Gorman. O’Gorman was begging in the street and provoked Palo. + S. Solomons, Kanaka.
11May14: Palo’s employer N. Bornholt wrote an indignant letter to editor over the above article.
30May14: Munchee, a hindoo, drunk………
26Jun14: Hindoos in
Canada.
17Jun14: A Wooly Turnout” A most exciting incident took place in Bangalow about 10 o’clock on the morning of Wednesday last. For a quarter of an hour or so the whole place was in a qui vive of excitement. The cause of the excitement was a black brother from Bombay or a white who’d lost the number of his mess. He first directed his attention to the local stationmaster, who landed him ‘bobby dazzler’ and outed him. Recovering, he rushed to an adjacent pubbery and collaring a bottle returned to the attack. The railway man promptly repeated his performance. ……….
2Jul14: ‘Hindoos in Canada’
3Jul14: ‘Educated Half-Caste Indian’   Denied Entry
8Jul14: F.P. Hartigan, ‘Expert Dispensing Chemist’ of Murbah advertising ‘The Indoo Influenza Remedy’…’The Indian national remedy for all forms of Dengue fever, Influenza and colds in the head’.
20Jul14: The Prohibited Hindus. Vancouver report
22Jul14: Unwelcome Hindus. Wellington NZ. Complaints continue against the Hindu invasion…….. In the backblocks land in the King Country, the men’s relations with Maori women are arousing protest…….Exception is also taken to the fact that the visitors from India are undercutting the rates of pay received by white labour………..
23Jul14: Canadian Hindus
27Jul14: Morrison v. Sundai. Small Debts Court
…..’on account of service of a mare’.
11Sep14: Munchee (Hindoo) donates 1 guinea to Murbah Patriotic Fund.
Indian Army Article ….certain regiments at the front in
Europe. ……wonderful how such a large body of men of varying races and creeds is kept in perfect order by a handful of British Officers….. 120 battalions of infantry + 50 regiments of cavalry + sappers…
Gurkhas…. There are about 20 battalions of these funny little Mongolians….
Sikhs….these are the opposite extreme of the Gurkhas….
14Oct14: White, Black and Yellow. Drinking incident  … rear of Dells Café Murbah. Palo (Hindoo) involved.
23Dec14: ‘Our’ Indian Army.
28Dec14: Hindoo falls off train near Bangalow. …but the dusky one picked himself up apparently little the worst for his sudden stop.

21Jan15: Germans realise fighting quality of Indians
26Jan15: Indian Soldiers.
20Feb15: Bullo Khan v. Sunday – claim for money due on sale of a buggy.
15May15: Atta Singh v. Robert Lawrence. Assault by Lawrence ‘most cowardly’.
28Jun15: Photo of Singh herbalists of Casino in every edition.
29Jul15 and 16Aug15: Inquest into death of Hindoo Bahd Ralli, alias Alick Deen. Found bludgeoned to death on river bank at Tyalgah. But coroner could not determine how injuries inflicted.
14Aug15: A German Invasion. A Hindoo Captured. The Tale of a horse, cart and harness. …a poor, miserable-looking Hindoo named George Malay, alias Charles…. 3 Germans of Murbah (Goldman, Wulff, Hess) charge him with stealing a horse and cart, previously his. Malay in sharefarming agreement Bilambil.
Out on a Bender. A number of gaily-turbaned Hindoos….
15Dec15: Charge against Mohamedan – Broken Hill
18Dec15: Sal Ram v. L.D. Clothier. Small debts court + 21 Dec15

4Jan16: Gudge Singh. Drunk Murbah
15Jan16: Harry Atta Singh v. D.J. Botag. Small Debts Court.
7Mar16: Hindoo Gundah Singh. Riotious behaviour
13May16: There are so many Hindoos in this part of the
North Coast…. Worth considering appointment of  Hindoo Magistrate… No doubt some of the fraternity would then soon figure at the advocates table. R.R. Express.
22May16: The Hindoo Wife. Repeated every so often. Again 23Jun16.
6Jun16: Hindoo, carrying a swag, nearly dies Murbah rail station.
10Jun16: Tweed Shire Council v. Ayra Khan. Illegal gate Couchy Creek.
10Jun16: A Hindoo Case. Jack Jessar of Crystal Creek v. Palo, another Hindoo…. Insulting words.
5Jul16: Dyed Garments. …..Ditta Singh (which is Dyed Garments’ Sunday name) has no visible means of support and was a nuisance generally. 65yrs of age and ought to know better. Got 6mths Grafton gaol. (25Jan16: Dyed Garments on 3yd handicap with Joe Sing, Lee Lau and W. Choy in Allies Day Handicap)
14Aug16: A Hindoo Death. The death occurred in a tragic mannerNubby Bux at Piggabeen.
31Aug16: Frank (Ranji) Pearce, professional boxer… no visible means of support. Rejected WW1 service for ‘colour’.
3Oct16: Persons of foreign birth re voting referendum

23Jun22: Mr Brinivasa Sasiri addresses QLD parliament advocating equal rights for Indians in QLD.
6Nov25: Australia for Australians
21Jul26: Editorial White Australia. Dr Evatt embarrassed at Aust position and Labour party position, given union position on brotherhood of man
3Dec27: Nassi Khan, a Hindoo, charged as a prohibited immigrant Maclean. Ex banana grower of The Channon.
20Sep28: Lal Singh applies to eject Alla Singh Mullum.
6May30: White Girl (age 16) and Hindoo (age 59) Lismore.
11Sep31: Jewallah Singh who came to Aust 18mths ago to take possession of the estate of his late uncle Chundah Singh left Ballina for Sydney ….. Chundah Singh is remembered in the Richmond District for his magnificent physique and for his business acumen …. Accumulated property worth £14,000.
12Oct33: Booti Singh, resident Australia 30yrs, donates to the Lismore RSL for ‘the poor soldiers”.
29Dec33: Devan Singh, market gardener of St Helena.
25Apr34: Muddy Ram v. Harry Everitt of Everitt’s Hill, Mullum. Witness Joalia Singh (age 79). Both working small patches on Everitt’s place.

5Jan35: Beer Singh aged 55, killed in car accident Condong. Was in company with Easar Singh. Both working for ‘Shar’ of Tomewin. Both had stayed at Pola Singh’s camp behind the Standard Sawmill on Condong Rd the night before. 8 compatriots present at cremation. 25 Murbah residents were interested spectators. Had daughter in India.
16Feb35: George Delip Singh last seen Murbah Sep1932. Reward of
£3 any person finding him. J. Harname, Nambour.
28Sep35: Charges against two Hindoos, father and son, Mullum. Jemal Singh, alias Tommy Kirram Singh, charged by Cecil Roy Timbs for stealing a plough. Father Charlie Pwan Singh charged with permitting a horse to be ill treated
28Dec35/1Feb36/28Feb/21Apr36: Charge of assault against Lal Singh of Main Arm. Offence Jun/Jul35. Northern Star 23Apr36: Not guilty of 6 charges. 2 lads give conflicting evidence.
1Feb36: Jenal Singh of Mullum – ill treating horse.
2Oct36: Cyclone wipes out banana farm of Braham Singh Ewingsdale
28Nov36: Jimmy Braham Singh, greengrocer of Mullum.
30Nov36: Jenal (Tommy) Kiram Singh, young Hindoo fruit vendor, and father Baghwan Singh of Mullum.
3Feb37: Jenal Singh (age19) of Montecollum. Stealing bananas. Thrashed by father. Basunta Singh, banana grower of Rous Mill.
31Jul37: Bagwan Singh illtreating horse Mullum.

31Jan41: Lal Singh of Round mountain fined £5 for unclean dairy. Share farmer had control of dairy and was sacked by Lal because of dirty dairy. Lal himself called police to come and see for themselves but he was charged on a technicality – it was nominally his dairy.
20May41: Lal Singh (age22) and Chenan Singh (30) both labourers of Nobby’s Creek. Charged with assaulting Ra Moon, Ra Moon’s son, Beance Singh and Kishan Singh. Possibly charges against other Indians.
24May41: Cross charges.
12Jun41: Four Hindus each fined
£5 for assault: Chenan Singh, Lal Singh, Beance Singh and Kishen Singh. Only one of the quartette could understand English. Beance Singh was the son of Ra Moon. Pretty much the whole Hindu population of the Tweed is here today.
28Mar41: Small Debts Court: Alexander Neville Monement v. Lal Singh.
24Sep41: Tommy Nutta Singh and Enie Nutta Singh, formerly ‘of’ Nundah’, McLeods Shoot.
30Oct41: Edward John Whitby found guilty of assaulting Lal Singh of Round Mountain. Singh still in hospital.
3Nov41: Brahm Singh of Coorabell – car accident Crabbes Creek
27Nov41: Lal Singh assault case.
11Dec41: Whitby committed for trial Lismore for assault of 70yr old Lal Singh

23Apr42: 32yr old Whitby gets 1yr and 9mths in goal. Lal attends court after 6mths in hospital but has to be assisted into court and had walking stick and leg in plaster. Whitby was a share farmer on Lal’s property at Round Mountain. Lal lived in a hut while Whitby lived in a house on hillside. Before hitting Lal Whitby said You black-------; you do not trust me….. After hitting Lal Whitby uttered There you are, you black mongrel……
31Jul42: William Watts guilty of stealing 6 cows (
£18) from Lal Singh of Round Mountain. Total of 80 head of cattle missing when Lal released from hospital.
17Sep42: William Watts claims wages from Lal Singh. Claim fails.
11Feb43: Lal Singh loses a Bay Pony.
2Apr43: Indra Singh of Nobbys Creek subscribes £10 to Third Liberty Loan.
20Apr43:
Ishin Singh, Ram Lal Singh and Charnan Singh of Nobbys Creek subscribe £100 to the Third Liberty Loan.
3Jul44: Shop and dwelling of Mr and Mrs Ramat Alli destroyed in fire at Tyalgum and bit of New State Hotel next door.
1Nov44: Eshar (aka Easar) Singh, late of Dungog – probate of estate.
22Nov44: Fire Couchy Creek destroys £5000 worth of bananas. Mick and Pat Aboud worst sufferers with 17 acres of bananas valued at £2000.
5Nov45: Pritan Singh of Dunbible burning off.

28Jan46: N. Singh of Byron Bay donates to Food For Britain Appeal.
11Mar46: Doulby Singh (33) banana grower of Alstonville and Bobby Bahadar Singh (23) banana grower of Rous Mill killed in road accident.
18Feb47: Besant Singh, arrived Aust 60yrs ago, dies age 105 Ballina. Living with 84yr old nephew Tarcora at Teven. Lal Singh of Round Mountain.
9Apr48: Two Hindu brothers, Jack Parkash (Photo) and J. Dass of Nobbys Creek returning to the Punjab for a visit after 12yrs Aust. Coming back. Jack came Aust 1936 aged 18, followed by brother. Moved from Richmond 4yrs ago to grow bananas.
29Mar48: Mr Wittleton, banana grower of Alstonville. Just back from Africa….many of the Indians imported when the railway was constructed at
Nairobi had set up in business and gradually squeezed out most of the British by underselling them. There is ample evidence of this development to make the white Australia policy imperative…. Fear of competition from the Hindu banana growers.
28Jun48: Lal Singh leases 400 acre farm at Round Mountain.
7Aug48: Hindu fined – Clarence Pholi, market gardener of Mummulgum. Married with 4 children.
14Aug48: Kishen Singh, partner of Kishen Singh, Chanvan Singh and Ram Lal Singh fined Murbah because of tax return discrepancies.
29sep48/8Oct48: Marriage performed by Mohammedan elder Fazal Abdul Majead (aged  85 or 65) of Ghularm Haider, Bungarbee farmer, and Dorothy Janet Deen on 27Aug47 deemed illegal. Legal test case.

3Feb49: 70yr old Hindu Charles Nundah, burst into tears Lismore court. Pensioner of Peate St Nth Lismore. Lismore identity 1950s. Drove horse and cart around main streets. Owned land Coraki pre WW1.
28Feb49: Ali Deen denied citizenship rights. Born 1924/27 Lismore, son of Mr and Mrs Nazam Deen originally from Pakistan, tried to enlist in the RAAF and RAN Air Wing during WW2 but they didn’t want him. Initially tried to enlist in Sydney but after rejection tried again in Brisbane with a different birthdate, but was again given the bum’s rush. Subsequently served for 4yrs with the US Army Air Corps. After the war he returned to Lismore and tried again to enlist in the Australian services when the RAAF in particular was on a heavy recruiting campaign. The RAAF spokesman said: The applicant did not discharge the onus of proving he was a British subject within the RAAF regulations. Said the RAN spokesman: A candidate for enlistment must be substantially of European descent and the son of native-born or naturalized British subjects. Said Deen: I feel very badly about this. I am an Australian citizen and I strongly resent being denied full citizenship rights. Why should I be turned down when they are crying out for manpower? …….. I understand that an Australian Chinese has been treated in a similar way. It just doesn’t seem right to me. Could be the same bloke who was sprung as a stowaway 1948.
21/24/25Oct49: Big story on death of 34yr old Kischen Singh of Nobby’s Creek. He and brothers ceased work on their banana farm after income tax charge and remained in their house because of evil spirits. Cremated near the General cemetery, Old Lismore Road, and drew a lot of attention. Rites of the Rajput religion. Ashes sent back to father Kham Singh in Punjab. Kischen had been Aust 14 years. Brothers Chanen Singh and Lal Singh aged 30 also Nobbys Creek. Another brother Milkha Singh and a sister Phagbanty still in Punjab. Mother Palie died 24 years ago.
A regular and prominent visitor to Murwillumbah, and probably Mullum and district, during the late 1940s was Professor K. Kirpal Singh, who joined the CSIRO in early 1947 and was appointed to study district food resources.

1Sep50: Aged Mahomedan told he was a ‘naughty old man’ by police magistrate. Buddha Khan of Murbah v. B. Khan of Huonbrook. B. Singh interpreter.
5Sep50: Champion Indian wrestler Joginder Singh holidaying Southport in Sea Haven Guest House owned by compatriot Fasil Deen.  (18Nov50: F. Deen also had Chelmsford Guest House Southport)
5Oct50: Alan Black, 22yr old aboriginal charged with malicious wounding of 2 elderly Indians, J. Miller aged 69 of Terania St Nth Lismore and A. Freda, 70, same address. Miller was a cripple and could only walk with aid of canes.
10Feb51: Aged Indian’s body found. Dead 3 weeks in paddock Borrie Creek Road, Nimbin. ‘Sindy’ = 90yrs old. Been Richmond district 50 yrs. Son in India.
24Oct51: Article on Ramit Alli. (He was probably the culprit responsible for all the election brouhaha in 1910. He was on poor farming land and subsequently gave the game away to become a store keeper in the embryo town of Tyalgum where he remained for many years as a local identity. Ramit was from a village just north of Ralwaipindi and landed via a stint in Bombay in about 1896. He was initially a timber-getter in Mackay before going to Brisbane, buying up bankrupt stock and hawking it around Mullum and Murbah. He then set up a store near John Robb’s mill at Cudgen, which he had to sell in order to take up the selection of the ‘forfeited’ Tyalgum land. Ramat married an English lass, Nellie Amile State, who came from Birmingham in 1913. She died at Tyalgum on xmas eve 1947 aged 70. In 1951 Ramat sold up and did a trip back home.
[But prior to him there was an Indian Hawker named Tragedy Holmes from ‘Whitford & Josefs Store’ in Murwillumbah ….who travelled from farm to farm selling his wares from his covered wagon. Another identity was Salig Ram, who was a scribe for those of his race that lived in the Tyalgum district and were unable to write. (Quotes from History of Tyalgum and District). In 1913Salguam (Hindu)’ was enrolled at Tyalgum, the first and only Hindoo to be enrolled in the Murbah sub division of Richmond until the 1930s.]

15Mar52: RSL says term ‘White Australia’ is offensive but conference SE Qld District reaffirms its belief in restrictive immigration policy.
3Aug52: 50 people witness open air cremation of Milka Singh, age 73. Came Aust 50yrs ago. Hawker around Albury. Started with wheelbarrow and graduated to wagon. Employed by Mr Watt on East Murbah plantation last 16yrs. Returned India 1948 for 2yrs. No rellies Aust. Brother, who predeceased him, was a rich hawker.  – only 2nd cremation ever held Murbah. Hindus came from Bangalow and Nobbys Creek. Sikh minister Pran Singh gave Indian service.
13Nov52: North Coast Methodists urge Fed Govt to introduce Quota for Asian Immigration.
26Jan54: Ghalom Khan of Mullum – fire out of control
8Jul54: Indians for Australia – 100 annual quota
17Nov54:
Ajmer Singh of McLeods Shoot, formerly Nobbys Crk, and Konter Singh of Nobbys Creek. Tommy Parkash of McLeods Shoot
11/17Feb55: Indian High Commissioner guest of Murbah Rotary
24Nov56: Young Indian Farmer visits Tweed banana farms.
9Oct57: Miss Zillah Margaret Singh married Thomas Garbutcheon Singh at Methodist church Coolangatta. Both of Tugun. Allan Singh best man and also gave bride away.
5Nov57: 8 Indian labourers from banana plantations rioted in a shop in the small town of Woolgoolga late today.

23May58: His Excellency Lt Gen Mohammed Yousuf, High Commissioner for Pakistan to open Tweed Banana Festival
12Aug58: Pat Aboud, banana grower of Conchy Creek, was 1957 banana packing champion. He and Myftar Hasan of Dunbible in 1958 competition.4Aug58: Photo of young Noela Aboud with 120lb bunch of bananas.
20Aug58: Ram Chandra, the snake man, at Murbah. Based Mackay.
20Jun58: R. Singh aged 9-11 in Crystal Creek sports day.
2Sep58:
Ajmer Singh aged 28 of Fernvale near Murbah sues neighbour for 157 quid for injuries while chopping down trees. Agree to lend a hand but no contract. Had wife and brother-in-law working with him.
25Nov58 Sarwan Singh aged 25 charged with murder of Naranjan Singh aged 23. Both banana growers of Korora, Coffs harbour.
Kathrina Adele Singh b. Tugun. Parents Tom and Zilah.
21Apr59: Photo of Kildap Singh Daily News.
20Oct59: Obit for Mrs A. Singh died Wardell aged 64. Widower of late George Harman Singh who died 12yrs ago. Eldest dau of late Mr and Mrs Raphael Phole of Glebe Point and Coraki. Survived by sons George Maurice (Alphadale), Leslie Phillip (Tweed Heads), Alleyne Harman (Williamstown), Gordon Keith (Tomewin?), Ronald James (d. 1950). + five daughters.

28Sep84/11Mar85: Article on early Hindoos and Kanakas accompanied by large photos dated 1902.

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Mullumbimby Star:

1901: Nil ‘aliens’ Mullum district on Federation, but 2 ‘Hindoos’ recorded as working on land clearing for the Dannish pioneer, Henrik Nielson, on his Mullumbimby Creek property, ‘Mooyabil’, not far from the Golf Course, in the late 1890s?
17May01: Fred Wareham, farmer St Helena, employs John (possibly aka Gorditto) and Jim Singh on his farm ‘Koreelah’. Followed by Ram and Galab few months later. Goorditta, Baboo, Budjah, Delep Singh (possibly aka Galab Singh), Lalgree, Esir Singh, Boota Singh, Nutta Singh, Dava Singh, Bisham Singh, Glerma Goorditta, Narm Singh, Sunda Singh, Nuthu, Munda, Kaloo Kissen Singh, Jackta, Dood Singh and Pola Singh, all worked there at one time or another in the early years.
National Archives File Gulab/1/17264:
Gulab Singh got reference from Wareham 10May05 on return to India. Had been working for him for 4yrs. Also worked for D. Kennedy Tyagarah. Returned 1909 with Goordita and Ram Singh. From village of ‘Hak Klan, district of Jullundhur, near Nakodar’. Photo and Elector’s Right certificate and other stuff also on file.
Ditto Galahb Singh who came back 1911, whose contact with the Collector of Customs was made through letter writer Wali Mahomet Shar of Karnana, via Banga District, Jullundah. Walli and brother had general store Wyrallah from at least late 1890s.
The 1906 electoral roll for the Byron Polling District lists Beer, Bhuywan, Braham, Bunt, Bulton, Callah, Chur, Dava, Delip, Golab, Hraram, Kahun, Mahar, Mayah, Nutta, Panjab, Pola, Pram, Pun Gam, Ram, Rangoo, Sabar, Satchain, Solram and Utler Singh, Goolan and Shab Mahomed, Nubob Khan, and those simply listed under the single names Bishan, Booya, Godetta, Goordetta, Indur, Jackstar, Juctka, Rullar and Utcheroo. Munshi Lall Singh was the only one listed in the Mullum district and there there were none in the Murbah district.

Mid1905:  Nabob Bash, a Mahometan, sued D. Wood in the Byron Bay court for £5/8/- in wages. The Police Magistrate threw out the case because it was fatal to his jurisdiction after Wood’s lawyer argued that the nearest court was not resorted to for remedy. Presumably the case should have been heard in Mullum. (Could be Nubob Khan listed at Byron Bay in 1903 and 06 and Jiggi in 1913.)
Late1905: Syrian hawker named ‘Hillday’ (probably Najeb Hilway who had been hawking around the area since at least 1890) had a bloke named De Vout before the Mullum court for not paying his bill.

3Feb06: W.R. Baker Mullum Auctioneer. 100 acres Main Arm = £6/acre
3Mar06: Delph Singh v. Kesteven. Lismore Court. Kesteven leased Delph’s house and paddocks Oct1904 with certain leasing arrangements/requirements. Delph reckons he didn’t pay rent and Kesteven the opposite. Verdict for Kesteven. Delph’s lawyer was Mr Holman (better known as a Labour member than as a barrister)…… W.R. Baker witness for Kesteven. Baker and Kesterven on committee to form Mullum Municipality. Holman was Premier NSW 1913-16 (Labour) and 1916-20 (Nationalist)
10Mar07: Dr Kesteven, it is understood, intends naming his residence ‘
Philadelphia’. Students of Greek will interpret the derivation and wherefore of the name. [Lover of the ambiguous Oracle!]
[From the Biographical Register, vol. 1: Kesteven (1851-1924) graduated in medicine from St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London then went to New Zealand where he married and served as govt medical officer. By 1887 he was bankrupt and the following year he was dismissed, but exonerated by a Royal Commission. In 1891 he established a practice in Sydney and by 1893 was bankrupt. Lismore Chronicle 2Feb04 describes him as a former govt medical officer in Queensland and medical superintendent in Brisbane Hospital, and now govt medical officer in NSW. Lived ‘Riverview’, Molesworth St, north of Zadoc St, a very expensive bit of real estate. . Son Dr Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964 described as a ‘medical scientist’. Born Levuka Fiji. Went to NZ via Fiji. Medical officer in Fiji.]
14Mar07: Devar Singh (Hindoo) pleaded guilty to riotous behaviour and fined 10/- or 3 days.
21Mar07: Dr Kesteven has completed the purchase of the property on which he resides known as Delph Singh’s
9May07: An oily Hindoo was fined 55/- for obscene language and riotous behaviour at a temperance meeting at Ballina.
31Jul07: William Baker aged 85 dies Grafton… 8 daughters and 2 sons… WR of Mullum and Albert of Billinudgel but now Atherton… P. Street solicitor and mayor Murbah…
7Aug07: The Hindoo a Born Perjurer. Quoting Mr Jarbo ex Bengal
8Aug07: ‘The Alien Immigration - Keeping the Blood Pure’: Not specifically Hindoo, mainly  the riff-raff of
Europe … It will be impossible to expel the fathers or to check the increase of the children. The races who now inhabit the land will be obscured or ousted by their inferiors, who grow rapidly on a new soil.. .. [A 1904 amendment to the Federal Immigration Restriction Act, preventing the entry of wives and children of ‘coloured persons’ already established, ensured the Hindus remained without families for sometime. Minor concessions were made in the 1920s and 30s when leading merchants were allowed to bring wives and families.]
11Sep07: Election Results
7Nov07: Albert and W.R. Baker get auctioneer licenses.

6Aug08: …ph (Delph?) Singh and Panah fined 40/- for riotous behaviour. Before Dr Kesteven JP.
Article The Hindoo Horror. Very long and signed by ‘Southern Cross’. …
We have in Australia the rabbit pest, the sparrow pest, the noxious weed pest, and the coloured alien pest. … The pest which I would wish to deal with here, and the one which affects Mullumbimby most, is the Hindoo pest. Periodically we have outbursts of indignation against this plague, when its unwelcome presence becomes too apparent, such as at show time; … as a few months will bring the show season round again, a note of warning here might not be remiss….
13Aug08: Regular column by ‘Paspalum’. The Hindoo Horror is settling down on us with a vengeance. Its objectionable element is prospering with the seasons….
3Sep08: White Australia. The ‘Queensland Agricultural Journal’ jobs some home truths down the necks of believers of ‘our coloured brothers’ …The wail might be extended from Wum Lung to Sam Singh, as he is the biggest pest in this part of the country…
Plus letter on Hindoos by ‘Cornstalk’. …I think the question of the Hindoo nuisance should be a test one at the coming council election. Let the character of each candidate be carefully scrutinised, and if any shows a partiality for coloured residents and low class living, strike his name out no matter what other claims he may have….
Albert and William Baker stand for Council
10Sep08: Alien Immigration. Loopholes Alien Immigration Restriction Act.
12Sep08: Albert Baker misses out on Council. Joseph Hollingworth elected mayor over William Baker.
…We trust that the new council will make post haste to cleanse the municipality….
29Oct08: Our Coloured and Smellful Brethern. Peripatetic Pars by Cynicus. Twisted story of the Richmond-Tweed’s Council of Progress Associations campaign against Syrian hawkers. Mr Brian of Lismore objected to the Association’s petition to implement a more efficacious method of granting hawker’s licences to aliens, a subject the combined associations had been pursuing for a couple of years because …the alien hawker seemed to be overruning the land…. and thus depriving the European who was aged or half-crippled from taking up work which might be profitable to them… went about terrorising women who were away from police protection… Brian said ‘How can we send our missionaries there when we treat the Hindoos like dogs here… Cynicus said This is the same old story and same old arguments that are always brought out when anything is said about the dirt and disease the Hindoo carries with him as his stock-in-trade. If we do pay missionaries to teach ‘ the heathen in his blindness’  there is no reason why we should also have to take him with his filth to the bosom of the family. At every Quarter Sessions held on the Northern Rivers the Hindoo is a certainty, charged with crimes that will not bear publication in a newspaper. Canada has seen the danger of this class of population, and British Columbia is now deporting Hindoos to the Honduras. The Transvaal has made so stringent regulations as to registering that many were glad to leave. Thus Australia has every chance of becoming the dumping ground of Black Brother Scum. Even they (sic?) are an older nation that does not give them a monopoly on dirt. Since Britain knew them the Order of the Bath has been obsolete in India, and the smell of them is strong in Australia. (Norman James Mackinnon, proprietor, printer and publisher, spent time South Africa.)
29Oct08: An Indian (sic) Aboo Joseph… commercial traveller… trial Sydney. (Joseph Aboud?)
5Nov08: A. Baker sues W.R. Baker.
17Dec08: Eskar Singh v. George Estrich. Assault. Estrich fined 20/- and 21/- costs. A. Baker charge of abusive language dismissed.

7Jan09: The Black Peril by Cynicus. 11 Hindoos arrested Mullum during an Indian fracas.
14Jan09: Leg-Pull. RR Express. About Star’s article on the ‘Indian Fracas’
18Mar09: W.R. Baker resigns from Council.
13May09: Hindoo offence Woodlark St Lismore.
20May1909: Joa Singh sued Nehal Singh.
1Jul09: White Australia. The advocates of coloured races for filling up the open spaces in
Australia go a long way to laud a good one (he is the exception) to the skies. J. C. McGowan MLA in farewelling a Syrian merchant in Sydney ….praised his personal worth etc. To which the Star added: Labour Leader McGowan may have found a deserving specimen for his high-faluting tripe, but he will find it difficult to cram that down White Australian necks. There are good coloured people and bad white people, but the white, though numerically less, have stood the strain test. The half-and-half nations deteriorate quickest, as they generally have the faults of both colours and none of the virtues. ….. And the Syrian, who is of the piebald breed is what McGowan wants to build up the social and business life of Australia with. Syrians may be seen in other parts of the world living higgeldy-piggeldy, men, woman, and children, in one room, and selling Brummagen jewellery for a living….
8Jul09: Death of Bishop Doyle of Lismore. The Star didn’t run an obituary of its own but repeated the words of the Bulletin. Recently deceased RC Bishop Doyle of Lismore was a strong barracker for a white Australia …and… had the cathedral built by day labour under a Scotchbyterian overseer, who had instructions to ask no man his creed, but to employ nobody who wasn’t white. (That month the Star also reporting on ‘Female Hooligans’ and the actions of the ‘suffergists’.)
15Jul09: …In Europe it is alleged that the brown rat of Asia came and killed off the native black rat, and now the black rodent is an extinct species there. This should be taken as a hint by Australians, and everything Asiatic – whether biped or quadreped – kept out of the country and thus ensure a White
Australia. The voracious Asiatic only needs a foothold to bring about the downfall of a white nation’.
22Jul09: Mackinnon sells paper but continues as publisher until Henry Josiah Holt fully in control ~ lateSep09. (24Mar10 Mackinnon takes over The Noosa Advocate’)
12Aug09: Hindoos and the Land. Much discussion is going on in respect of the question of Hindoos being allowed to compete in the ballot for land…. Tyalgum

23Sep1909: Mr G.S. Briner MLA writes… on land ballots
30Sep1909: ‘Boswell on Lismore’ was lifted from the Bulletin: White
Australia has many dark spots on it at Lismore, the metropolic of the Richmond River cow district. At most of the hotels your food is dished up by a Chinese or Jap cook, assisted by a kitchenman of the same coloured clay. The laundries are named ‘The Tokio’, ‘The Hiroshima’, ‘The Nippon’ etc., and therein amid the suds and steam, you behold white girls toiling for a humble wage under Asiatic bosses. Garibaldi and Demetrius, as usual, control the fish trade; while the traffic in fruit and green groceries mostly flows through Greek or Syrian channels. Our Hindoo brother pursues the fancy goods business with his usual velocity; there are Chow grocers, and a prosperous boot shop is run by two Beloochees. (Afghans.)
The Star left out the last sentence, perhaps not wishing to offend local catholics: With all his predilections for a white
Australia, and incidentally a white diocese, the late Bishop Doyle doesn’t seem to have carried sufficient heavy artillery to stem the tide of Asiatic invasion on the Richmond.
Boswell’s observations were not carried in the Northern Star. That day the Northern Star carried an address by the Governor General under the headline Racial Patriotism: ‘……Therefore, let us take the lesson to heart, and let us Englishmen, while glorifying in our own race, while glorying in our own traditions and customs, be ever ready to extend the hand of cordial fellowship to every race……
7Oct 1909: Hindoo bashed and found unconscious Terania St., North Lismore. (Identified as Pundit in the Northern Star). Plus Gatherings Column: Since 1902 nearly 1000 Hindoos have entered the Commonwealth without being subject to an educational test.
21Oct09: ‘Garnerings’ Column: During the past 14 years the Hindoo residents in and around Tintenbar have transmitted to
India over £30,000 through the post office there.
21Oct09: Menace of Young
India. First of a series of articles lifted from the London Daily Mail on India’s British educated youth getting restless. …It was thought Western Education would …etc… Are we to conclude that our policy of higher education is a blunder, that we have raised a ghost we cannot lay, inspired a Frankenstein monster that must devour us, and that we deserve the ills we have begotten. That at any rate is the opinion of the majority of the men on the spot. ‘The Indians’, say they, ‘have forgotten what we saved them from….’ And now we educate them and they are driving us out. Let us leave tomorrow and what would be the result? India would….
That we should lose India by a revolution is impossible. In organisation, in resources, in unity of purpose, and dogged courage we are superior to any race that inhabits India. We can hold her down…. …… ‘What’ one might exclaim. ‘Two hundred million people’! Yes. Two hundred million people – the majority of whom are ciphers.
The Indian students were achieving exam results on a par with, if not better than, their English classmates but Because of the qualities of his race – courage, determination, resource – qualities the competitive system does not adjudicate on, the Briton makes a good ruler. All races of India do not possess these qualities…
Educated Indians were getting agitated by the irritating attitude of superiority assumed by many Englishmen in their dealings with Indians; the treatment of Indians in South Africa and elsewhere in our colonies; the closer knowledge of English life gained by young Indians in their frequent visits to this country, and the vast gulf the Indian thinks he sees between the principles of Christianity and the practical working of that religion at home and abroad.
There were 700 students in England, half in London, the vast majority of whom return to
India with no love of Britain in their hearts.Homeless and friendless on arrival in Britain, in despair he falls back upon the companionship of a few of his countrymen. And when two or three Indians are gathered together there is nothing to talk about outside their studies but politics….. This is how mischief begins. He supported the Morley Scheme whereby the students should be regularly invited by English families to ‘at home’ evenings on Sundays. Will any public-spirited Englishmen come forward to inaugurate this scheme?  Similar to ‘adopt a New Australion’ scheme in 1950s.
18Nov1909: Gatherings: It is estimated that there are 31,000 Asiatics in
Australia.

13Jan1910: Complaints have been made by Anglo-Indian immigrants as to the methods by which they were induced to come to Australia.
27Jan10: Mahomet Aalam, an Afgan, speaks in Lismore. W.R. Baker elected Chairman of Norco.
17/21Feb10: Baker Bros of White Aust Café and Eggins of rival fruit shop in altercation
17Feb1910: Many Colours.
24Feb10: John Norton, candidate for the Senate spent 2hrs lecturing at the School of Arts. White Australia amongst other stuff.
3Mar1910: Davah Singh v. Nutta Singh
3Mar10: Venour Nathan, liberal candidate for the Reps, harangued a crowd from the balcony of the Commercial Hotel. (Mr Burridge asked of the candidate was he in favour of Hindoos getting land. Mr Nathan would do everything in his power to block it.) All candidates who came to Mullum singled out White Australia as the main campaign policy issue. Nathan ran large ads simply saying Vote for Nathan and White Australia with no other election issues.
10Mar10: Mr Gillies, labour candidate for Reps addressed ‘a fair attendance’ at the Oddfellows Hall. He emphasised his earnestness with respect to the White Australia Policy. ‘Since the passing of the Immigration Restriction Act no less than 999 Hindoos have landed, and he was sure that had the Labour Party been in power nothing like this would have happened. He referred to the fact of there recently being 1579 applicants for land in this district, there being no less than 12 Hindoos allowed as bona fide applicants. He dwelt on this injustice to the sons of farmers, hungry for land, being compelled to compete with the Hindoo for a holding.
17Mar10: Massy Greene addressed a small crowd at the
School of Arts with words of support for White Australia…
17Mar10: N.J. Gillies, (W.N.??) official Labour Party candidate, placed a half page advert, half devoted to White Australia. …..I am a consistent ‘White Australian’, though a cane grower for many years. Neither I, nor any of my people, have ever employed coloured labour of any description – neither before or since the Bounty for white grown cane. Can the whole of the other candidates say this much as far as they are concerned? The Fusion candidate is making a strong point of the White
Australia question. Can he be trusted in view of the fact that there are several avowed black labour advocates in the ranks of the party he represents, and that he is himself the nominee of a hybrid organisation which is on the authority of the Prime Minister “The Wreckage of the Old Freetrade – Black – Labour – Party”……
24Mar10: P. Gardiner, Labour candidate for the Senate, was asked: We have been told here by Wade, Norton, and other mighty minds that it is impossible to pass a law forbidding marriage between Hindoos and other aliens with the white race. What is your opinion? To which Mr Gardiner replied, Not only is it not impossible, but is quite simple and has my warmest support. We can pass any domestic legislation we see fit.

7Apr10: Letter to Editor: ….but still we have in our midst persons who would not discriminate between White Australia and any other colour…..
30288 voters in Richmond electorate. 1260 Mullum sub div, 1359 Byron. Only 622 voted Mullum and Billinudgel. Labour romped home Aust wide and won all Senate seats, but Liberal candidate Massy Greene won easily in Richmond (37% primary). Mullum 48%.
10Mar10: Emily and Nettah Singh have visitors at Mullum home. Married 4mths. Nettah assaulted by Davah Singh. Choohar Singh a witness. Delal Singh also present.
21Apr10: Lall Singh verses Enderah – claim for £10 for horse sale.
21Apr10: Isher Singh court case.
12May1910: Patriotic Australian: The Rev D.A. Evans, an Australian speaking recently in America – “I represent Australia, the land of almost perpetual sunshine, the land of gold and silver, of wheat and wool, of flowers and fruit; the land where four and a half millions of people occupy a territory as large as that of the United States; the land from which coloured races and Asiatics are excluded, …… I represent what may be called God’s own country.
12May10: It is alleged that representatives of 30 Richmond River Hindoos are camped on the Blue Knob (Tweed District) blocks that are shortly to be opened for settlement…
19May10: For the three blocks of land thrown open at Billinudgel there were 103 applications, amongst them being a number of Hindoos, which excited disapproval…,
2Jun10: On Friday evening Mr John Storey MLA for Balmain, addressed a meeting from the balcony of Rodgers Commercial Hotel and received a good hearing…. The mayor introduced Mr Storey…. He was here to show that the Labour Party was not so black as it was painted…… He was sorry the audience was not a bigger one.
2Jun10: Brieflets: We understand that Mr W.R. Baker…. will contest the
Richmond seat at the forthcoming State elections.
Garnerings: In Lismore it seems that a competition is on between the Hindoos and Mohommedans as to which lot can give the most money to the hospital. It is a good kind of competition and should be encouraged.
16Jun10: The RR Times writes: Mr W.R. Baker, of Mullumbimby (Chairman of
Byron Bay Creamery), will oppose Mr Perry as a ‘Liberal’, but not as a follower of the Wade Government.
10Jul10: Letter by Minister for Lands … It will be remembered that some time last year one of the land boards on the Northern Rivers allowed a Hindoo to go to the ballot with some 90 white applicants, the Hindoo, as it happened, drawing the lucky marble…. The Hindoos rights may be summed up in two sentences. He is entitled to acquire a holding under the Crown Lands Act, but he is not entitled to elbow out a better settler. … his habits and standards of living and of morals differ from those of the white population amongst whom he proposes to reside…
14Jul10: Braham Singh remanded for 7 days on a charge of embezzlement as a joint owner. Before the Dane P. Nelson JP.
21Jul10: 8 blocks Tyalgum, Gooninbar and Chillingham. 138 applicants. No Hindoos won
After hearing the evidence of
Nehal Singh and Gooinda (partners of Braham Singh in a grass seed transaction) the Police Magistrate dismissed the charge.

4Aug10: No Liberals turned up for debate ‘Labour v. Liberalism’. Dava Singh v. Isher Singh. Andrew Wishart v. Isher Singh. Isher Singh v. Lall Singh.
18Aug10: Nubby Bus sued Prose Deen. Nubby Bus sued Emily Deen separately.
25Aug10: Mrs Bethel, a wheel in the Labour hierarchy, drums up business. The local branch of the Political Labour League are making an effort to improve on the labour vote at the state elections; Mrs Bethel having been engaged to spend a week in the town and district….. On Saturday evening a large crowd listened to her when she spoke from the Court House Hotel verandah, the mayor presiding…. She had found that women had as much brains as men…. On land reform Mrs
Bethel held that Australians should be satisfied first and then let others come in after that. The speaker instanced the case of the rush for the Boat Harbour ballot when the Land Board had to telegraph for more marbles, there being so many applicants…… The Hindoo was not a desirable settler as he would be of no use for defence purposes.
25Aug10: Land Ballot: 626 applicants for Gooningbar blocks. 95 apps thrown out, including all by Hindoos.
22Sep10: Mr W. N. Gilles addressed a crowd of 300 from the Court House Hotel verandah. He ….. proposed to only touch on a few subjects, and he dealt firstly with the land question from a local aspect. He said that over a year ago a number of blocks of land had been made available for settlement on the
Tweed with the result that the principal block went to a Hindoo applicant. A great protest was made in the process, and at public meetings, and petitions were sent in to the Department objecting to the land going to aliens when so many white Australians wanted it. He took a hand in the agitation and wrote to the press pointing out the Hindoo was just as objectionable as a competitor in a land ballot as he was as a wage earner.
….Only recently 326 applicants applied for some further blocks on the Tweed, and 20 Hindoo applicants were debarred. He (W. Gillies) was proud of the action he took in the matter and the result, which was a victory for the Labour Party.
…..It has been said that the Labour Party had advocated that all should share and share alike. This was one of the bogies laid against them, and he could not see any reason why the Labour Party should be classed as revolutionary socialists.
22Oct10: While labour won the election, the Hon John Perry, aka ‘Honest John’, easily held the seat of Richmond (was Ballina 1894-1901 and became Byron 1913) for the Liberals for his 23rd year. His major campaigner in Mullum was Albert Baker. Electors Mullum 580, Billinudgel 162, Bruns 38, Durrumble 101, Coorabell 62, Crabbes Crk 38, Ewingsdale 63, Byron Bay 402, Bangalow 451.
The election of 1913 saw labour win again State wide but Perry was easily returned by Mullum, but firmly rejected by the Murbah sub division.
1Dec10: Police v. Ibraham and Enderah. Assault of Emily Deen.

19Jan11: Ibraham v. Emily Deen. Witnesses Elizabeth Deen, William Boakh Lilly, Mrs Deen and Prose Deen.
19Jan11: Enderah v. Nubby Bux.
19Jan/2Feb11: Mullum Council Elections. 10 candidates for 6 seats. Albert Baker got lowest vote. Davidson highest. 113 people voted
9Feb11: Ibraham and Enderah v. Emily Deen
9/16 Feb1911: Sunda Bhagat hit by train at Myocum and died. Had been in Aust 12 years and worked at Bingarra and Bundaberg. Had £33 in pocket. Was preparing to return to India. Cremated Lismore. There was a good number of people present at the ceremony. Bones cast into Richmond River just below council sale yards. Teeth sent to India to be cast into Ganges. Larger article Northern Star.
30Mar11: Brieflets: During the hearing of a case in Melbourne it was stated that one of the female witnesses, a young woman, had been sold to a Hindoo when she was only 14 years old, and was married to him subsequently at a registry office in Melbourne. Lately she was sold to another Hindoo by whom she has had 2 children.
25May11:
Australia must take less interest in cricket…
21Sep11: Lal Singh assaulted Joa Singhat an old farm house at Tyagarah where Hindoos camp… One Building occupied by Isher Singh… another by Joa and two males…. Lal Singh’s building…Davah Singh from the other house…. + Boota
28Sep11: 1332 applications for 11 blocks, Whian Whian… 400 rejected. At the conclusion of the ballot the chairman was asked if the Board would assign any reason for rejection of applications of Hindoos…. They would assign no reason beyond stating that they admitted to the ballot those whom they considered…. 47 applications from Mullum distict.
16Nov11: Letter re 1910 election. Hollingworth v. Hindmarsh MLA
11Dec11: Jack Enderah v. Isher Singh.

25Jul12: Of 20 people waiting outside Lismore Police Court one day last week, 14 were Hindoos. These gentlemen evidently are keen in this direction.
8Aug12: Bram Singh sues J. F. Devine.
19Dec12: Junda Singh drunk and disorderly.
13Jan13: Lal Singh’s paddock about 3 or 4 miles from Mullum on road to Bangalow.. George Singh living/working there. (George = aka Yeo?)
22May13: Jundah Singh charged with being of unsound mind and sentenced to The Hospital for the Insane at Gladesville.
29May13: Nutta Singh on 3yd handicap Empire Day Birthday Race + Georgie Ah Yet on 20yds, J. Karkagis on 20yds, ‘Scarabalotti’ on 8yds.
26Jun13: George Cameron, previously foreman printer of Tweed Herald, takes over Mullum Star. (Cameron had worked with fellow Scotsman Mackinnon at Mullum before moving to Murbah. They both arrived Aust after time in South Africa - sometime after W.R. Baker’s service in the Boer War.)
3Jul13: Mullah v. Isher Singh.
24Jul13: Albert Baker forms Liberal Party Branch Bruns.
7Aug13: ‘A long-haired and be-whiskered person held forth on Saturday night in
Burringbar St. There was no interruption in the traffic owing to the crowd.” ??

15Jan14: G. Singh fined for offensive behaviour.
23Apr14: Hindoos in School: … It appears that for some reason or other the School (at Broken Head) was closed some time ago, and no person being in charge the Hindoos are making a boarding house of it….
14May14: ‘Two Hindoo cases were settled out of court, and the estate of the late Allen Cameron obtained a verdict of £13/14/11 and 4/- costs against Lal Singh.’ Cameron was a storekeeper who died in town in late 1913. The estate sued many for outstanding accounts.
21/28May14: Long case. P. J. Roby of Coopers Creek employed The Hindoo Mullah to clear 75 acres at a rate of 9/6 per acre – and sign a contract he couldn’t read. Mullah, with on and off help from a couple of mates, hacked away at it for nearly 6 weeks before he gave the game away and was offered £14/18/8 by Roby.  He then had to sue Roby for the balance he figured he was due, and in the subsequent court case various witnesses, one of whom was the Finn Jacky Back, said the work was worth between 15/- and 23/- per acre. The magistrate awarded Mullah an extra £2/5/-.
21May14: The Police Court was much perturbed at its last hearing. Great difficulty was experienced in understanding, and making understood, a Hindoo (or Sikh, or Pathan, or some other kind of heathen). When the case for the plaintiff was finished at 12.45 everyone’s nerves seemed to have a ragged edge, and when Mr Moriaty, the solicitor for the defendant, wanted to put a witness in the box Mr Furlonger pleaded he was not feeling too well. The P.M. said he did not feel well either, and adjourned the court till after lunch.
…The Hindoo said he would swear on water, and a glass of aqua pura was put before him. He mumbled something (it may have been an oath or it may have been an imprecation) over the water, but the P.M. was not satisfied till the witness had ‘wet his whistle’. The climax was reached however, when another witness asked if he would be allowed to swear on his own Bible. No exception was taken till it was found out that the book in question was in French…… This was the Finn Jacky Back.
13Jun14: Gundoo v. J. C. Law.
18Jun14: ‘A Mad Hindoo’: A most exciting incident took place in Bangalow…… A Hindoo named Esau ran amok, and ….. divested himself of his clothes. He next proceeded to the sawmill where he sat on the boiler, and the smell of grilled Hindoo permeated the air. Being shooed off the boiler he made for the main street and indulged in some stone throwing at all and everyone he saw……No reports have since been furnished as to his powers of sitting down. (The Tweed Daily identified Esau as a black brother from
Bombay.)
16Jul14: ‘Star’ newspaper started Tweed Heads – Stewart St
30Jul14: Goorum Singh (no need to mention nationality) pleaded guilty to being drunk and disorderly at Billinudgel….’
3Sep14: Nutta Singh donates to Red Cross Fund.
1Oct14: Hinda Singh donates.
31Dec14: Cut and paste article titled ‘The Hindu Wife’.

11Feb15: Botta Singh v. George Singh
18Feb15: ‘….a couple of Hindoos were in full lime light’. Boota Singh v. Gundoo Singh. Bujeel Singh and Ram Ditta also kept the court busy for a while.
22Apr15: Boota Singh v. Joa Singh.
20May15: Abdullah Skype of Bangalow… the gentleman in question, who is a storekeeper in Lismore, is not a Hindoo and we are, therefore, pleased to make the correction – May this paper ask what he is? (adds Star)
10Jun15: Isher Singh acquires lease from Harry Atwell but stops making progress payments? Seems Atwell never had a proper contract or proper transfer?
10Jun15: Isher, Indur, Bramah and Lal Singh plead not guilty of behaving in a riotous manner.
22Jul15: One of the horse events at Australia day celebrations was called The Hindoo Hunt.
2Sep15: Argen sued Joa Singh (better known as George) for wages. Dismissed. When a Hindoo case is on at the court it is not a reporter that is wanted, but a bally phonograph… On Tuesday the plaintiff’s solicitor asked for an interpreter, but was refused.
9Sep15: John Schuback/Schubert charged with stealing cattle from Isher (Peter?) Singh at Tyagarah.
30Sep15: Lal Singh sells 4 heifers and contributes proceeds of £12/4/- to Returned Wounded Soldiers Fund.
13Nov15: A tricky article on a fly plague seamlessly flowed on to a discussion of the vice of taxing bookmakers and betting tickets, which flowed on to a discussion of the vice of polygamy (the Mahommedan in the British Empire can load himself up with seven wives, but if a white man….), which led on to a discourse on venereal disease and finally allowed a punchline: It is said that one Hindoo in this district is absolutely ‘rotten’ with it and he is allowed to go into pubs and drink, have food, have his boots repaired, have free intercourse and mix with many who do not know that he is so effected. Some innocent person may drink out of an improperly cleaned glass or cup or be infected from something he touches, and yet he is allowed to run free with the most loathsome and contagious disease in this world…….It is said that”
25Nov1915: The following cases on Lismore Quarter Sessions; Sheera Khan assault and robbery, Belak Singh, assault occasioning actual bodily harm, and an appeal by Ellan Bishar Singh against his conviction for vagrancy. The peaceful citizen is the Hindoo – three cases out of eight before the court. The others weren’t mentioned.
25Nov15: Nutta Singh, one time a well known Hindoo in the district, but is now in India, writes to Mr W. J. Milgate that he is making good use of a stock of Morrissey’s Snake Bite Antidote he took with him. He cured one boy……..
9Dec1915: Isher Singh awarded his cattle back.

20Jan16: Lal Singh and Bramah Singh in court. George (a Hindoo) bore out the statement of Lal, and Boots, Hirnam (Hindoos) and a white, Mulvaney, were witnesses for Bramah.
20Jan16 The Hindoo Character: At a case in the Police Court on Tuesday, the lawyers were careful to explain to the PM that one of the traits in the character of the Hindoo litigant was a habit of exaggerating things and adding to or omitting what really took place to ensure the winning of the case. In the case in question the evidence of the two batches of witnesses was absolutely opposite but no notice was taken of that – it was only a trait in their character. And who helped to make that trait? The Bench by not ordering that some of them should be prosecuted for perjury. The favourite way of the litigants to take an oath is by having a mouthful of water. All that can be said on the matter is that the water was taken at the wrong time; it should be taken after their evidence to wash away any taste of ‘the trait in their character’. The lawyers, we presume, look kindly on the subject as it brings a lot of grist to their mill.
3Feb16: The same old hard swearing was heard again in a Hindoo case at the Court last week, and the same old excuse was made. Mr McIntosh added his testimony to the Hindoo character by saying that the ‘Hindoos do not always stick to the truth when giving evidence’. All who go into court are all agreed on the one thing, that nothing is done. Mr McIntosh also admitted that his fee to appear for defendant was more than the matter in dispute – it’s a good thing for the lawyers at any rate. Then followers a joke on two canny Scottish farmers in the hands of lawyers……. The Hindoo however, sticks to his case and acts the part of the sheep frae Balquidder, and – Good luck to the Beecern. (Gedit?)
The cases, reported separately under the headings The Long Sitting and More Hindoos, involved a dispute over profit sharing from a grass seed transaction. Bramah told a tale of innocence and peacefulness….. The case went on in the usual way with Hindoo cases, what one swore as true there was another to swear the opposite and at the finish was just one big tangle
27Jan16: George Singh sued Boota Singh. Lal Singh witness for George, and Argen and Isher for Boota. The case went on in the usual way with Hindoo cases, what one swore as true there was another to swear the opposite and at the finish was just one big tangle.
17Feb16: Isher Singh proceeded against Charles E. Rowen on a charge of removing furniture from his house in New City Road while indebted to plaintiff the sum of £4/13/- as rent.
16Mar16: Continuation of above case. The PM said the evidence of the defence looked like a trumped-up story but he would give them the benefit of the doubt. Case dismissed.
17Aug16: Nubby Bux dies. Nubby Dux (sic), a Hindoo on the
Tweed, came across a bottle in a hollow log. Bux liked the look of the contents and had a swig. The bottle contained arsenic and caustic soda, so Bux’s day’s work is done. Nubby, an old Hindoo resident, got a more sympathetic obituary in The Tweed Daily. He was working on Mr Pierce’s property at Piggabeen when he came across a whisky bottle and was tempted to take a swig, unaware that it contained a poison concoction mixed by Pierce as a weed killer. (Maybe connected was Fakir Deen, son of Naby Box, who applied for exemption from the dictation test and entry to Aust 1926. Nubby could be Nabob Bash, a Mahometan, who sued D. Wood in the Byron Bay court in mid 1905 for £5/8/- in wages.)

21Jun17: Gunda sued Lal Singh for a few bob. Awarded 7½ quid. The case went through the usual devious ways that Hindoo cases have a habit of doing
28Jun17: The Hindoo was only a working ‘man’ but at the Police Court last week he admitted that he had £226 in the bank. He also said it cost him about 7/- to 9/- to live a week. (Members of the AIF being paid 6/- per day)
5Jul17: Joh Singh fined 10/- and 15/- costs. Lal Singh case held over.
23Aug17: Lal Singh sues George Singh for insulting words.
13Sep17: Play at School Of Arts. The Beggar of Cownpore. About brave British officer escaping savage Hindoos.
1Nov17: Small cottage of Peter the Hindoo, at Tyagrah, partially burnt down.
21Feb18: Isher Singh sues Ernest Woodford for rent owing on a paddock at his Tyagarah farm. +Gundoo sues Thomas Reed for wages.
14Mar18: General comment on Hindoos and Chows swearing oaths. Plus Hindoo assault case Kyogle.
4Apr18: Our correspondent at Murwillumbah wired last night as follows:- The supposed sensation at Uki is only common assault between two Hindoos and is not serious…..?
30May18: Gundoo donates to Red Cross day Appeal.
29Aug18 and 3Oct18: Cross summonses between Lal Singh and J.D. Evans for assault and ‘language’. Lal not fit to attend.

30Jan19: Lal Singh now of Main Arm
3Apr19: George Singh, a Hindoo, residing at Tyagarah, summoned Percy Flick for using threatening words, and James Atkins for insulting words.
11Sep19: The banana industry (at The Pocket) has been thriving for the last few years, but the latest industry is a market garden, a Hindoo having leased a piece of ground for that purpose. A market garden is often very handy to have in the district, but the unfortunate part about this is that he is a Hindoo, which does not appeal to everyone, and rightly so. What with Hindoos, Chinamen and black fellows, the coloured race is gaining ground year by year, and it is going to be a problem for the white race to solve sooner or later – and I think the sooner the better. …… The Railway Commissioners passed through Billinudgel last Wednesday and the only people at the station to meet them were four Chinamen. I suppose they were there to wait on the Commissioners with a deputation of some kind – probably to get reduced freights so as to enable them to start a store at Billinudgel, “What Oh”.

27June1920: Editor George Cameron dies. Sometime prior to George’s death the paper was in the management hands of William Baker, the son of W.R. of the real estate game and Norco fame, who toned down the reporting to the extent that there were only a couple of Hindoo references over his two year reign. Nor did Baker seem to have much sympathy for the banana growers hiding behind the White Australia policy, but he may have been under the influence of his father who was making a quid selling land to the Chinese growers.

11Mar21: Article ‘Unlawful Assault’: Resenting an alleged insult from a Hindoo on 17 March, Vincent Joseph McGrath set out to inflict what he considered to be due punishment in Burringbar Street. Another Hindoo incurred his displeasure for the same reason, and so effective was his method of dealing with the alleged offenders that he was asked to appear before Mr T.H. Cohen PM at the local police court on 24th instant on two charges of unlawful assault against Davy Deitter and Gawilah Singh. The PM found the complaints reasonable and inflicted fines totalling £4, professional costs of £4/4/-, 18s costs to court and 24s witnesses expenses.
15Dec21: Article titled A Lismore Sensation – Human Remains Discovered’: Discoveries which promise to lead to the unravelling of a sensational tragedy…… Remains believed to be those of a Hindoo, Roor Singh, who mysteriously disappeared last June……. Roor Singh, a well known figure in the district…last seen…… vicinity of Hanging Rock, Nimbin…... Many Hindoos near Hanging Rock were interrogated and eventually suspicion fell on two persons.

2Mar22: Article ‘Sensational Assault’: Mullumbimby has had a surfeit of sensations within the last two or three weeks. Some of the local youths, no doubt obsessed with accounts of highway robberies, burglaries, etc., decided apparently to do a little bushranging on their own account, and from particulars that can be gathered, went into details. On Saturday last three young men, it is alleged, got into conversation with a middle aged Hindoo, Nudhi Khan, who obliged them with a cigarette each. On leaving town at night for his camp at Morrish’s old sawmill, one of the men asked him in which direction he was going, and on ascertaining it, said he intended going that way himself; so they set out together.
When near Mr Rollo’s residence, a mile and a half from town, they were overtaken by the other two, who grabbed him, unwound his turban from his head, and used it to bind his arms at the back and tie his legs together. At the same time his mouth was securely gagged.
Khan said he was punched and kicked about the head and body. He was robbed of rings and valuables to the extent of £60. The young men then decamped, but before doing so placed Khan still bound and gagged on the road.
The Hindoo got free from his bonds and returned to Mullumbimby and reported the occurrence.
No arrests have so far been made.
8May24: Michael Coughlan charge of assault on Muddhi Ram.

3Feb37: Tommy Kirram Singh dangerous driving charge.
5Feb1937: Jenal Singh, aka Tommy Jenal Singh, age 19, of Montecollum. Father mentioned + Basunta Singh of Rous Mill.
5Mar37: Baghwan Singh of Coorabel Creek fined for planting bananas without permission.
5Mar37: Lal Singh of Main Arm took Edwin and Raymond Neely to court to recover loan of £16.
1Oct40: Lal Singh, farmer of Round Mountain Murbah, cannot read or write. Ripped off by employee William Watts who filled out cheque for his signature. Case heard Murbah 17Oct40.
10Dec1940: Atta Singh, bantam weight boxer Lismore.
26Aug41: Big story on theft from Lal Singh’s property Main Arm. House rented while Lal at Round Mountain, Murbah.
16Sep46: Tweed Daily. Big bushfire takes half of Lal Singh’s property Round Mountain.

30Mar1951: Braham Singh, banana grower 5miles from Bangalow shot by intruder. 63yrs old.
13Jul51: Lal Singh was probably the first ‘alien’ into the Palmwoods area.
14Aug51 and 28Aug51: Tommy Nutta Singh six room farmhouse McLeods Shoot plus contents destroyed by fire. Plus £150 stolen. Son Thomas Byron Nutta Singh. Arson by 72yr old Ashley Hawthorne ‘to get quits with Nutta Singh’. Son Tommy had arranged with Hawthorne to live in house if he did some handyman work. Hawthorne was asked to leave after he called son a ‘black fella’.
12Oct51: 80yr old Braham Singh of Ewingsdale charged with creating a public nuisance. Shot himself accidentally – suffering a persecution complex – always thought people were after him.
22Jul52: Aged Hindoo James Braham Singh 73, well known identity found dead in hut Byron Bay. Previously of McLeod’s Shoot. Cut his own throat. Been in district more than 40yrs
24Apr53: Jack Dhnaram of Montecollum fined. No motor cycle licence.
24Nov53: Vishnu Deo Singh, native of Ceylon, scholar Fiji, prohibited immigrant (Because he failed dictation test in Estonian).

15Jan54: Gahalom Khan of Huonbrook fire out of control. Long term resident of Huonbrook. H. Khan at Huonbrook at least 1930.
18may54: Indian wedding in Methodist Church. Ject Singh, son of Mr and Mrs J Singh of Caniaba married Gertrude Esau of Goonengerry.
17Sep54: Manga Singh of Bangalow. Truck smash
26Nov54: Jack Culen Dhnaram, ‘a Hindoo’, accused of stealing bananas
24 Dec54: Dhuaram + mate charged taking bananas from abandoned patch of Italian Vince Mialo of Blindmouth
17Jan56 and 23Jul 57: Manga Singh of Bangalow
6Mar56 and 5Mar 57?: Sylvia Singh prefect Mullum High
21Jun57: Satnam Singh banana grower of Montecollum + Ajema Singh + Gurman Singh
26Feb60: E. Singh in High School Juniors cricket team with H. Alidenes and C. Bongiorno
31May60: Satman Singh naturalized
30Sep60: Mrs Bikar Singh returns with son Gregory to Brunswick Heads after 2yrs India.
17Jan61: Rattan Singh of Dunbible fined.

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Miscellaneous References:

History of Tyalgum and District, published 1981 by Editors and Compilers: Barry Lofts, Geoff Peterkin, and Norman Smith.
Features Tragedy Holmes (pg 23), Ramat Alli (pgs 24 and 39) and Salig Ram (pg 70)

Time & Tide – A History of Byron Bay by Maurice Ryan, published 1984 by Northern Star Ltd,
Lists
John (possibly aka Gorditto) and James Singh, Ram Singh, Galab Singh, Goorditta, Baboo, Budjah, Delep Singh (possibly aka Galab Singh), Lalgree, Esir Singh, Boota Singh, Nutta Singh, Dava Singh, Bisham Singh, Glerma Goorditta, Narm Singh, Sunda Singh, Nuthu, Munda, Kaloo Kissen Singh, Jackta, Dood Singh and Pola Singh, as working at Wareham’s farm ‘Koreelah’ at one time or another in the early years.

PO Directory: E & N Singh, Indian herbalists Casino 1912.

Pioneers of the Brunswick – Andersons: Gunyah Singh arrived in the early 1920s leaving a wife and family in the Punjab. He was a market gardener on land rented from the Anderson’s property behind Uncle Tom’s. Lived in a galvanised iron shed with dirt floor and had a small patch for growing vegies which he hawked with horse and cart. Visited by son Curram Singh at some stage but he allegedly returned to India. Gunyah also allegedly returned to India where he died. Mrs Anderson was nee Tandy. Two orphaned cousins, William John and Arthur Elton Tandy, were raised on the farm and probably connected to Frank Tandy, the WW2 bane of the Greek and Italian banana growers, who lived Anderson’s Hill.

Italian History Lismore: Atta Singh owned the house at 19Bridge St North Lismore which became Venezzia House in 1926 when bought by the Italians for a boarding house.

Mullum Cemetery:

Mehendor Esau, b. 1930 Belga, India, d. 1974 Mullum
Gulam Khan d. 6Aug60 (Ghulam, son of Munchee, bought ~30 acres at Huonbrook ~1941 along with brother Bob. He looked after Bob's property while Bob served WW2. Ghulam married Ina Bell, the school teacher at Huonbrook, in 1944.)

Delph Singh

Had a farm at Mullumbimby Creek and was also the original selector of two thirds of the land in town opposite the swimming pool, bounded by Saltwater Creek and Acacia, Myocum and Dalley Streets. Recorded as an ‘Indian Doctor’ and seems to have been a man of means, with a practice in Sydney amongst other business interests. Daughter Ruby, born in Grafton in 1900, probably has the distinction of being the first (official) Northern Rivers born child of Indian parentage. His daughter Pearl, born in Mullum in 1902, takes third place after Dayal Singh Junior’s birth in Lismore in 1901.
Delph and his wife Edith arrived in Mullum in 1901, leaving his Sydney interests in the hands of his private secretary, Basil Simonsen. But it seems he divided his time between regular commuting back to Sydney, practicing his witchcraft in Mullum and breeding horses at Mullum Creek. Sometime in these first few years he also acquired a cattle property 15 miles out of Murbah on Bilamble Creek and a farm somewhere along the Richmond River.
In late 1904 he leased his house and paddocks in Mullum to Dr Kesteven and relocated to Byron Bay. It’s remotely possible he was in practice with Kesteven but there was a huge ‘Hindoo’ presence in the district at this time and no doubt his countrymen made up the bulk of his patients. He later had a falling out with Kesteven over rent.
Delph left the Bay in early 1905 and relocated his Northern Rivers base to Murbah, but once again went walkabout sometime after the birth of his daughter Dorothy, eventually setting up a practice in Cooma where the locals gave him a hard time over the legitimacy of his medical qualifications despite his proof of credentials. He returned to Murbah in early 1906 but a few months later went south again, this time to the Bega District. In all this wandering his farms at Mullum and Murbah were in the hands of managers Willie Young and a bloke called Turner respectively. Willie Young could be the Chinese doctor based at Byron Bay. The Richmond River farm was leased to Mr. J. Jaggers of Bega in early 1907, but its management circumstances in the meantime are uncertain.
In 1911 he is identified with a practice at 110 George St, Sydney.
In early 1907 there seems to have been some pressure put on him, in absentia, to sell out of the Mullum town blocks, or at least the one with the house, to Dr Kesteven, who allegedly named the place ‘Philadelphia’. The fate of his farms is a mystery.
By 1906 Delph was scrubbed from the Richmond electoral roll, but he was back in town in late 1908 when he was up on a charge of ‘riotous behaviour’ before none other than Dr Kesteven JP, who wasn’t about to stand aside over any perceived bias and forgo the pleasure of fining him 40/- plus costs.

National Archives: Docs for many Singhs/Khans/....

Gulahb Singh, Goodetto and Ram Singh references from Wareham and Kennedy of Tyagarah.
Gulahb 8yrs Aust worked for Wareham for 4yrs and for Kennedy 2yrs. Returned Punjab Jun1905. Photo and Voting form.
Letter writer Wali Mahomed Shar of Karuana Via Banga District, Jullundhar. Seeking permission for three to come back Aust Sep1911 (earlier Wyrallah)
Yarra Singh of Bellingen, b. 1880 Ulunda district, Punjab. 8yrs Aust and 6yrs Clarence district wef Jan06
Boota Singh not allowed to vote Qld 1909. D.H. Romanic, General Secretary of the Australian Cingalese and British India Reform Assoc, Dallarnil, via Degilbo, Qld. Wide bay district.
Tedoris Sarmiul Williams b. 1899 Boyd’s Bay, Tweed Heads. Father Crea Singh, aka James Williams. Enlisted WW1 and served France.
Abadan Khan worked Richmond and Tweed 1897-1902/04 until returning India. Wished to come back 1910 and letter written by Wali Mahomed Shar of Karuana Via Banga District, Jullundhar. Worked for Duffy at Bilamble, Tweed, and O’keefe, Duranbah, Tumbulgum.
Bernard Kahn, b. 1878 Tauroggen, Kovno, Russia, landed from South Africa 1907 and became a storekeeper, Chatesworth Island, Clarence River.

1901 Census Lismore and Surrounds

Location

Householder

House No

Total Residents

Remarks

Fisch 1081

 

 

 

 

Magellan Lane

D. Singh

178

2m, 2f

 

Woodlark St

A. Khan

265

1m

 

Bridge St

Ah Joe

130

1m

Chinese

Barrows Lane

Bing Yee

175

1m

 

Terrania St

Foon Young

178

2m, 2f

 

On Lee

179

1m

 

D. Hogan

219

3m, 4f

Syrian

Hab Bolos

220

3m, 2f

Syrian

Martin Kolnosky

187

3m

Syrian

Pine St

Joseph Bracks

188

1m, 1f

Syrian

Dibb St

Ah See Tirunny

268

1m

 

Peh Hung

273

1m

 

Sam Mi Yunn

274

1m

 

Cemetery Hill

Aboriginal Camp

332

2m, 9f

 

333

3m, 2f

 

334

4m, 1f

 

Gundurimba Rd

Ah See

336

1m

 

Ostrium St

Ah Hy

337

1m

 

Fisch 1082

 

 

 

 

South Gundurimba

Calico Singh

103

3males

 

Chour Singh

107

2m

 

Wyrallah

Atta Mahomet Shar

7

11m

 

East Gundurimba

Button Singh

28

1m

 

Kapoor Singh

32

2m

Hindoo Camp

Wyrallah

Amir Khan

55

6m

 

East Gundurimba

Hsham Khan

70

11m

 

Majub Khan

71

2m

 

George Boota

72

1m

 

Beaw Tree Ridge

Hindoos Camp

85

0

Now uninhabited. Camp removed before census night

Rous Mill

Ram Singh

98

2m

 

George E. Croften

157

3m, 3f

Includes 1 aborigine

Meersham Vale

Sundah Singh

253

2m

 

Tuckombil District

 

 

 

Total 4m Chinese, 4m and 5f Aborigines

Lumleys Flat

Tha Ah Scong

1

1m

 

Pimlico

Timmy Ah war

48

1m

 

Harry Ah Sang

49

2m

 

Rouse

Indians

216

5m

 

Alstonville

Indians

217

1m

 

Indians

218

2m

 

Indians

219

2m

 

Indians

220

1m

 

Indians

221

2m

 

Tucki

Ruu Singh

72

2m

 

Hebeu

102

4m

 

Mahunghroon

114

4m, 1f

 

Phalby Rhan

117

4m, 4f

 

Bayal Singh

118

2m, 1f

 

Bodilla Khan

119

11m

 

Sutton Rham

120

3m

 

Roder

143

2m

 

Broadwater

Geo Ah Sing

89

1m

 

Rileys Hill

Chas Ah Ching

188

1m

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Singh Births/Deaths/Marriages

76 Singh deaths NSW 1889-1918. 14 Richmond District.
224 Singh deaths NSW 1919-1945. 40 Richmond District.
86 Khan births NSW 1889-1918. Nil Lismore and district
74 Khan Deaths NSW 1889-1918. 8 Richmond District
50 Khan Marriages NSW 1889-1918. Nil Richmond
143 Khan Deaths NSW 1919-45. 31 Richmond
60 Khan Marriages 1919-45. 9 Richmond

William Reilly Death Records:

Singh
Ratan aged 26, Sheroo 75, Goodh, Pugwan 70, Divan 69, Ravi 68, Gladys Cecelia Atta 18, Huditz 60, Joan Fay Atta 4mths, Brahm 86, Labh 85, Duleep 80, Esau 60, Shear 70, Diyal 73, Jowar 68, Teija 85
Kahn
Munshee 68, Kecber 70, Nepi 70, Nabab 71, Junja 65, Gommon 76, Mea 70, Nutto 70, Foija 70, Antallah 80, Ramma 65, Geba 82, Samuel 34, Shajourall 81
Galana Rasool 70, Budda Deen 84, Khair Deen 80, Karen Deen 70, Gundo Gundro 70

Lismore District:

Sham Singh d. 1897. Father Moore Jut
Khushel Singh d. 1898. Son of Sahib and Zindan
Punjab Singh d. 1898.
Nana Singh d. 1898. Son of Luggy and Rupal
Nahal Singh d. 1903. Age 50
Rham Singh d. 1904. Son of Johar and Neranie
Haram Singh d. 1912. Age 30
Hajarah Singh d. 1917 Age 60. Son of Indur
Shai Singh d. 1919 Age 45. Son of Harrie.
Khalsal Singh d. 1921. Son of Nur and Nundoo.
Esau Singh d. 1921.  Son of Sham
Dava Singh d. 1923. Son of Kurah and Turoo
Dwan Singh d. 1936 Age 69.
Gladys Cecilia Atta Singh d. 1936. Dau of Atta and Bridget Elizabeth.
Ratan Singh d. 1936. Son of Harnan and Mahon
Ram Singh d.1937 Son of Chatra and Narnam
Sheros Singh d. 1937 Son of Nayhalla
Gordat Singh d. 1938. Son of Juai
Pugwan Singh d. 1938 Son of Jodar and Mana
Herdat Singh d. 1939 Son of Jeva
Joan Fay Atta Singh d. 1942  Dau of Harold Henry Atta and Ruth Alice.
Duleep Singh d. 1943 Son of Jober and Premay
Boogan Singh d. 1943 Age 86.
Labal Singh d. 1943. Son of Jamat and Kano
Sheer Singh d. 1944. Age 70
Tedja Singh d. 1945 Age 85. Fruit Carter

Harnam Singh m. Ellen Wilson 1917 Lismore.
Dayal Singh m. Ethel A. Vidler 1924
Diyal Singh m. Dorothy P. Tory 1929
Harnam Singh m. Annie Chandica 1931
Rally Atta Singh m. John R.A. Morschel 1934
Harold Henry Atta Singh m. Ruth Alice White 1942
Agnes Elizabeth Atta Singh m. Fredrik Alfred White 1945

Dayal Singh b. 1901 Lismore. Son of Dayal and Partapoo

Unknown Khan d. 1896 Lismore
Freadzdene Khan d. 1902 Lismore. Father Kasa
Mamoon Nutta Khan d. 1912 Lismore aged 25. Father Nutta.
Nawob Khan d. 1916 Lismore aged 50.
Mudgee Khan d. 1919 Lismore son of Brham Khan and Bagum Noor.
Indian Nabob Khan d. 1925 aged 68 son of Jaffer K. and Yerobe/Yaxohee.
Afghan Wazzer Khan d. 1932 aged 60 Gundurimba.
Afghan Mardu Khan d. 1937 aged 60 Gundurimba.
Goss Khan d. 1937. Mother Bono
Negi Khan d. 1937. Mother Bono
Keiber Khan d. 1937 aged 70
Junga Khan d. 1941 son of Critun and Homberbee
Nabob Khan d. 1941 aged 71
Rameth Khan d. 1942 son of Sundiel and Pharee
Gulam/Gumma Khan d. 1943. Father Rudu.
Munshee Khan d. 1943 son of Mundho and Babee
Folga/Foiga Khan d. 1944 aged 69
Nutha/Nutto Khan d. 1944 aged 70
Samuel Edward Khan d. 1944 son of Cammis and Lena
Shajowall Khan d. 1945 son of Zabdah
Mary Kahn d. 1908 dau of John and Ellen

Afghnan Ram Chand d. 1932 aged 56
Afghnan Gunga Ram d. 1933 aged 50

Violet Khan m. Nazam Deen 1927
Junga Khan m. Florence K. Tally 1929
Ethel May Khan m. Abdul Islam 1943

Ballina District:

Herman Singh d. 1899. Son of Sachet and Bholi
Putta Singh d. 1899. Son of Ackhar
Imona Singh d. 1916. Age 60. Father Monna.
Chunda Singh d. 1926. Age 61
Summer Singh d. 1926. Age 66.
Foram Singh d. 1932. Son of Hira and Rag Lar
Chinese Maya Singh d. 1935. Age 70
Mutta Singh d. 1939 Still born. Parents Thomas and Enie.
Kishen Singh d. 1936 Age 75 Mother Terania (?)
Bella Singh d. 1944. Parents Sabir and Grabda.

George B. Singh m. Kate Singh 1918

 

Byron Bay District

Bagit Singh d. 1926. Son of Narain and Kush Sali

Thomas Nutta Singh m. Enie Nundah 1929.

Darby Khan m. Grace Christina Arbie 1941
Chulam Heather Khan m. Ima Alison Bell 1944.

 

Casino District

Esur Singh d. 1919. Son of Gordat and Daa Kar
Neha Singh d. 1928. Age 60

Marcia Singh m. Graham Nobbie Mahomed 1942

Afghan Wazzer Khan d. 1930

Sarah May Khan d. 1937 dau of Lubbo and Jane Malinda

Bebenora Khan d. 1939 son of Junga and Florence
John Mea Khan d. 1943 son of Nutu
Gebe Khan d. 1944 son of Umra and Piree
Antallah d. 1941 son of Sapalla

Vera Khan m. Jallalderis Mallick 1926
Frazel M. Khan m. Sarah M. Talley 1932
Violet May Khan m. Kamal Deen 1945.
Florence Kahn m. Harry Wilson 1934

Grafton District

Doolah Khan d. 1905 Grafton Mother Bue.
Jemah Singh d. 1924. Son of Bundah

Ruby G. Singh b. 1900. Dau of Delph and Edith.

Irene Kahn b. 1913 Maclean dau of Bernard and Fanny.
Lena Kahn d. 1936 Maclean dau of Edward and Elizabeth.

Janet Kahn m. Edward J. Benson 1943 Grafton

 

 

Murbah District:

Jamel Singh d. 1904. Son of Mungal
Hanarm Singh d. 1905. Age 40
Harnan Singh d. 1909. Age 40
Katie Singh d. 1930. Dau of Raphael and Lizzie.
Gunda Singh d. 1933. Son of Sunda and Nerarni.
Beer Singh d. 1935. Age 50 at Condong. Mother Raddi.
Thacker Singh d. 1935. Age 70.

Atta Singh m. Alice Balfe 1911
Garbutcheon Singh m. Katie Pholie 1928.
Gunda Singh m. Josephine Lomba 1932

Pearl Singh b. 1902 . Dau of Delph and Edith
Dorothy Singh b. 1905 Dau of James D. and Edith
Ralli Atta Singh b. 1915. Son of Atta and Elizabeth

Sondil Khan d. 1912 Murbah son of Maulivi Rahmet and Marlan
Rhmat Khan d. 1915 son of Hakm Khan and Parri
Afghan Budda Khan d. 1932 aged 41 son of Satu.

Janet F. Khan m. Alexander Philip 1927

Murbah Cemetery:

‘Unknown Hindoo’ d. 1913
Rhmat Khan d. aged 56 16Apr1915
Budda Khan d. aged 41 2Apr1932
Mahomet Kalifa d. aged 62 17Jun1932
Nellie Khan d. 24Dec47 aged 70

Bahad Rali died aged 35 27Jul1915
Ramsook died aged 47 21Apr1923

Harnan Singh died aged 40 18Aug1909
Pertab Singh
d. aged 40 4Jan1911
Pumul Sing died aged 40 11Feb1922
Katie Singh d. 13Feb30 aged 24
Beer Singh died aged 50 4 Jan1935
Thomas Garbutcheon Singh d. 3Nov45 aged 62
Milka Singh died aged 73 30Jul1952
Thacker Singh U/K

 

Kyogle

Dhni Ram d. 1939 age 66

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Commonwealth Electoral Roll Richmond Electorate

1903 Mullumbimby

Singh, Delph, Mullum, Indian Doctor.

1906 Mullumbimby:

Singh, Munshi Lall, Mullum, hawker

1908 Mullumbimby:

Buddadean, -------, Mullum, labourer
Roodah, -------, Mullum, labourer
Singh, Choohar, Mullum, gardener
Singh, Dalep, Mullum Creek, labourer
Singh, Munshi Lall, Mullum, Hawker
Singh, Nehal, Mullum Crk, labourer
Singh, Nutta, Mullum Crk, labourer
Singh, Pall, Mullum Crk, labourer
Singh, Uttcher, Mullum Crk, labourer

1909 Mullumbimby

Roodah, ------ Mullum Crk, labourer
Singh, Choohar, Mullum, gardener
Singh, Dana, Mullum, labourer
Singh, Nutta, Mullum Crk, labourer

1913 Mullumbimby

Singh, Dava, Mullumbimby, labourer
Singh, Maharl, Myocum, labourer
Singh, Nuttah, Mullum Crk, labourer

1915 Mullumbimby

Singh, Nuttah, Mullum Crk, labourer

1921 Mullumbimby

nil Hindoos

1925 Mullum

nil Singh

1928 Mullum

Singh, Atta, Mullum, labourer
Singh, Bridget Elizabeth, Mullum
(Atta Singh married Alice Balfe 1911 Murbah? Ralli Singh b. 1915 Murbah dau of Atta and Elizabeth?)

1947 Mullumbimby:

Abdullah, Thomas Keith, Palmwoods, labourer
Khan, Akha, Main Arm, labourer
Kahn, Galon, Huonbrook, bananagrower
Kahn, Ina Alison, Huonbrook, school teacher

1949 Mullumbimby:

Abdullah, Thomas Keith, Palmwoods, labourer
Caltira, Esau, Goonengerry, HD (+Esau, Mehendor, Goonengerry, sawmill hand 1955?)
Deen, Allahdee Kutub, The Pocket, HD (ditto 1955)
Deen, Harold Kutub, The Pocket, share farmer (ditto 1955)
Khan, Galom, Huonbrook, banana grower
Khan, Ida Mildred, Huonbrook, HD
Khan, Ina Alison, Huonbrook, school teacher
Khan, Robert Henry, Huonbrook, banana grower (all ditto 1955)
(+Kisham, Ramy, Blindmouth, banana grower 1955)
Rallah, Rampatup, Goonengerry, banana grower
(+Sahzell, Ramkisten, Main Arm, labourer 1954)
Singh, Enie Nutta,
Wilsons Creek, HD (nil 1955)
(+Singh, Bikar, Brunswick Tce., Mullum, banana grower 1955)
(+Singh, Mindo, Bruns Tce., HD 1955)

1960 Mullumbimby:

Chand, Joginder, Main Arm, banana grower
Deen, Allahdee Kutub, The Pocket, Billinudgel, HD
Deen, Harold Kutub, The Pocket, Billi, share farmer
Esau, Caltira, Goonengerry, HD
Esau, Mehendor, Goonengerry, sawmill hand
Khan, Ida Mildred, Mullumbimby Creek, HD
Khan, Ina Allison, Huonbrook, school teacher
Khan, Robert Henry, Mullumbimby Creek, farmer
Singh, Bika, 12 Brunswick Terrace, banana grower
Singh, Harbans, Montecollum, HD
Singh, Satman, Montecollum, banana grower

1947 Ballina:

Basanta Singh, Rouse Hill, banana grower
Boota Singh, Teven, gardener
Harman Singh, Teven, labourer
Jamita Singh, Alstonville, labourer
Lorna Elizabeth Singh, Lismore Rd, Home Duties
Patapa Singh, Teven, banana grower

1949 Ballina:

Alma Elizabeth Aboody-Zahloot, 12 Norton St, HD (7 River St 1950)
Arthur Aboody-Zahloot, ditto, hawker (7 River St 1950)

George Mavrice Chandica, Rouse Mill, banana grower
Leslie Phillip Chandica, ditto, banana grower
Miriam, ditto, HD

Jamita Singh, Alstonville, labourer (ditto 1950)
Lorna Elizabeth Singh, Lismore Rd, HD (ditto 1950)

1950 Ballina:

Sadhu Singh, Teven, banana grower (+Pram Singh 1951)
(+ Sheroo, Meersham Vale 1951)
(+ Ramkisten Sahzell, Teven, market gardener 1951)

1950 Nimbin:

Ramm, Milky, Nimbin, landowner

1949 Gundurimba:

Mansour Joseph Aboud, Caniaba, farmer (ditto 1950)
Mary Francis Aboud, Caniaba, HD (ditto 1950)

Abdul Azz, Caniaba, gardener (ditto 1950)
Elizabeth Khan, South Gundurimba, HD (ditto 1950)
Shar Sowar Khan, Rock Valley Rd Tuncester, gardener (ditto 1950)
Mohammed-Hussam, Caniaba, market gardener

Indur Singh, Tregeagle, banana grower (ditto 1950)
Manga Singh, Tregeagle, banana grower (ditto 1950)
Rattan Singh, Linendale, market gardener (ditto 1950)

1903 Byron Bay:

Bhuywan Singh,-------,B B, Labourer
Booya, ----------, BB, lab
Braham Singh, -------, BB, lab
Bunt Singh, --------- ditto
Bulton Singh, -------- ditto
Chur Singh, ------- ditto
Delip Singh, -------- ditto
Esser Singh, --------ditto
Golab Singh, -------ditto
Goolan Mahomed, -------- ditto
Goordetta, --------- ditto
Hera, ------- ditto
Indur, -------ditto
Jackstar, -------ditto
Kahun Singh, ----------ditto
Mahar Singh, --------ditto
Mardo, --------ditto
Mayah Singh, -------ditto
Nubob Khan, ------ditto
Panjab Singh, --------ditto
Ram Singh, ----------ditto
Rullar, -------ditto
Sabar Singh, --------ditto
Satchain Singh, ------ditto
Shab Mahomed, --------ditto
Utcheroo,----------ditto
Utler Singh,-------ditto

1906 Byron Bay

Beer Singh,------ Byron Bay, labourer
Bhuywan Singh,-----, Byron Bay, lab
Bishan, -----, St Helena, labourer
Booya, ----------, BB, lab
Braham Singh, -------, BB, lab
Bunt Singh, --------- ditto
Bulton Singh, -------- ditto
Callah Singh,------- ditto
Chur Singh, ------- ditto
Dava Singh, ------St Helena, labourer
Delip Singh, -------- ,BB, lab
Golab Singh, -------ditto
Goolan Mahomed, -------- ditto
Godetta,-------, St Helena, labourer
Goordetta, --------- ,BB, lab
Hraram Singh, --------ditto
Indur, -------ditto
Jackstar, -------ditto
Juctka, ------, St Helena, labourer
Kahun Singh, ----------, BB, lab
Mahar Singh, --------ditto
Mayah Singh, -------ditto
Nubob Khan, ------ditto
Nutta Singh, St Helena, lab
Panjab Singh, --------, BB, lab
Pola Singh, -------- ditto
Pram Singh, --------ditto
Pun Gam Singh, --------ditto
Ram Singh, ----------ditto
Rangoo Singh, -----ditto
Rullar, -------ditto
Sabar Singh, --------ditto
Satchain Singh, ------ditto
Shab Mahomed, --------ditto
Solram Singh, -------- ditto
Utcheroo,----------ditto
Utler Singh,-------ditto

1908 Byron Bay

Booya,--------BB, labourer
Dava Singh, ----, St Helena, labourer
Delip Singh, -------BB, Lab
Godetta, ------, St Helena, lab
Nuttah Singh, -------, ditto
Pun Gam Singh, ---------BB, lab

1909 Byron Bay

Delip Singh, -----,Byron Bay, labourer

1913 Byron Bay

nil Singh

1915 Byron Bay

not checked

1921 Byron Bay

nil Hindoos

1925 Byron Bay

nil Singh

1928 Byron

Nil Singh

1947 Byron Bay:

Khalil Najjar or Nicholas George Khalil-Najjar (?), Jonson St, storekeeper
Gabriel Najor, Bangalow, storekeeper
Nutta Singh, Coopers Shoot, gardener

1949 Byron Bay:

Natha Singh, Coopers Shoot, gardener

1950 Byron Bay:

Charles Najor, Jonson St, storekeeper
Gabriel Najor, Bangalow, storekeeper
Thomas Nutta-Singh, Coopers Shoot, gardener (ditto 1960)
Natha Singh, Coopers Shoot, gardener (Teven 1960)
(+Manga and Pira, McLeods Shoot, and Seva at Possum Creek 1960)

1972 Byron Bay:

Singh, Manga, McLeods Shoot, banana grower
Singh, Natha, Teven, vegetable grower
Singh, Pira, McLeods Shoot, banana grower
Singh, Sera, Opossum Creek, farmer

1947 Bonalbo:

Florence Khan, Bonalbo, HD
Junga Khan, Bonalbo, settler
Margrie Lillian Chung-Lun, c/- Crethar’s Café, Woodenbong

1947 Casino:

Lilly Aboud, 70 Convent St, shop assistant
Nazar Aboud, ditto, HD
Rose Aboud, ditto, dressmaker

Alexander Abdullah, Centre St, cattle buyer
Thomas Abdullah, 22 Eccles St, drover
Ada Khan, 65 Johnson St, HD
Allua Khan, Bungabee, -------
Nampt Khan, 65 Johnson St, storekeeper
Nellie Khan, Mummulgum, HD
Fazle Mahmomed, Bungabee, gardener
Maleline Marrium Mahmomed 32 Frederick St HD
Shaer Mahmomed 32 Frederick St, fruiterer

1947 Kyogle:

Basil Aboody, Wiangarie, shop assistant
Olga Miriam Aboody, Wiangarie, HD
Michael Aboody-Zaloot, Wiangaree, storekeeper

1903 random elsewhere Richmond

Singh, Chain, Alstonville, labourer
Singh, Maha, Alstonville, lab
Singh, Dulup, Teven Crk, lab
Singh, Surren, Teven Crk, farmer
Singh, Edith Rose, Byron Crk, Bangalow, Domestic Duties.
Singh, Lall, Lindindale, Chilcotts Grass, labourer
Singh, Choohar, Sth Gundrimba, farmer
Singh, Baal, Gundurimba, labourer
Singh, Watan, Gundurimba, labourer
Singh, Jussa, Woodlawn, labourer
Singh, Dayal, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Gurdut, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Kapoor, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Mayd, Wyrallah, labourer
Singh, Nutta, Wyrallah, labourer
Singh, Priam, ditto
Singh, Roor, ditto
Singh, Santa, ditto
Singh, Sunda, ditto
Singh, Taga, ditto
(Khan, - Farat, Hosham, Hyatt, Keva, Limeer, Rahmutalah, Shajawall, Summer, Yar Gul, all distributed Tweed Rd, Woodlawn and Boorie Crk in Lismore Sub Div)
Rain, Mahomedee, Wyrallah, lab
Ram, Nehal, Wyrallah, lab
Ram, Mahangoo, Wyrallah, lab
Ram, Phalli, Tucki Tucki, lab
Ram, Suttai, Tucki Tucki, lab
Ramdayal, Thomas, Tucki Tucki, lab
Shar, Atta Mohomed, Wyrallah, farmer
Shar, Matab, Wyrallah, labourer
Shar, Shafaat, Wyrallah, storekeeper
Shar, Yakoo, Wyrallah, farmer

1906 Elsewhere, random

Singh, Chain, Alstonville, lab
Singh, Maha, Alstonville, lab
Singh, Choohar, Sth Gundurimba, farmer
Singh, Baal, Gundurimba, lad
Singh, Watan, Gundurimba, lab
Singh, Jussa, Woodlawn, lab
Singh, Dayal, Lismore, farmer
Singh, Deleep, Nth Lismore, labourer
Singh, Lall, Lismore, labourer
Singh, Gurdut, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Kapoor, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Nutta, Wyrallah, farmer
Singh, Roor, Wyrallah, labourer
Singh, Sunda, Wyrallah, labourer
Ram, Shenoke, Nth Lismore, lab
Rame, Mudda, Woodlawn, lab
Rame, Shank, Boorie Crk
Ram, Phallie, Tucki Tucki, lab
Ram, Suttai, Tucki Tucki, lab
Khan, Abaidulla, Wyallah, farmer
Khan, Amir, Wyrallah, farmer
Khan, Majid, Wyrallah, farmer
Kisham, Ram, Wyrallah, hawker
 

1908 Elsewhere, random

Khan, Amir, Nth Lismore, labourer
Khan, Keva, Boorie Crk, lab
Khan, Khowas, Gundurimba, farmer
Khan, Rahmeet, Lismore, labourer
Khan, Shajawall, Jiggi, farmer
Khan, Summer, Jiggi, farmer
Ram, Shenoke, Nth Lismore, lab
Singh, Dayal, Lismore, farmer
Singh, Deleep, Nth Lis, lab
Singh, Hajarrah, Nth Lis, boarding house keeper
Singh, Pertoppa, Lis, domestic duties

1909 Elsewhere, random

Singh, Dayal, Lismore, farmer
Singh, Hajarrah, Nth Lis, boarding house keeper
Singh, Pertoppa, Lis, domestic duties

1913 Elsewhere, random

Singh, Esur, Casino, herbalist
Singh, Nurain, Casino, herbalist
Singh, Diyal, Lismore, farmer
Singh, Bram, Nth Lis, seed merchant
Singh, Bishan, Nimbin, farmer
Singh, Deleap, Jiggi, lab
Singh, George Buchan, Nth Lis, labouer
Singh, George Harnan, Lismore, labourer
Singh, Hajarrah, Nth Lis, boarding house keeper and dealer
Singh, Paul, Nth Lis, lab
Singh, Pertoppa, Lis, dom duties
Singh, Salguam (Hindu), Tyalgum, labourer
Kajana,-------, Dorroughby, lab
Khan, Amir, Nimbin, farmer
Khan, Gebu, Nth Lis, cattle dealer
Khan, Kareen, Hanging Rock, gardener
Khan, Keva, Boorie Crk, lab
Khan, Khowas, Gundurimba, farmer
Khan, Mows, Nth Lis, lab
Khan, Nabob, Jiggi, lab
Khan, Shajawall, Hanging Rock, farmer
Rasul, Ghulan, Nth lis, lab
Shah, Yakoot, Gundurimba, farmer

Nil Woolgoolgah.

[1940s: Bikar Singh, Korora, Coffs Harbour ,labourer. Nil 1953 but Lal Singh, Korora, Labourer, plus Roy Singh, 15th Ave, Sawtell, labourer.]

Koorey, George, Ballina, Draper
Koorey, Khalil, Storekeeper
Koorey, Mary and Mary Jane, Ballina
Aboody, Michael, Nth Lis,

1915 Elsewhere

not checked

1921 Elsewhere

Singh, Nurain, Casino, herbalist
Khan, Shajawal, Chelmsford, farmer
Singh, Dayal, Lismore, farmer
Singh, George Harnam, Koonorigan, farmer
Singh, Hajarrah, Nth Lis, boarding house keeper and dealer
Singh, Pertoppa, Lis, dom, duties.

nil Murbah

1925/28 Murwillumbah

nil Singh

1947 Murwillumbah:

Budwee Aboud, Conchy Creek, banana grower
Ina Merle Aboud, ditto, HD
Josie Una Aboud, ditto, HD
Mansour Aboud, ditto, banana grower
Michael Joseph Aboud, ditto, farmer

Nellie Alli, Tyalgum, HD
Ramal Alli, Tyalgum, storekeeper

1949 Murwillumbah:

Ramal Alli, Tyalgum, storekeeper
Shahin Godo, Dunbible, banana grower
Thora May Ismail, 17 Stafford St, HD
Ali Yahya, 17 Stafford St, labourer

Lal Singh, Round Mountain, farmer
Munchan Singh, Eungella, banana grower

  Top of Page

 Police Census Clarence District

 

IJan1899

 

 

Patrol District

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Grafton

5722

13

15

South Grafton

2519

16

12

Ulmarra

1392

9

1

Brushgrove

1147

9

0

Lawrence

1240

6

2

Maclean

1985

25

11

Harwood

590

20

0

Palmer’s Island

780

37

1

Yamba

671

2

2

Dalmorton

463

5

0

Copmanhurst

1231

0

0

Nymboida

555

2

0

Woolgoolga

620

0

0

Chatsworth

802

24

0

Coramba

1400

0

0

Coff’s Harbour

 

 

 

Dorrigo

 

 

 

Cangai

 

 

 

Total

21,217

163

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

1Jan07

1Jan08

1Jan09

1Jan10

Patrol District

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Grafton

5460

32

20

5415

19

7

5312

5

2

6813

20

2

South Grafton

2616

19

4

2635

2

5

2631

24

6

2711

26

6

Ulmarra

1536

17

1

1576

13

1

1617

16

1

1629

23

1

Brushgrove

1174

0

0

1130

0

0

1210

4

0

1227

0

0

Lawrence

1190

37

0

1233

39

0

1250

39

0

1262

30

0

Maclean

2873

23

10

2988

19

10

2978

39

0

3032

17

6

Harwood

620

1

0

600

0

0

580

0

0

561

0

0

Palmer’s Island

784

1

0

757

0

0

781

1

0

786

0

0

Yamba

489

3

2

489

2

0

501

0

0

510

1

0

Dalmorton

305

0

0

398

0

0

408

0

0

386

0

0

Copmanhurst

1360

1

0

1530

4

1

1661

2

0

1450

1

0

Nymboida

651

0

0

680

1

0

895

6

0

945

4

0

Woolgoolga

696

5

0

750

0

0

785

0

0

782

1

0

Chatsworth

717

6

0

822

5

0

841

3

0

830

4

0

Coramba

1090

0

0

1190

0

0

1292

0

0

1311

0

0

Coff’s Harbour

1006

0

0

1241

6

0

1111

6

5

1749

10

1

Dorrigo

953

0

0

1021

0

0

2000

0

0

1526

0

0

Cangai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

611

0

0

Total

23,520

145

37

24,405

110

24

26,151

124

46

28,121

137

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The Tablelands

 

1Jan07

1Jan08

1Jan09

1Jan10

Patrol District

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Euros

Aliens

Chin

Euros

Aliens

Chin

Euros

Aliens

Chins

Glen Innes

6995

14

80

7332

7

76

7592

7

76

7715

2

66

Kookabookra

654

0

14

668

2

11

618

4

12

650

0

12

Emmaville

2413

0

182

2547

2

200

2247

4

112

2630

6

55

Kingstown

345

0

0

396

0

0

358

0

0

942

0

0

Tenterfield

3988

17

11

4013

12

13

4027

33

8

4077

35

3

Wilson’s Downfall

753

0

117

776

0

111

780

0

60

793

0

87

Deepwater

1250

4

42

1340

7

37

1730

10

35

1750

3

17

Total

16,398

35

448

17,072

30

448

17,382

54

303

17,977

46

240

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inverell

7469

0

42

7965

0

41

7730

0

53

7532

2

49

Howell

1587

6

0

1899

9

0

1675

0

0

1486

0

0

Tingha

4274

20

314

4011

18

308

3650

21

279

3370

20

242

Ashford

1330

0

7

1262

0

15

1173

0

16

1228

0

31

Delungra

 

 

 

 

 

 

600

2

0

683

0

0

Total

14,660

26

363

15,137

27

364

14,828

23

348

14,299

22

322

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Armidale

7558

9

34

7575

10

30

7780

9

46

7841

12

42

Uralla

3150

3

18

3173

2

21

3151

5

23

3345

5

16

Walcha Road

750

0

2

730

0

2

702

1

23

614

0

0

Walcha

2857

9

6

2589

3

6

2618

2

3

2835

1

4

Bendemeer

649

4

0

639

4

4

720

4

0

797

3

0

Nowendoc

190

2

1

196

1

1

220

0

0

233

0

0

Guyra

1942

0

1

1903

0

3

2013

0

3

2035

0

5

Bundarra

2226

2

6

1878

2

4

1910

2

3

1949

2

2

Metz

445

0

0

365

0

0

268

0

0

215

0

0

Guy Fawkes

538

0

0

547

0

0

813

0

4

920

0

0

Hillgrove

2811

14

12

2863

9

13

2396

9

14

2061

6

13

George’s Creek

277

0

0

295

0

0

268

6

0

256

5

0

Total

23,393

43

80

22,843

31

84

22,894

38

97

23,121

34

82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Police District Returns

 

1Jan1907

1Jan1908

Increase/decrease

Armidale

23,516

22,958

-458

The Clarence

23,702

24,549

+847

Glen Innes and Tenterfield

16,876

17,580

+704

Inverell

15,049

15,548

+499

Richmond and Tweed

49,316

51,059

+1743

Total

128,458

131,694

+3798

  Top of Page

Aborigines North Lismore

1901 census: Three Aboriginal Camps Cemetery Hill North Lismore: 2males/9females; 3m/2f; and 4m/1f.

Northern Star:

11Apr94: Aborigines refused treatment Casino Hospital
20Jun01: Dick Barry and Charles Keevra, aboriginals, drunk Terania St.
2Aug07: Kitty Barry, an exceptionally ugly old black gin…(Lismore Chronicle)
12May11: ‘Aborigines and Half Castes’: 17 Casino, 72 Wardell, 19 Tweed Heads, 86 Woodenbong and 1 Rappville. None Lismore??
17May12: Lismore council completed street work Nth Lis – ‘a suburb which has not been too liberally treated in the past.’ Kerb and guttering.
7Aug12: George Rambit, aborigine, Nth Lismore.
24Dec12: Aborigine influx Lismore
11/12Dec13: L to E on Disturbances Wyrallah. Aboriginals.
13Sep14: The Battle for Lismore. A true story of the days of the darkies
2
6Sep14: The Declining Abo. Pop figures for year 1913 NSW. Only 1861 full bloods.
28Jan15: T.G. Hewitt, editor/owner NS, dies age 72. Hewitt’s ‘fearless and able pen was often raised in defence of the weak – the poor and the aborigines..,

8Feb17: Formation of the Ratepayers and Citizens’ Association of North Lismore. Among subjects dealt with… the congregation of the aborigines in North Lismore….
14Mar17: Mr Thompson of the North Lismore Progress Association moved that the Aborigines' Protection Board be asked to appoint another teacher to take charge of the school at the reserve, 6 mile peg, Dunoon Road.
8Feb18: Formation of the Ratepayers and Citizens’ Association of North Lismore. Among subjects dealt with… the congregation of the aborigines in
North Lismore….
23Feb18: Nth Lis Ratepayers Assoc: We have protested about the congregating of aborigines in the town...
14Nov18: Harry Capps, well known aborigine, died Dunoon Road.

27Nov18: Blacks at North Lismore.
3Dec18: Blacks at North Lismore. The sanitary inspector…. had several interviews with aborigines residing in certain insanitary buildings in Pine Street, North Lismore. The blacks emphatically refused to return to the location set apart for them at Dunoon. All the aborigines, after much discussion, agreed to shift on to the reserve adjoining the cemetery at North Lismore. … I further suggest that permission be obtained from the natives to remove the huts at Dunoon to the site…. As soon as these people are disposed of the way would then be fairly clear for the disposal of other coloured races and the buildings occupied by them in that part of the municipality….. The thing he was afraid of was that if the position went on the people of other coloured races would want houses, such as obtained in parts of Africa, and which were revolting. They could put the blacks out on the street, but the question was if that was advisable. The inspector of police wanted the blacks to go back to Dunoon. … The Mayor said the council did not want the blacks to go to the reserve at North Lismore, but to return to Dunoon
5Dec18: Lismore District Aborigines. A Suitable Home….For a number of years, thanks to the efforts of the late Mr J.W. Coleman, MLA, when Mayor of Lismore, one of the reserves vested in the council, containing upward of twenty acres, and situated on the hill immediately at the back of the general cemetery, was set apart for their use. Some twelve years ago the local Aborigines’ Protection Board succeeded in getting the Government to alienate a much larger area of land – over 400 acres – on the Dunoon road, about the 6 mile peg, for these people, and on this small houses were built, also a school and a manager’s residence. At the time it was thought the site selected was a suitable one, offering plenty of country for hunting purposes, which year after year has been narrowed by the squatter and the selector until the natives have been, as it were, pressed between the upper and the nether millstones, with no place left to them that individual or tribe could call their own….. As years went on, however, it was found that the locality was a very dry one, and when there were long periods without rain tank supplies of water ran out and the natives were obliged to shift camp. Then again there was no river or creek in which they might fish and bathe. …Also it has to be written that the local natives are good workers and law-abiding, and this is largely due to the work of the churches among them, and to the efforts of several lady missionaries who visit them periodically. The Government established a school there, but through the inability of the teacher to get board and lodging in the neighbourhood this was more often closed than open. The department then placed a manager, who with his wife lived on the reserve, but for various reasons the move was not a success and he was recalled to
Sydney. Gradually the natives have left the reserve and taken up their abode in dilapidated houses in Lismore…. Apparently the authorities have recognised the futility of re-establishing the settlement and recently sold the schoolhouse and manager’s house…. This officer emphasised the determination of the blacks not to return to the Dunoon road reserve, but they were agreeable to return to their former home on the reserve next to the cemetery… It must be chillingly disappointing to both officials to find that the council merely ‘received the report’ and took no action… In 1892 every effort was made to induce the Richmond blacks to take up their abode at the Clarence River home, without success, and anyone with the slightest knowledge of these people should know the futility of trying to induce them to go in  opposition to their customs and habits

13Jan19: Aborigine’ Mission. The ‘Kyogle Examiner’ reports: …Including children 126 natives were encamped on the Bean Tree reserve during Christmas… Aborigine Museum.
18Feb19:
North Lismore Blacks: ... In reply to a letter appearing in last Friday’s issue….as regards my attitude in taking the aboriginal question up at the request of a large number of ratepayers, also on behalf of the North Lismore Ratepayers’ and Citizens’ Association, I have always acted clean, and above reproach of trying to do these people an injury to their welfare. …place them on a reserve – Terania Creek, near Blakebrook, for instance. …What do we find today? Old feeble blacks, too old to work. Many others with families of young children fighting out a living, for themselves and children on a few shillings the mothers and fathers earn, together with the help of a few old clothes obtained from friendly disposed people. On top of this they have to rent some old dwellings, or sheds, not fit for habitation, and which become s a menace to the health of the citizens of this town. Any statement I have made in regard to 50 or 60 blacks I am prepared to stand by. Many reputable citizens of North Lismore could if they wish verify and further substantiate these facts… They state there are only 20 adult Australian blacks in the district. Does this include half-castes, quarter-castes, etc? … And then the large influx of visitors from other centres… Out of this number they say only five indulge in drink. … That petition was not to prevent them getting a home, but against any portion of North Lismore reserve set aside for returned soldiers being made available for a home for aboriginals… It would be very interesting Mr Editor, now this question having been touched on, to know how many of the Lismore district blacks enlisted, and their records while in the ranks. …Signed H.D. Walker, Nth Lis 15Feb.
21Feb19: Editorial/Leader. Firing Them Out. In the battle that is perennially being fought out in the Antipodean world, whether in
Australia or in Australasia, the original owners of the soil have always been the under dog…. The fact is being more and more lost sight of that look where we may throughout these countries according to the laws we have made for ourselves the rightful owners of the soil are the aboriginals. We are the interlopers… It is on account of these hideous blots upon our national character that later Governments have endeavoured in a poor way to make reparation for the nation’s sins of omission in the past. …. Dunoon, one of these reserves, affords a striking instance of how not to do it. …. As the country got denuded of the natural food of the aboriginal, the possum, wallaby, etc, the occupants were thrown back upon their own resources…. As regards work, while they were at Dunoon there was not sufficient locally to support themselves, and they were too far away to walk into Lismore for jobs so they declined to starve on the Government’s hospitality and gradually have settled in the parliens (?) of North Lismore…. But they are not nice neighbours in the eyes of a few of the elect or the select of the northern suburbs, and hence fortified by the wishes of some of the ratepayers, he tells us, Ald. Walker is busying himself in an effort to send these unfortunates forth, to starve or live a precarious existence in the country again. For that is practically what his petition if successful would amount to….
…His sneer at utilizing their services in order to secure cheap labour, and non-union labour at that, is worthy the mind it has emanated from….. If Ald. Walker had made inquiries before his reference to this cheap labor he would have found that from end to end of the Richmond the aboriginals as a whole demand and are paid exactly the same rate of pay as the ordinary member of the AWU gets…. If Ald Walker is really anxious to know what Richmond aboriginals went to war he can get that information from Cabbage Tree Island…
25Feb19: Influenza: Kyogle – Police taken charge of aborigine home… number of aboriginals broke away… South Kyogle residents up in arms over police action… Stoney Gully.
27Feb19: …The disease has spread to the aborigines’ settlement at Fingal, three miles from the
Tweed… There are among the aborigines at Fingal some who have come from Stoney Gully, near Kyogle, and it is the same class of sickness that has broken out at Fingal as is now so widespread at the Stoney Gully compound. … The blacks are on the aborigine reserve
Another infant died Stoney Gully Compound…. Mother, a faith healer, would not allow any medicine to be given….
27Feb19: What More Could be Done? In this morning’s issue of your paper appears a list of provisions supplied to the aborigines isolated near the North Lismore cemetery during the influenza scare… Well, sir, seeing that seven human beings were cooped up in a shack that broke every law of sanitary science… To begin with, an attempt might have been to provide some means whereby the internees… The conditions under which these unfortunate people lived during their term of isolation reflect nothing but credit upon ‘those in authority’,… and we should be thankful to Mr Barrie for exposing the state of affairs as he found it. Furthermore it behoves us to insure against a repetition of the scandal should future cases…. Yours, etc, W.L. Hawkins, Terania St, North Lismore, 25th. Feb.
28Feb19: Total of 36 cases influenza Blacks Camp Stoney Shoot Kyogle.

3Mar19: Sympathy for Aborigines. Disproportionate death rate.
4Mar19: In Aid of Aborigines. Another Case Stoney Gully. Aborigines Coraki and Fingal
6Mar19. The Aborigines Camps. Dunoon. 110 blacks in Dunoon camp and 50 ill. 5 deaths so far.
24Mar16: Assist the Blacks. Stoney Gully
29Mar19: To Assist the Aborigines. Money collected.
9Apr19: Stoney Gully Quarantine. Letter from Nurses at Aborigine Station Stoney Gully
12Apr19: Stoney Gully Pneumonic Cases
21Apr19: Deaths at Stoney Gully. 110 aborigines quarantined, 62 infected, 12 deaths. Names given.
15May19: Australian Aborigines. Kyogle/Fingle/Byron Bay (Harry Bray last of his tribe.)
23May19: Treatment of Aborigines. Letter from manager Stoney Gully (ref 15May article)
13Jun19: Treatment of Aborigines. Letter from Evangelist of Fingal re 23May article/letter
24Jun19: Blankets for Aborigines. Letter from manager Stoney Gully
10Jul19: George Thompson dies Dunoon, Ex police tracker. At present 20 aborigines at Dunoon.

27Jun25: Pioneer History. Aboriginal Freak Brunswick
22Jul25: Pioneer History. Aborigines not so black
16Sep25: Aborigine Kitchen Midden Ballina

10Mar28: White Mens Ways. – Aboriginals not accepted for life insurance policies, so nor should Hindus.
2Jun28 NS: Hindoos trespassing Aborigine Reserve South Kyogle.
8Aug28: Terania Shire Council. Complaints Aborigine Reserve Dunoon. Health inspector says unsanitary. Houses not fit for human habitation
13Aug28: Aborigine Plea. H.A. Cromelin writes on behalf of Dunoon Aborigines. Don’t wish to be transferred. Australian treatment of Aborigines on a par with Belgium’s treatment of natives of Congo.
14Aug28: Aborigine Plea. No work Dunoon. Whites object, ‘naturally enough’, to their offspring occupying seats next to Aborigine children at school.
20Aug28: The Aborigines. L to E by JP Howard, manager Aborigine station Casino.
24Nov28: North Lismore Ratepayers: Complaints about bad language and sanitary conditions black's camp in Peat and Terania St up from Gray Street.

8Jan29: Council debated whether to erect three houses in North Lismore to house aboriginals, at the same time the Aboriginals Protection Board was considering the acquisition of about one acre of land at North Lismore and to remove the aboriginal school building now on the aboriginal reserve at Dunoon, also to erect two or three dwellings for deserving aboriginals…. There were at North Lismore at the present time a number of aboriginal children of school age who were deprived of schooling, being unable to attend the local public school and too far from Dunoon to attend the aboriginal school. Alderman White said let them stay ‘They are entitled to live on the face of the earth as much as any one of us.’ There are a number of decent hard working aboriginal women in Lismore at the present time who were desirous of their children being educated. Under the present conditions the youngsters stood no chance at all. They were not allowed to attend the local public school, for reasons he did not propose to go into that night. He was prepared to admit that there was sound sense in the arguments of white parents who objected to their children being forced into the company of aboriginal children, but could also see that it was most unfortunate for the latter… He pointed out that the women he had in mind had no chance of earning a living at Dunoon, and said that some attempt must be made to give just treatment to the aboriginals from whom the country had been taken, and argued that they were entitled to live even if their skins were black.
Alderman Arthur said that some aboriginals were living in
North Lismore at the present time and were far from desirable. They were immoral, ‘in fact’, he said ‘some of their houses are nothing less than immoral houses.’
31Jan29: North Lismore Progress Association said the settlement should be located in South Lismore, whose Progress Association said ‘the aborigines were no good to Lismore and Lismore was no good to the aborigines.’ Cabbage Tree Island was recommended. Said Mr Kohmuller: The landlords are the trouble at North Lismore; they let their houses to the aborigines, and as long as the rent is paid the landlords are satisfied. With regard to the Dunoon settlement I think the trouble there has been that some of the property owners near the settlement have been worrying the aborigines for years because they wanted the land that had been given to the blacks; that is the reason why the aborigines will not stop on the settlement.
Mr Little said that the blacks were well catered for at Dunoon, but it was too far from the hotels and from the pictures to suit the aborigines, who would not work. He had no quarrel with the aborigines, but they should not be allowed to settle in any part of Lismore, and those now in the town were polluting one of the streams.
16Feb29: The council resolved to tell the Aboriginals Protection Board to move the proposed settlement at least two miles further from town, and that an endeavour be made to ensure that all aborigines within the municipality live in that area under the supervision of some competent person.
24Jul29: The council and APB were still arguing over the school, but the second camp near the cemetery had grown. Alderman Frith pointed out that if a school was erected it would only be a thin end of the wedge toward securing permission to erect huts, for, if the children were in Lismore at school, their parents would also be in Lismore. He considered it the duty of the board to find a reserve some little distance from Lismore. He did not want to seem inhuman, but it was certain that the aborigines did not benefit by being in town; they were more suited to life in the country. The natives were not industrious, and he thought that the board should permit them to live as they had lived in the past before the whites came.
That the Aborigines’ Board was shirking its duty was the opinion of Ald. Arthur, who also said that the aborigines were a nuisance in North Lismore. On a recent visit to the cemetery there it had seemed to him that the whole of the blacks in the camps in the vicinity were drunk and their language was too bad to repeat. They should not be allowed to live in the towns.
Alderman Caterson said that the establishment of a camp at North Lismore would reduce land values in the vicinity and opposed granting permission for a school
.

22Aug29: L to E Mary A.M. Hewitt.  In recent issues of the ‘Star’ much publicity has been given to the matter of an aborigines’ school.,…. Some of these comments reported as made by these aldermen, I consider so serious as to merit an inquiry being made to verify them or otherwise…
Making inquiries, I was told that the aborigines were not drunk. Briefly it was alleged that a certain married woman smacked a single girl…A general ‘mix up’ followed… Some time ago at a council meeting Ald. Arthur referred to the home life of some of the aboriginal women, and it is alleged he made rather serious allegations. I am told by some of these women that they cannot go out at night but that they are approached by some degraded white male.
There is a terrible hiding in store for the first white man caught by the aboriginal men. It is hoped to put an end to the evil this way. I have promised them their legal expenses, if legal action should fol
low. But I know I am safe in doing so because the white individual will not brave a court case.
It would appear that Ald. S.E. Arthur has forgotten a kindness shown many years ago by the aborigines to the children of his first wife. I have all the particulars, and the dark people have been hurt that apparently their kindness has been so soon forgotten. Better by far if Ald. Arthur would find out who are these degraded white males and try and reform them, also find out who the men are that supply the aborigines with strong drink…
Ald. W. Frith’s statement ‘that the natives were not industrious’ is too sweeping. There are ‘lazy bones’ amongst the white races. The aboriginal women want to live in town so that they can get work. I have had aboriginal men and women working for me, and I can say they are industrious and honest….
I expected the clergy of the local churches to speak in their defence as regards the proposed school, but I have not heard of it being done excepting in the Roman Catholic Church, when Dean Hennessy on Sunday morning not long ago made an eloquent appeal for a better understanding of these unfortunat
e dark people. White mothers in South Lismore have influenced Mr W. Missingham MLA and the Department of Education, and so no aboriginal child is now allowed to attend the public school there….
[Note: Mary Hewitt was daughter of Thomas George Hewitt, proprietor of Northern Star until death 1915 (when son T.M. Hewitt took over), who was Chairman of the Lismore Committee of the Aborigine Protection Board 1911 when there were 15 Full Blood adults, 8 FB children, 7 Half Caste adults and 16 HC children living in 11 huts at the 480 acre Dunoon Reserve, of which 80 acres cleared for farm. Lawyer John Charles McIntosh Snr also on the committee along with James Barrie (Mayor 1884-85, 1892-93, 1901) and Sebastian Garrard.]

4Sep29: Lismore Council Meeting. Ald. Arthur unrepentant and at the next Council meeting when they considered Police Inspector Cradock’s suggestion to erect a school near the Robert White bridge in North Lismore on the banks of Leycester Creek… said that the place where the aborigines were living in at North Lismore was quite unsuitable, and the blacks often lived in a house till vermin hunted them out and then they secured another. … He suggested a reserve on Wyrallah road, opposite Mr Pollack’s farm. …
Alderman Hosie said any land (they rezoned) was to be used as a school and not for a settlement. …
Alderman Frith… pointed out that the council had previously rejected a proposal to establish a settlement where it was now proposed to erect a school. He contended that in the place where the children were the parents would be and the authorization of the school would be the thin edge of the wedge for a settlement. He had noticed that a number of residents had taken it upon themselves to criticise the alderman for the opinions expressed but he was prepared to adhere to his previous contention that, though he had nothing against the establishment of a school at a suitable place, there should not be settlement inside the municipality.
Alderman Caterson said that a quarter of a mile further from Lismore than the site suggested was an ideal position for the blacks.
Alderman Eggins lined up with the not-inside-the-municipality party….
They decided to set up a committee to select a site and this was agreed to by the council.
4Sep29: Decision made to allow school to go ahead, but North Lis residents protest. At the same time lobbying for a new infants school.
4Nov29: L to E by W.T. Harris of Nth Lis. The paragraph in Saturday’s ‘Star’ regarding the aborigines’ camp leads me to hope that this matter will receive the publicity it deserves before we are committed to a worse condition than already exists. The desire to evade the question seems to be common with some of our alderman, as when I interviewed the Mayor (Alderman McKenzie) he referred me to Alderman White, who in turn advised me to see the Mayor about the matter.
As briefly as possible I will give some reasons why a school and incidentally an aborigines camp’ should not be allowed at the proposed site known as ‘Brasck’s Paddock.’ One of the essential things at a camp of this description – next to water – is an ample supply of firewood, of which there is none here, consequently the fences in the neighbourhood might disappear; also pieces of the Robert White bridge. Sanitary arrangements or the lack of them so near to a large town, is dangerous. If anyone cares to take a walk along the creek bank between Robert White bridge and Dunn’s corner the scenery will convince them of the danger of hookworm, etc. The nearness of the camp to town makes it too easy to be visited by people of various colours for gambling and other purposes. The rights of property owners in the neighbourhood should have some consideration…..
13Nov29: William Moore, aborigine, stealing from Aullia, Hindu of Caniaba, Dunoon Rd. + Steve Roberts aborigine. Italian witness Ballaran working for Hindu.
3Dec29: Better Treatment. Aborigines
31Dec29: Aboriginal Life

7Feb30: Kyogle. Aborigines at Law. Tribe Hatred Alleged. Queensland Aborigine not welcome by local aboriginals at South Kyogle Mission Home.
18Feb30: Person not an aboriginal charged with being in company with an aboriginal. Nth Lis.
11Mar30: Alex Roberts, Aborigine, North Lismore.
8Apr30: Bob Mundie, aborigine Nth Lis
22Jul30: Janet Beech, an aboriginal woman, insufficient means of support. 14 days prison.
22Jul30: "New Residents". Lismore Aborigines. For East Lismore. Aborigines' Protection Board write to council re acquisition of 100 acres Wyrallah Road for establishment of school, dwellings and reserve. Alderman Frith said The aborigines' board was to blame for not giving the Dunoon settlement efficient supervision when it was in proper order. Because the aborigines were objectionable to North Lismore was no reason to shunt them on to East Lismore. Neither should the council be asked to shoulder the responsibility of providing water and other services. Alderman Caterson said "I am Australian born the same as they are" and contended that white people should give considerate treatment to the blacks they had ousted from the land... Ald R. Kellas did not agree with Ald W. Frith's proposal to set up a "black Canberra" in the wilderness, supported the proposed site, and contended that the way to civilise the blacks was to bring them in contact with civilisation and let them enjoy the benefits. Alderman McLeod was very definitely against the Wyrallah Road site and said if the council carried the motion there would be a storm of protest. He quoted the success achieved in North Queensland settlements away from the white population, where the natives were taught trades. Ald W. Braid was strongly with the previous speaker and said that abo' children would be marching through the town from North Lismore to the school at Wyrallah Road if a settlement was established in the latter place..... Ald White sought to place the whole responsibility of selecting a site upon the board, the council holding aloof.... Mayor Ross said that if the aborigines were moved outside the municipality the shire councils would object....
Ald Hosie contended that the blacks were established at North Lismore and would still live there irrespective of the location of the official settlement. It would be absurd for the council to agree to establishing the blacks in a place that was now free of them. The position would then be that Lismore would have two settlements...
Ald Arthur at one period of the debate argued that the board had the power to compel all aborigines to live in any settlement established, also all people with aboriginal blood in them. At this stage he pointed directly at Ald Hosie and there was a roar of laughter which broke out every few seconds in chuckles when Ald Arthur continued to gesticulate and point a declamatory finger at Ald Hosie...
Council voted 6 to 4 to  tell the board that council considered that the only suitable site for the aborigines was on the North Lismore side of the town and outside the municipality.
30Jul30: Letter to Ed from Alderman Arthur, also President of the Association for the Better Housing and Care of the Australian Aborigines in Lismore. ... The Wyrallah site, although completely removed from white habitation is yet sufficiently near to town to enable those who work to go to and fro without undue fatigue as was a serious objection to the Dunoon Road reserve.
It may not be common knowledge that the aboriginals are only partly supported by the Government, therefore, it is necessary that they secure employment to furnish their families with the necessaries of life. The aborigines themselves are not only willing, but most anxious that they be settled on this reserve as the houses which they inhabit at present are insanitary, overcrowded, and a disgrace to a civilised community. They are constantly exposed to the immoral influences of undesirable whites. ... The school at the Dunoon Road reserve would be transferred... At present the children are being taught in an old dilapidated cow bails in North Lismore. ...
As 80 per cent of the aborigines are suffering from hookworm, and in the present situation they are frequently flooded out, Lismore is in constant danger of an epidemic of this infectious and dread disease. A competent male teacher will be resident on the settlement and have complete charge of its inhabitants, and no aboriginal would be allowed to reside in Lismore or loiter about the streets. ... We feel confident that the general public will readily see that this proposition is much more to be desired than the present deplorable state of affairs
.
31Jul30: Aborigines' Settlement. Not Wanted in Lismore. Citizens' Emphatic Protest. 100 people gathered for Nimby argument. Full page article. Ald Frith said almost all the aborigines of Dunoon had now drifted back to North Lismore. ...The meeting should seek to have the blacks kept outside the town and away from its temptations. Also they should be kept out of reach of those whites who mixed with and contaminated the aborigines. It was the desire of most townspeople that the blacks should be well cared for outside the town boundaries. The aborigine inhabitants had caused trouble in North Lismore and the problem would not be solved by establishing a settlement in another part of the town.
Continuing, Ald Frith said that a settlement at the Boundary Reserve would immediately lessen the value of some 200 houses by £150 to £200 each... Conversely if the aborigines were removed from North Lismore, property values there would increase...
...there was only one pure blooded aborigine to-day compared with ten 30 years ago and the problem to-day was not how to care for the aborigines but to care for the half castes...
The meeting carried the motion "That the Lismore Council be asked to back up its decision at its last meeting by taking immediate steps to have the existing aborigine population of Lismore removed from anywhere near the vicinity of the municipality. That other public bodies be asked to cooperate, and action taken through Mr Missingham to further the objects of the meeting."
Mr Hook blamed the present Lismore Council for the deplorable conditions under which the abo's lived at North Lismore, where there were 50 living in three-roomed houses. The council and its officers might well act under the health regulations...
6Aug30: Aborigines. Lismore Settlement. Condition of Houses. Another council meeting. ...The health inspector (Mr J. Stewart) submitted a lengthy report in which he estimated that there were between 110 and 120 aborigines in town. "They were never so well housed as at present, their yards are almost free from refuse, and the pollution of the yard soil is negligible compared with their surroundings when living in camps."...
Ald W. Frith said that the health inspector had evaded the question.... at a later stage in the meeting he would move that a committee accompany the health inspector and inspect the buildings. "We'll never reach finality if we wait for Mr Stewart.".
..
11Aug30: The Aborigines. Question of Site. Board Invites Suggestions. Secretary Pettitt of Aborigines Protection Board advises Mr Missingham that Wyrallah won't be pursued, but invites suggestions of suitable site.  ... board was reluctantly compelled to abandon Dunoon Reserve, which the aborigines only occupied about four days of the week, and then only because of threat of prosecution in the event of their failure to keep their children at school....
11Aug30: Council meeting re aborigines and Wyrallah. Mr Missingham advised... " that the blacks were entitled to a share of the pleasures of modern civilisation and the opportunity of getting work where it was available." Council objects to being saddled with problem and it should be left with APB.

12Aug30: Albert and Herbert Roberts, two aboriginals, stealing North Lismore
15Aug30: 'Dusky Footballers'. Photo of 'Kyogle Blacks Football Team.'
23Aug30: Aboriginal Protection Board will not persist with Wyrallah in face of opposition, and asks for suggestions for suitable site. North Lismore objectors still agitating to have their unofficial settlement removed.
8Dec30: Aborigines Fined. Kyogle Home. Laurie Brown, Percy Mercy, Teddie King "being expelled persons (refused to work) did trespass upon the aboriginal reserve at South Kyogle." + Andrew Donnelly, alias Brandy Donnelly, aborigine, Casino.
9Dec30: "Deferred". Aborigines' Reserve. Missingham MLA advises of letter from APB requesting advice from Lismore Council re location of Reserve if not Wyrallah. Council wants it outside the Municipality therefore someone else's problem.
16Dec30: "Mercy", ' a blackman', residing Jimmy Nutta Singh's house Nth Lis.

5Jan31: Kyogle Aborigines. Christmas Festivities.
13Jan31: George Roberts, aged 67, aborigine, drunk.
15Jan31: T.M. Hewitt dies Lismore, aged 61. Miss Mary Hewitt Lismore, sister.
30Jan31: 'Blackfellow's' name for Keerrong means foxground.
6Feb31: Aboriginal Intelligence.
10Feb31: Third worst flood on record. Aboriginals quartered at showground under supervision of Messrs Pritchard and O'Meara. ...At the showground Mr H. Pritchard has been a 'fairy godmother' to more than 150 refugees, aborigines, Hindus and whites, who are destitute...
11Feb31: Record Flood. Tweed Heads. At Ukerebah Island aboriginal settlement the natives were forced to abandon their homes on Thursday and were found lodgings by the police in the Tweed Heads Literary Institute and at the police buildings... The island has never previously been covered. + Tribal Offences.  Should not be tried by white men, but by special court...
12Feb31: Aborigines' Settlement. APB now intend to go ahead with Wyrallah in view of council failing to recommend alternate site. + work commences on bridge over Blacks' Camp Creek in Kyogle district.
17Feb31: Not Wanted. Aboriginal Settlement. Conflicting Opinion. Council debate about APB's decision to apply for 101 acres Wyrallah Road.  Ald W. Frith did not know any reason why Lismore should be the only municipality on the North Coast with an aborigines' settlement inside its borders. The North Lismore residents wanted to get the abos out of North Lismore and the East Lismore residents did not want them. Ald S.R. Arthur said his principal objective was to find a suitable place for the blacks and take them out of the awful surroundings in North Lismore, where as many as six families were living in one house.... Ald Hosie suggested Goonellabah... and moved that the council emphatically protest against the Wyrallah Road site and adhere to its previous proposal of a site to the North of the town not less than three miles from the municipal boundary.... and suggested the acquisition of a site on the road to Keerrong, or, more westerly to the hills, the latter the preference. Ald White... said The men would not work, the women would, and the latter wanted to be near the town where their work was. The Wyrallah road site would cost nothing, but if a site was wanted at Blakebrook it would be found that the land would suddenly be worth about £70 an acre... but not the council's business. Ald Hosie said that after a lapse of 20 years the board had suddenly made up its mind to be wonderfully humane and efficient. The board would, for instance, do on the Wyrallah road something it had entirely failed to do before - keep the blacks on the settlement and keep the despicable whites out of the settlement. The fact that the board had allowed the blacks to congregate in North Lismore was entirely due to the board's neglect...
23Feb31: East Lismore. Ratepayers' Protest. Aboriginal Settlement. Rate payers informed that APB had applied to Govt to convert a reserve at the boundary of the municipality at East Lismore and Gundurimba Shire. Mr V.B. MacDermot suggested an area at South Gundurimba known as the Flood Refuge Reserve comprising about 90 acres.... This situation would be most suitable because the board had stated that the trouble with the recent settlement at Dunoon was the lack of water in which the aborigines could bathe. ... All that seemed to appeal to the board was the fact that the land would cost nothing and the board were generous enough to say they would spend £500 to house about 500 aborigines. The board stipulated that the black population required to be near the town in order that the women could earn sufficient for their husbands and children, and this together with the child endowment and a grant from the Government, would enable them to live in comfort....
24Feb31: Letter to Ed from MacDermott. ...the Wyrallah settlement...will not only create a public nuisance, but will be a formidable menace to the numerous families who are settled in the immediate vicinity of the reserve, and will also have the effect of substantially decreasing the selling value ...
25Feb31: Editorial East Lismore's Protest. Admonishes council for leaving decision to APB.... Any student of aboriginal custom knows that it is an elemental trait in the nature of the black man that he will not walk too far for his bath....  More water Dunoon than East Lismore... the Dunoon settlement was a failure and gradually the aborigines wandered back to their favourite haunts at North Lismore. Old residents have expressed the opinion that nothing less than physical violence will move the aborigines from North Lismore, for they seem to have grown up with the place; it is near to town and they are near the river....
27Feb31: 150 attend protest meeting over APB's Wyrallah decision.
28Feb31: Strong Protest. Aborigines' Settlement at East Lismore. Representative Meeting. 150 attend public meeting Richmond Hall. Decision to recommend to APB that the existing settlement of 112 acres at Cabbage Tree Island was the best place for Lismore's aborigines. Mayor says Dunoon unrecoverable as most of the reserve had been sold and only 20 acres remained. ...East Lismore property values would decrease by 50 0r 100 per cent .... children will pass Wyrallah reserve every day on the way to school, and it was not desirable to have the aborigines going backwards and forwards. There were 101 acres, 50 per cent of which was swamp, and not fit for habitation, even for aborigines... What was the good of that to 500 people?... In the Grafton area they were placed on Cabbage Tree Island and in the Kyogle district at Stoney Gully. Lismore was the only place in which aborigines were housed in shanties and under insanitary conditions... There were other sites at Gundurimba, Tuncester and Caniaba... It was stated that the aborigines would not stop at Cabbage Tree Island or Stoney Gully, and that many of those in Lismore had drifted in from there.... Canon A.G. Moore suggested the Australian Board of Missions should take over.
3Mar31: Victor King, aborigine aged 18, living at Cameron's Nth Lis and looking for work. + Brother Daniel King. + Billy Babu of Tuncester.
5Mar31: Aborigines. Result of Census. Working in Country. Stats 1921-30.
11Mar31: APB inspector on his way after representation by Missingham MLA
14Mar31: Letter to Ed from MacDermott. Aborigines already beginning to squat Wyrallah and erect 'camp'
18Mar31: Care for Aborigines. Government Policy.
18Mar31: The Mayor's Vote. The Aborigines Question. Ald Arthur responsible for encouraging aborigines to move to Wyrallah Rd. Casting vote of Mayor prevents council officers from removing them. Mr Wade and Mr Pollard already leasing the place from council.
18Mar31: Aborigines. At Wyrallah Road. Council Discussion. Wyrallah rd site was originally a town common. ...The aborigines had every right to go there for recreation, but not to camp, and had no right to deposit building materials there.... Ald Arthur said the aborigines were to be turned out out of North Lismore and the council was asked six months ago to find a site. The council talked of doing the humane thing for the unemployed, but were they going to turn the aborigines out into the street? They could not pay the rent and every bit of land they had had was taken from them. The cemetery hill area at North Lismore was given to returned soldiers and the Dunoon settlement was sold...
2Apr31: Premier Lang advises Missingham MLA that family endowment for persons of coloured blood... will now be administered differently.
19Apr31: Letter to Ed from Pastor Tomkins, Baptist, Sth Lis. Something must be done... conditions deplorable Nth Lis
20Mar31: Letter to Ed from 'Protest'. Nimby stuff.
1Apr31: Extreme Urgency. Aborigines' Site. Council and Board. Health inspector's report to council. Ald Frith said the blacks were building gunyahs at Wyrallah Road and on whose authority were they sent there? Ald Arthur said the board is aware they are there, and have promised to send up tents.
7Apr31: Accommodation for Aborigines. What the Camera Shows. Letter to Ed from Arthur Martin with 4 photos of corrugated iron tents at Wyrallah.
9Apr31: Inspector Smithers of the APB arrives
9Apr31: Aborigines' Board. Inspector's Visit. Meetings at Lismore. ... the APB previously promised £1200 to house the aborigines. Blacks from Cabbage Tree Island already made their way to Lismore.... This raise the question of whether they will ever be induced to leave their present 'address', North Lismore. Alderman consider 2 sites of 2 acres and 8 acres of private land Nth Lis. One was suggested as a site by the police twelve months ago and is on the river bank on the Lismore side of the Robert White bridge. The other is on the far side of the bridge across from the old quarry reserve.
10Apr31: Board's Limited Power. Aborigines' Inspector at Lismore. Battle of the Sites. APB had no power to compel aborigines to settle on any site. APB still favours Wyrallah but public protest meeting again recommends Cabbage Tree Island. Ald Hosie said Why did the board allow the aborigines to come to Lismore at all? The people of Lismore object to a settlement close to town. The aborigines like the bright lights, but the towns have been constructed and maintained by the whites who pay rates and taxes. If the greatest town on the North Coast is to have a settlement, blacks will come from Cabbage Tree Island, Palm Island and the Tweed.... Ald Arthur asked if a settlement were provided, what would become of the aborigines remaining in town? They were living on private property, and not being able to pay the rents, the landlords were putting them out into the streets. ... Ald Arthur said the aborigines have said they would rather spend their time in gaol before they go to Cabbage Tree Island...
11Apr31: Aborigines Site. Apparently compromise with temporary settlement on 2 acres near cemetery, with APB providing tents.
13Apr31: Ald White resigns over electricity and in recontesting seat at by-election says I am apparently the only man in Lismore satisfied to have the aborigines near him.
14Apr31: Aborigines' Site. More Opposition. North Lismore Petition. Petition of 150 Nth Lis residents object temporary solution. Mayor says 10 acre reserve Tuncester best bet... on the left on the Casino road, immediately past where the railway crossed the road and on the other side of the station. Health inspector says closing orders have been drafted for a premises in Terania Street occupied by aborigines.
15Apr31: Council meeting. Telegram sent to Missingham MLA to approach Minister for Lands to preserve Wyrallah Rd site.
16Apr31: George Roberts, aborigine, drunk.
28Apr31: Another flood... 200 residents of North Lismore, including residents, unemployed and aborigines sheltered at the showground...
12May31: Through want of accommodation, a number of blacks evicted from premises at North Lismore, are camped under the Robert White Bridge.... The board should be severely censured for the way they have treated the aborigines in Lismore, remarked Ald Arthur...
26May31: Missingham MLA meets deputation of Lismore aborigines at Robert White bridge and remarked that several had rather well-know Scotch names, such as McKenzie, Cameron, Ferguson, etc.  'Dorroughby means 'soft mud' and 'Terania' means 'Green Frog'
26May31: Council meeting. APB advises funds available for housing. But in meantime tents had been forwarded for temporary accom. Police report no land available at Lismore for tents, also that the aborigines refused to go to Dunoon or Cabbage Tree Island. The Mayor stated in regard to a site that objections had been made for the use of the gravel reserve near the cemetery....
26May31: Aborigines Want To Live In Or Near Their Native Town - Lismore. ...All were against going either to Cabbage Tree Island or Stoney Gulley Settlements and stated that they wanted to be near Lismore, which was the native town of most of them, and in which town many of the younger women folk had employment... Three photos of aborigines and shelters with captions. One group of 18 males + chief spokesman Alex Cameron and family. 'Monty', known locally as one-time king of the blacks... has built a so-called hut on the bank of the creek... hessian bags over wooden frame.
16Jun31: 70 aborigines hold corroboree Tenterfield. 1500 people watch
16Jun31: APB confirms that proposed Wyrallah Road reserve definitely abandoned.  Temporarily the aborigines are being housed in tents on portion of the travelling stock, water and camping reserve at Tuncester... 5 families already living there.
18Jun31: Six families now Tuncester. Some of the aborigines are housed in tents and others in structures erected with the timber, donated by North Lismore residents, and carted from the Wyrallah-road reserve...
7Jul31: Police entrapment. Give aborigine marked coins to go and attempt to buy booze at Lismore pubs.
14Jul31: Tweed-Lismore Pastures Protection Board agree to extend approval of Tuncester pending finalization of swap for the Dunoon land. Aborigines to get portion of Tuncester reserve, 5 or 6 acres, for whole of Dunoon. APB to erect galvanised iron fence around reserve so that travelling stock will not be interfered with.
10Aug31: East Lismore Ratepayers Assoc request APB to move Dunoon school building to Tuncester
14Sep31: Missingham MLA advises Tuncester still under control Pastures Protection Board and APB awaiting final dedication for aborigines before erecting any buildings.
6Oct31: Woodenbong = Waddenbun = deep waters.
19Oct31: Aboriginal skull Ewingsdale.
24Nov31: Native names. Cobewoy, Keeberahs, Mungil...
8Dec31: Mayor Ross just scrapes home in council elections and refers to opposition of East Lismore Ratepayers to his candidature because of support for Aborigine reserve Wyrallah Road. But claims he organised Tuncester.
12Dec31: Long list of Native names of local places.

22Jan32: Rosie Combo, aged 90, of Ulugundhai settlement, last survivor of Liegeri tribe of lower Clarence.
1Feb32: Teresa Kapeen, single aborigine girl, has room in yard of Jimmy Nutta Singh's place, Nth Lis.
10Feb32: APB advises no finance for building Tuncester.
16Mar32: The deplorable conditions under which the aborigines live on the Tuncester reserve are living.... Ministers Fraternal write council and APB. Want immediate steps to provide shelter.
22Mar32: Aborigines. Like Dogs in Kennels. Lismore Conditions. Council discuss letter from Meeting of Ministers' Fraternal. The aborigines camped on the Tuncester reserve live under deplorable conditions. Some sleep under lantana bushes, others crawl like dogs under low kennel-like covers. Whole families, all sexes and ages, live in small shanties under conditions unsatisfactory from a moral and hygienic point of view. ... Council to write to APB who have no funds.
30Mar32: Aboriginal cricketers Kyogle. Two teams. Names given.
23Apr32: Letter from S.G. Tomkins, sec of Ministers' Fraternal. ...From the report of the council's meeting appearing in the Star it appears that at least one Alderman, Ald J.C. McIntosh (Jnr - lawyer), has completely misunderstood the attitude of the Ministers' Fraternal.... quotes letter sent 15Mar to council... Possibly Ald McIntosh was absent from the council meeting when this letter was read. ... It was upon the suggestion of the Mayor that the Fraternal deferred taking immediate direct action by correspondence with the Aborigines' Protection Board.... I would suggest that little or no notice be taken of the reported statement of an inspector of the Aborigines' Protection Board regarding the unsuitability of the Tuncester site. The same inspector is reported to have said other foolish things...

19May32: Mr Smithers of the APB visits and advises no money, but huts to be built and school Dunoon transferred to Tuncester ASAP.
27May32: Missingham, Mayor and Vincent MLA, member for Raleigh and member of APB, visit Tuncester.
1Jun32: In the Days of Yore. Aboriginal Rights. Letter from 'Old Hand' of Casino. ...The local aborigines were a magnificent race, care-free, well fed and of fine physique. That they were numerous is evidenced by the number of 'bora rings' around Casino.
There was a perfect example of a bora ring in Mr H. Wallace's paddock only two miles from Casino. Another large ring was on the hill at Dobie's Bight on what was known as Palmer's farm, now Rooney's, while Busby's and Montgomery creeks had bora rings...
A shepherd in charge of a flock on Invercauld, just outside Lismore, and his hut-keeper, also were killed. Retribution was, however, quickly carried into execution when the raiders were tracked across to Tucki Tucki and justice dealt out in the rough and ready fashion then in vogue.
Blacks were at first blamed for the murder of a woman and two children at Deep Creek outstation on Mongogorie Creek but a white man was subsequently charged...
Fifty of sixty years ago at corroboree time it was quite common to see 300 or 400 aborigines together
.
1Jun32: 6 acre Aborigine Reserve Tuncester officially removed from control of Pastures Protection Board.
9Jun32: Policeman hurt riot Nth Lis. ...The rumpus started in Terania Street and many blacks were involved in a brawl which warmed up as blows were aimed from all angles....
10Jun32: 6 aborigines from Cabbage Tree Island Settlement arrested.... The darkies came to town for a 'day out' at the football match between the Englishmen and Far North Coast.... William Moukland, Jack Cook, Alec Ferguson, Walter Page, Lyle Roberts, Frank Roberts. Last also charged with insulting words to cousin Alice Heron and Hindu Charlie Nundah. Roberts' father living Nth Lis.
17Jun32: Abos and the Drink. Letter from E.J. Dalley, manager Cabbage Tree.... Lismore Abos' wholly to blame...
5Jul32: Aborigine claims he is Portugese and served in pub.
12/13Jul32: Alderman White obituary.
30Sep32: Alick Vesper, aborigine, aged 40, of Stoney Gulley Reserve Kyogle, visiting Tuncester when Inspector Smithers of the APB and Allan Cameron, manager Maclean Aborigine Station, turned up. Said All your ------ managers are rotten and they have been robbing the aborigines for years.... Charged with 'insulting words'.
17Nov32:  Aborigine's Ball Kyogle. CWA organising to raise money for xmas tree and new dormitory at Aborigines' Home
15Dec32: Cabbage Tree Island xmas party. All under 20 will get gift. Manager E.J. Dalley
17Dec32: Novel Entertainment by Aborigines. 350 aborigines attend Kyogle Memorial Hall. From South Kyogle, Woodenbong, Coraki, Cabbage Tree Island, Tweed Heads, Tabulam, Lismore and Qld.
28Dec32: Tatham Blacks. Observance of the Law. Article No3 by 'Native'

5Jan33: Victor King, half caste, robbery and assault.
14Jan33: Abos at Law. Alleged Insulting Words. Miss Girlie Gundy of Nth Lis and Herbert Roberts of Tuncester.
2Feb33: Obituary Missingham MLA
7Feb33: Corroboree at Alstonville Show. Participants from Cabbage Tree Island.
22Mar33: United Aborigines' Mission meeting Lismore propose erection of dwelling Tuncester for Missioner Tinsley and wife.
3Jun33: United Aborigines' Mission. Still discussing residence Tuncester + a hall which will double as a church. Six or seven new huts now added to reserve  to complement buildings erected by Lismore Council. Three of the huts build with voluntary labour and APB provided money for materials. Mr Tinsley also reported the spiritual work to these dark people was progressing favourably. The aborigines took an interest in the meetings held in the open air....
14Jun33: Trespass Aborigine Reserve Stoney Creek. Albert Holden, Thomas Little, selling booze and stealing. + Casino Hospital wants APB money to erect separate Aborigine Ward at hospital as part of
£15,000 building scheme.
19Jun33: Governor Sir Philip and Lady Game entertained by a corroboree at Tabulam. A special feature of the Tabulam visit was the presentation of the aboriginalty royalty of the district. 'King Mundine and 'Queen' Ponjum, with 'Prince' Harry Walker.... and Queen Ponjum's special appeal to Sir Philip just before saying goodbye for an extra blanket for the winter is going to receive His  Excellency's special attention. She explained that she had adopted a piccaninny, whose mother had died, and as she feared the winter was going to be a very cold one, the 'blackfellow baby' would require more warmth...
2Aug33: Editorial Tuncester. The people of Lismore cannot disassociate themselves from all responsibility for the present conditions which are a disgrace to a civilised and a professedly Christian community. People are inclined to laugh at the aborigine and to ignore the just claim the race has upon Britishers to get at least British justice. The aborigines' only crime lies in the fact that when Captain Cook....
3Aug33: Tweed All Blacks play Wallaroos Coleman's Point, Lismore
4Aug33: Abo. Wedding at Tuncester Camp. ...The bride was Miss Evelyn Victoria Kay and the bridegroom Mr Andrew Ferguson. The bridesmaid was Mrs Lucy Lomas and the bestman, Mr William King, was also the bride's uncle and gave her away. The Rev R. MacKenna performed the ceremony and the Matron and the school teacher at the camp, Mrs Hiscocks, assisted with a christening ceremony afterwards, about 14 (or 34?) piccaninnies being christened.... Some white people who were present could not fail to note the good humour of the aborigines despite avoidable hardships due most depressing surroundings.... +Photo.
5Aug33: Plight of Aborigines.  Meeting of Lismore Auxiliary of the United Aborigines' Mission. ... Mr Tinsley reported on Tuncester. Influenza epidemic in region. Huts have no board flooring. Intense cold and dampness.
9Aug33: Lismore Minister's Fraternal again debate conditions Tuncester
17Aug33: Deplorable Conditions On Aborigines' Reserve. Herded Like Animals. Mud Floors to Sleep On. Large article. 3 photos. LMF visit with Inspector of Police and Lismore Councillors. ... The old Dunoon Road School is situated near the entrance.... The reserve consists of about 6 acres on the creek, partly fenced with galvanised iron, at a cost of
£45 - at the request of the Pastures Protection Board, which insisted on this being done. This money would have been better spent in flooring the huts, which are in a deplorable and insanitary condition in wet weather. The water is reported to be inches dep in some huts at times, and has to be bailed out. The ground is mostly flat, with 'melon holes' in which the water collects.... The population varies considerably. At present there are about 84 in residence, but there are sometimes more. The Aborigines' Protection Board's grant for building material only amounted to £25.... Mr Tinsley, with the assistance of voluntary workers, erected five wooden huts, 8ft by 8ft and one building 16ft by 12ft. The Lismore Municipal Council supplied the material, and erected eight galvanised iron huts 12ft by 12ft, at a cost of about £85. There are also two larger huts privately owned. At least six more huts are required to house those at present living in gunyahs. One middle-aged married couple's only shelter consists of half a tank, with one end cut out. They do not possess any bunks, and apparently very little clothing. Some of the people have beds or bunks; others, even in wet weather, must sleep on the ground. .... Jack Berry is the oldest inhabitant at present. 'Monty', well-known in Lismore, proudly displayed an old cane lounge and wicker chair - which evidently gives him a high social standing in the community. Scotch names seem to be in favour in this reserve....
17Aug33: Broken headstone of Peter Cunningham Pagan, Tabulam pioneer speared by blacks 1841.
1Sep33: Jack Roberts, aged 57, dies Cabbage Tree Island. Presbyterian funeral Lismore
2Sep33: United Aborigines' Mission discuss Tuncester
6Sep33: Cabbage Tree Island Rugby League Team 18-all draw with Clarence River Aborigine team. Photo.
20Sep33: Curley Williams, full-blood aboriginal of Bonalbo.
3Oct33: Zara Khan has unsightly sheds on property Johnstone St North Lismore. Divided into seven domiciles, all erected without council approval. Two occupied by Hindus, two by Europeans and aborigines, and three solely by aborigines. The tent is occupied by Hindus - making a total of eight households. I estimate that there are 22 persons staying on the premises, said the health inspector. ...If the council does not take some action in the matter we will have the same trouble as we experienced some time ago, said Ald. S. Arthur. When one or two aborigines were given permission to camp along the river bank all the others wanted to do the same. The council now had a definite settlement and the aborigines should be made to stay there.... One lot of buildings in North Lismore the speaker described as a terrace of shacks. That a very strict inspection should be made by the health inspector of fruit handled by Hindus and aborigines was the opinion expressed by Ald. G. Krauss. Some of this fruit, he declared, was taken into bedrooms at night, and hawked around for sale the next day.... On the suggestion of Ald Eggins it was decided that the health inspector should be instructed to visit Tuncester and submit a report on whether the buildings there were sufficient to house the aborigines... + State of unemployment camps at Albert Park.
23Oct33: APB advises Frith MLA that 'serious consideration to be given to providing adequate housing Tuncester', but still insufficient funds.
7Nov33: Aborigines supplied booze Wardell in plan to disorganise their cane cutting team.
8Nov33: 'Sergeant' George Becket, aborigine tracker, dies Cabbage Tree Island
11Nov33: United Aborigine Mission meeting. Plan to hold concert to raise funds for a hall Tuncester.
13Nov33: Aboriginal cane cutting gang Wardell plied with booze by rivals.
24Nov33: Lilly James, young aboriginal woman, assaults policeman Lismore. ...The police had had a lot of trouble with the aborigines, stated the constable. On Tuesday night they had had a call to Tuncester to quell a disturbance, and had found several of the residents holding a sort of corroboree...
2Dec33: Aborigine Concert Cabbage Tree Island. Mavis Combo most talented.
14Dec33: Christmas treat Cabbage Tree Island by Girl's Auxiliary of Presbyterian Women's Guild. ...The school children rendered several patriotic songs.... The people there were honest, industrious and very clean, and visitors could go into any house at any time and find it spotless. They heartily appreciated the gifts and kindness of the Ballina people.... Mavis Combo, Emily Roberts, Donald Bolt, Donald Daley, Jane Bolt, Colin Kapeen, Tom Roberts, Fletcher Roberts prize winners. Photos.
28Dec33: Article on 125 acre Cabbage Tree Island. 3 photos. Settled late 1880s by Jack Roach, Sam Cook, Jack Roberts, Jack Kapeen and Ben Bolt and families.  Combo Bros arrived later and started cultivation. Children initially travelled by boat to Wardell school. Longest manager/teacher was Mr Calwell (who married previous teacher Miss Black). Served 19yrs. Current manager/teacher Mr E.J. Daley been there 3yrs. 27 pupils and average population of 110. Football team. Cane cutting gang under H. Combo do other farms as well as own.

10Jan34: Casey Gundy, aboriginal child of Terania St, Nth Lis, fell off horse.
11Jan33: Black-Tracker Robinson searching for escaped prisoner near Casino.
3Feb34: Meeting of Lismore Auxiliary of the United Aborigines' Mission. Mr G. Tinsley reports on Tuncester. So far raised
£11 for hall.
17Feb34: About 50 'full bloods' prospecting for gold at Pretty Gulley near Drake. Jack Irwin and Robin Walker in altercation. Irwin was recently retired after 30yrs as a black tracker in Woodenbong district and step-father of Bella Walker (aka Williams) whose16yr old dau Doreen at Tabulam.
3May34: Doris Pomeroy, a 19yr old aborigine girl, stabbed under bridge Casino.
4May34:
£1200 now available to APB to build new 2-roomed houses at Tuncester and alleviate the appalling conditions, but now find no land available - reserve too small. Intend to ask Pastures Protection Board for another 12 acres. In wet weather the existing aborigine's reserve becomes a quagmire of black, puggy soil. The small galvanised iron shelters in which the residents live have earthern floors which are often affected by soakage, and they are without windows or fire places. The aborigines of Lismore generally are reported to be taking an interest in the Tuncester Reserve, a great number of those at present living in shacks within the municipality, at North Lismore and South Lismore, desiring to reside there.... School now opposite side of road to reserve and run by Mrs Hiscocks.
9May34: Lilly James, aborigine, charged with assault of Doris Doti (aka Pomeroy) South Casino.
15May34: Police Inspector Ennis addresses Pastures Protection Board and passes letter from Aborigines' Protection Board. PPB refuses to release any more land and regrets previous 6 acres. ...the interests of the stockowners would be better served if the board was relieved of the tenancy of the aborigines. The presence of the dogs at the camp, and the fact that the fence had not been completed, hampered the operations of the drovers who placed cattle in the reserve. It was considered that the elevated portion of land on the southern side of the road would provide more congenial conditions for the blacks. Inspector Ennis said there had been a lot of controversy about the blacks and their location. He went on to describe the conditions under which the blacks lived and added that during an inspection he carried out on the reserve he went over his boot straps in mud. The board had given him permission to spend £1200 on the erection of new homes.... Continuing, Inspector Ennis said the had been in various parts of the State, but the conditions under which the blacks have to live here were the worst he had encountered....
24May34: Letter to Editor. 3000 'full bloods' NSW. ...these settlements or mission stations - or whatever you call them by - are generally in close proximity to the white settlers, where the native has every opportunity of learning our vices. To pass judgement on these fine people, after encountering the few stragglers met with around our towns, is most unjust....
2Jun34: Ministers Fraternal need to raise another
£15 to start work on hall Tuncester.
9Jun34: 80 people from Rous Mill visit Cabbage Tree Island - arranged by local P & C. Mr Crowther of Numulgi present. Probable Labour candidate elections.
16Jun34: It is a disgrace to the Government and to the people of the district to allow the aborigines to live under such appalling conditions - Mayor Ross after visit to Tuncester. He had been disgusted, he went on, to find a father, mother, and seven or eight children living in the tiny humpies.... Says Pastures Protection wrong and extra land could easily be made available.
19Jun34: Frith MLA to take up the Tuncester land problem + Mrs Snow relates story of 3 day battle between Richmond and Clarence blacks at present Ballina Lighthouse site. + Letter to Editor - 90 to 100 men , women, children living Tuncester.
20Jun34: Boy Scouts Lismore organise clothing appeal for Tuncester.
21Jun34: Letter to Editor re Tuncester. About time something done. + Frith MLA addresses Chief Secretary in parliament re Tuncester.... In many cases, said Mr Frith, they are living eight families to a tiny hut... Chief Sec says efforts in hand to secure suitable area due PPB objections.
22Jun34: Mayor Ross happy with Frith MLA and plans made for he and council and 'interested townspeople' to visit Tuncester Sunday. And will bring donations of money, fruit, sweets and biscuits...
25Jun34: Photos and article on 'picnic' Tuncester. 150 Lismoreians attend and saw conditions under which 85 coloured residents are housed. Church service already in progress by Pastor Tinsley, who also visits Cabbage Tree and Coraki reserves, and said there were 25 Christians in Tuncester. + L to E by Kaaenburrah re district aborigines.
3Jul34: Rev James of Kyogle suggests distributing Tuncester aborigines between Stoney Gully and Woodenbong Reserves.
5Jul34: Mayor Ross says Rev James suggestion not practical because of 'attitude' of Tuncester aborigines - 'They were intent upon remaining in the vicinity of Lismore'. Also rejected Cabbage Tree Island.
7Jul34: Ministers Fraternal consider smaller version of mission hall and no minister's residence Tuncester.
8Aug34: Brass plaque found Tulk's farm Wyrallah inscribed Peter Belmy, King of Yerally, Gindenbar and Gundurimba. Decorated in corners with Emu and Kangaroo. Early days Wyrallah aborigine named 'Nosey Peter' wore a similar plaque. He died 50yrs ago.
21Aug34: Robert Mundy, middle aged aborigine, hit by lorry near Leycester Creek bridge.
24Sep34: Bennie Simes, aborigine hurt in brawl with other aborigines South Casino.
11Oct34: Mr J.P. Howard, manager of both Stony Gully and Tuncester reserves.
16Oct34: Hannah of Stony Gully Aborigine Settlement exhibits quilts made of scrap material.
29Sep34: Death of Harrian Bungaree, aged 69, at La Perouse, last 'pure full blooded native woman resident there.'  Born and lived Ballina. Adopted by Mr and Mrs C. Jarrett ...It was the usual thing in the sixties that nearly every white family had a black gin to do the rough work about the house... Photo. Two children Teddy and Lena. Teddy worked at the Northern Star. Lena in service of Justice Stephen in Sydney.
27Oct34: Mayor Ross hands petition to Frith MLA signed by aborigines protesting against supervision of the Tuncester camp by a manager. APB approaching Lands Dept re more space for housing.
29Oct34: Frith MLA receives reply from APB re Tuncester petition protesting against the supervision of the camp by a manager. ...Having carefully investigated the position at Tuncester, the board has ascertained that of the aborigines now residing there the large majority do not belong to the district, having removed from other aboriginal stations where there was permanent supervision, and it is the board's desire that they return thereto when suitable accommodation will be provided for them and they will be able to live under proper conditions.
30Oct34: Victor King, aborigine, assaulted and robbed Hindu Gursam Singh Nth Lismore.
5Nov34: Robert Hozlhauser, aged 23, 'illegally lodging with Aborigines North Lismore.'
29Nov34: There was no justification for statements that aborigines at Tuncester were treated in an unsatisfactory manner regarding rations, declared the New South Wales Police Commissioner (Mr W.H. Childs), while in Lismore yesterday. Mr Childs requested the 'Northern Star' to contradict a report that the Aborigines' Protection Board was starving the aborigines at Tuncester by depriving them of their rations. The facts of the matter were that most of these people were entitled to family endowment allowances. They would not take the orders which the board, through its officers, issued to them for rations, clothing and any other necessities. They wanted the money to spend. .... Mr J.P. Howard, manager Tuncester, said that there was an accumulation of funds to the credit of a number of aborigines because they would not take the orders, which would entitle them to necessities. They wanted to be handed the money. They went around the town saying that they had nothing on which to live. It would be seen that such was not the case.
4Dec34: Minnie Crommelin, aboriginal woman, insulted Terania St.
7Dec34: Victor King, half caste aboriginal, 18mths hard labour for assault Gursain Singh.
12Dec34: James O'Brien supplies booze to aborigines North Lismore.
22Dec34: George Roberts, 68yr old full-blooded aboriginal of Sth Lismore

2Jan35: 25 aboriginal children Stony Gully, Christmas treat
22Jan35: Henry Bonner, 19yr old aborigine of Tuncester
25Jan35: Cessy Cook and Douglas Thompson marry Cabbage Tree Island.


27Aug58: 250 citizens of North Lismore protest against moving Cubawee (Tuncester) aboriginal reserve to North Lis.

Lismore Chronicle.

29Sep04 (or 05?): James Henry Cappa, the Aboriginal King of Alstonville and its Dependencies….
7Apr05: Harry Capps – the Aboriginal King of Alstonville… His Ebonised Majesty.

Mullum Star

Uncharacteristically quiet on the aborigines. Through to WW1 there were only four ‘full blooded’ individuals identified; Jimmy Merrylegs, Jack Crofton, John Black andGeelong’.
‘Geelong’ is probably the Byron Bay identity ‘Cheelong’ who was employed on the farm of Charlie Jarrett for many years, at least from the late 1800s, and could do any class of work with the best white man. Merrylegs was more of a Murbah identity and died there 17Apr1919 aged 43.
The 1901 census taker found aboriginal camps of 6 ‘tents’ at Coorabell and 4 at Tyagarah.
A police census of 1911 shows 4 living in Mullum and a further 2 camped in the wider Mullum police district. By 1913, the census showed none in Mullum and only one left in the rural countryside. In early 1918 the Star carried the simple statement ‘Jimmy Pannikin is dead’, in ‘Brief Mentions’ column.

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